Joachim von Ortenburg
receives the independence of his county against ...
Albrecht V of Bavaria
and renews the Reformation
in his lands.
|Henry of Valois is elected King of Poland .|
|1573 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1021/22 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2116/17 (southern Buddhism); 2115/16 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||935/936 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3906/07 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||980/981 (turn of the year 2nd / 3rd May)|
|Jewish calendar||5333/34 (August 28-29)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1883/84 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1884/85 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1629/30 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Eighty Years War
- April 17th : The Battle of Vlissingen takes place at sea during the Eighty Years' War . A fleet of the Spanish Armada bombs the city of Vlissingen . The Dutch manage to sink five enemy ships in battle, which leads to the Spaniards withdrawing from the Vlissingen theater of war .
- July 13th : After months of siege, Haarlem surrenders to the Spaniards under Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo, 4th Duke of Alba .
- October 8 : The Dutch celebrate a victory in the Eighty Years War when the Spanish besiegers have to withdraw from the city of Alkmaar .
- October 17th : Luis de Zúñiga y Requesens becomes the new Spanish governor of the Netherlands.
- October 31 : The Spanish military leader Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba , traps Leiden and begins the siege of the city .
- January 28 : The Confederation of Warsaw is constituted in Poland-Lithuania . These grants dissidents the freedom of religion , civil rights and political equality with the Catholics.
- May 5th to 16th : The first free election as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania takes place . Heinrich von Valois is elected by the majority of the electoral committee on the electoral field in Kamion . He is the first electoral king of the aristocratic republic of Poland-Lithuania . Opponents in the free election of 1573 are among others the Habsburg Ernst of Austria .
- In the Articuli Henriciani , one of the fundamental constitutional documents of the Polish-Lithuanian Rzeczpospolita , King Heinrich undertakes after the election to recognize the principle of free kingship . In addition, he is forbidden to introduce new taxes or to call a general contingent without the consent of the Polish Reichstag ( Sejm ). The Sejm itself is supposed to meet for six weeks every two years. Each Sejm had to choose 16 “ residents ” from among the senators . In the event of non-compliance with previous and new obligations, the Polish nobility is given the opportunity to renounce obedience. They are binding for all elected kings up to the year 1764 . The articles are supplemented by the aristocracy through the Pacta conventa , the respective specific government program of the new ruler.
- February 11th : The King Karl IX. Ordered siege of La Rochelle begins. In the fourth Huguenot War, the Catholic side wants to overthrow the city that has been left to the Huguenots as a refuge for French Protestantism and, if successful, hopes for a domino effect on other places. However, the war developed into an arduous siege war, mainly because the Huguenots were able to supply La Rochelle with English support via the sea. Rainfalls and epidemics lead to great losses among the Catholic troops, whereupon the French crown strives for peace. In the pacification of Boulogne, the Huguenots are granted amnesty and freedom of conscience, but they are only allowed to hold their services in public in La Rochelle, Nîmes and Montauban .
- June 26th : The siege of La Rochelle by the Duke of Anjou in the French religious dispute between Catholics and Protestants is abandoned.
Holy Roman Empire
- March 3 : Duke Albrecht V loses the Reich Chamber Court process, which has been going on since 1548, about the imperial immediacy of the small County of Ortenburg against Count Joachim von Ortenburg . The small county had finally won the right to remain independent from the Duchy of Bavaria .
- September 21 : In Rostock , the first Rostock inheritance contract is concluded between the Hanseatic city of Rostock and Duke Johann Albrecht I of Mecklenburg . The princes are granted inheritance and high jurisdiction over the city, which at the same time loses important privileges, but stipulates others. The goal of achieving the status of a Free Imperial City like other Hanseatic cities has thus become unattainable.
Other events in Europe
- March 7th : The conquest of Cyprus by the Ottomans in 1570/71 is recognized by the Republic of Venice in the Treaty of Constantinople . The fifth Venetian Turkish War comes to an end with this separate peace.
- Puplinge is first mentioned in a document.
- Oda Nobunaga overthrows the Muromachi government in Japan . The Sengoku period merges into the Azuchi Momoyama period .
science and technology
- November 12th : Archduke Karl II of Inner Austria , striving to break the spiritual backbone of the estates' power in the country, Protestantism , founds the Academic Gymnasium Graz as a Jesuit college , a preliminary stage to the University of Graz . In connection with this, the University Library Graz was founded .
- April 20 : Paolo Veronese dates his oil painting The Banquet in Levi's House . The image of the Last Supper for the refectory of the Santi Giovanni e Paolo monastery in Venice was commissioned by Titian to replace the Last Supper, which was destroyed in a fire in the refectory in 1571 . About three months after the picture was hung in the Dominican monastery, the religious jurisdiction becomes active. Veronese is questioned by three Savi des Sacro Tribunals in the Cappella di S.Teodoro of St. Mark's Basilica on July 18th . Veronese has shown drunks, German mercenaries and short stature in the picture. After the questioning, he is asked to change the picture, which is later deleted from the protocol. Veronese inserts an inscription on the balustrade on the left and right: FECIT D. COVO. MAGNV. LEVI and LVCA CAP. V. So the picture can no longer be understood as the last supper , but it now refers to the feast in the Levi house mentioned in the Gospel of Luke .
