|Moctezuma II is killed by a stone throw.||Exsurge Domine , Pope Leo X. Luther threatens the ban.|
Stockholm bloodbath initiated by King Christian II heralds
the end of the Kalmar Union .
|1520 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||968/969 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||1. Pipes - Ce Acatl (until the end of January / beginning of February: 13th Rabbit - Matlactli omey Tochtli )|
|Buddhist calendar||2063/64 (southern Buddhism); 2062/63 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||882/883 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3853/54 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||926/927 (turn of the year 11/12 December)|
|Jewish calendar||5280/81 (September 12-13)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1830/31 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1831/32 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1576/77 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
On January 19, King Christian II of Denmark and Norway beats the former Swedish ruler Sten Sture the Younger in the Battle of Bogesund , who died of his injuries on February 3 . Sten Sture's wife Christina Gyllenstierna continues the resistance with the support of the Swedish nobility, but after a four-month siege of Stockholm they submit to the new king in return for a full amnesty.
On May 31st, Gustav Wasa , a supporter of Sten Sture and former hostage of Christian II , arrives secretly in the Swedish city of Kalmar with the help of Lübeck . There he is welcomed in a friendly way, but receives no support from the Swedish aristocrats, who have largely decided to join the new king.
Christian II is crowned king in Stockholm on November 4th, reuniting the entire Kalmar Union under one ruler. On the third day of the coronation of a spiritual court is established and about 100 former opponents Christians, including Joakim Brahe , Gustav Vasa's brother, and Gustav's father and other relatives, of heresy are due to the deposition of the Archbishop, accusing Gustav Trolle accused and on 8 . and on November 9 on the executed the marketplace. Female members of the Sture and Wasa families, such as Sten Sture's wife Christina Gyllenstiernaand Gustav Wasa's sister Margaret Eriksdotter Wasa , are abducted and imprisoned in the Blue Tower in Copenhagen. The Stockholm bloodbath heralds the end of the Kalmar Union. The Swedish rulers send their two best skiers on their way to bring back Gustav Wasa, who is already on his way to Norway.
The negotiations between the khanate of the Crimean Tatars under Mehmed I. Giray and King Sigismund I of Poland , also Grand Duke of Lithuania as Sigismund II , were successfully concluded on October 25th . If necessary, the armistice treaty provides for joint military actions against Moscow , which seeks to protect itself from surprise attacks by expanding fortified structures on its southern border (including the completion of the Kremlin in Tula and the Tulaer Verhau in spring 1520).
Holy Roman Empire
After managing the Duchy of Mecklenburg for several years after the death of their father Magnus II , Heinrich V and Albrecht VII split up the land in the Neubrandenburg house contract on May 7th . The duchy is still seen as a whole. The division has become necessary because the brothers have different ideas about how the Reformation should be dealt with in their country.
Charles V, elected last year, travels from the Molins de Rei monastery near Barcelona, where he fled from the plague, via England and the Netherlands to the Holy Roman Empire. He is on October 23 in Imperial to Aachen by the archbishop of Cologne, Hermann of Wied the Roman-German king crowned and then calls himself King of the Romans, elect Roman emperor, Augustus always. Pope Leo X consents to the use of this title on October 26th .
Ulrich Zasius is redesigning Freiburg's municipal law. Its amalgamation of Roman and German law formed the basis of an independent legal and judicial system in the city of Freiburg until the 19th century and is also considered a model for other city and land rights beyond Freiburg. In the city law he created, Jews are explicitly discriminated against. They are not allowed to testify in legal matters and have no community with Freiburg citizens. This is punished with two silver marks and, in the case of repetition, with the expulsion of the citizen.
France / England
King Henry VIII of England and the German King Charles V , who is on the way to his coronation (see above), meet in Dover on May 26th . Charles, who rivals France, tries to win Heinrich as an ally. Since such an alliance would pose a serious threat to France , French diplomacy comes into play. On April 13th a meeting between Charles Somerset, 1st Earl of Worcester and Galiot de Genouillac takes place in front of the English occupied Calais , at which a meeting of the French and the English king in theVal d'Or is agreed between the English Guînes and the French Ardres .
On June 5th , Henry VIII arrives in Guînes, while the French King Francis I moves into his residence in Ardres. Two days later , King Henry VIII of England and King Francis I of France meet for the first time at the so-called Camp du Drap d'Or / Field of the Cloth of Goldtogether to improve relations between their two countries. The list of those present, written down on behalf of Henry VIII, counts around 4,000 people and 2,000 horses as companions of the English king and around 1,100 companions and 770 horses on the side of the English queen. The program of the following days, consisting of staged tournaments and banquets, makes political actions irrelevant. Between June 11th and June 22nd, tournaments with over 300 participants will take place on the tournament ground, which was built according to a sketch by the English king. On June 24 the magnificent meeting ends again meeting with a handover of gifts and