- April 30 : The largest at that time with 150 m high steeple of Europe will collapse, damaging choir and transept of the Cathedral of Beauvais considerably. The rest of the church building remains unfinished for lack of money.
- Giuseppe Arcimboldo : Four Seasons (Third Series)
On the occasion of the second anniversary of the victory of the Holy League over the Ottomans in the naval battle of Lepanto , Pope Gregory XIII. the Rosary Festival in honor of the "Virgin Mary of the Rosary", which is to be celebrated on the first Sunday in October.
nature and environment
- Seegfrörne Lake Constance is completely frozen over.
- August 19 : The Bolognese Francesco De Marchi succeeds in the first ascent of Corno Grande , the highest point of the Gran Sasso d'Italia and the entire Apennines .
Historical maps and views
Date of birth saved
- January 10 : Simon Marius , German astronomer († 1625 )
- January 30th : Georg Friedrich , Margrave of Baden-Durlach and partisan in the Thirty Years War († 1638 )
- February 28 : Elias Holl , German builder († 1646 )
- March 12 : Agnes Hedwig von Anhalt , Electress of Saxony and Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön († 1616 )
- April 17 : Maximilian I , Duke and Elector of Bavaria († 1651 )
- April 28 : Charles de Valois , Duke of Auvergne and Duke of Angoulême († 1650 )
- May 12 : Henri de Bourbon , Duke of Montpensier († 1608 )
- June 16 : Caspar Pezel , German lawyer, archivist and librarian († 1634)
- July 15 : Inigo Jones , English architect († 1652 )
- July 29 : Philip II , Duke of Pomerania-Stettin († 1618 )
- August 16 : Anna , Archduchess of Austria, Queen of Poland, Grand Duchess of Lithuania and Queen of Sweden († 1598 )
- August 23 : Theobald Hock , German agent and poet († after 1624 )
- August 25 : Elisabeth of Denmark , Duchess of Braunschweig and Lüneburg and Princess of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel († 1626 )
- September 7th : Elias Ehinger , German theologian and philologist († 1653 )
- September 8th : Georg Friedrich von Greiffenclau zu Vollrads , Archbishop and Elector of Mainz († 1629 )
- October 7 : William Laud , Archbishop of Canterbury and one of the advisors to the King of England († 1645 )
- October 19 : Peter Finxius , German medic († 1624 )
- November 9th : Ambrosius Schlumpf , Swiss politician and mayor of St. Gallen († 1635 )
- December 22nd : Ernst Casimir , Count of Nassau-Dietz, governor of Friesland, Groningen and Drenthe († 1632 )
- December 23 : Giovanni Battista Crespi , Italian painter, sculptor and architect († 1632 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Hieronymus Hornschuch , German physician and corrector, author of Orthotypographia , a textbook for correctors († 1616 )
Date of death secured
- January 1 : Malyuta Skuratov , notorious leader of the life guard of the Russian Tsar Ivan IV (the Terrible)
- January 12th : William Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham , English nobleman (* around 1510 )
- January 21 : Joachim Cureus , German theological writer, historian and physician (* 1532 )
- January 22nd : Anton I , sovereign and imperial count of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst (* 1505 )
- February 15 : Matija Gubec , Croatian peasant leader (* 1538 )
- February 15 : Hans von Ponickau , Saxon politician (* 1508 )
- March 2 : Johann Wilhelm I , first Duke of Saxe-Weimar (* 1530 )
- March 3 : Claude de Lorraine , Duke of Aumale (* 1526 )
- March 10 : Hans Mielich , also called Muelich or Müelich, Munich painter and draftsman of the late Renaissance (* 1516 )
- March 13 : Michel de l'Hôpital , French statesman, lawyer and humanistic writer (* around 1505 )
- April 2 : Otto Truchsess von Waldburg-Trauchburg , Bishop of Augsburg and Cardinal (* 1514 )
- May 4th : Lambert Auer , German Jesuit, preacher and theologian (* 1533 )
- May 13 : Takeda Shingen , Japanese regional prince and warlord during the Warring States Period (* 1521 )
- May 23 : Anton , Count of Ortenburg (* 1550 )
- June 8 : Sebastian Boetius , German Protestant theologian (* 1515 )
- June 9 : William Maitland of Lethington , Scottish nobleman, Anglo-Scottish politician, state secretary of Mary Stuart (* 1525 / 28 )
- July 7th : Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola , Italian architect (* 1507 )
- July 29th : John Caius , English court physician, enabled the re-establishment of Gonville Hall (* 1510 )
- August 3 : William Kirkcaldy of Grange , Scottish general and politician (* around 1520 )
- November 2nd : Barnim IX. , according to another count Barnim XI., Duke of Pomerania-Stettin (* 1501 )
- November 12th : Johann Jakob Ammann , Swiss Protestant clergyman and headmaster (* 1500 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Cornelis Boscoop , Dutch organist, singer and composer (* 1525 or 1531 )
- Johannes Daubmann , German book printer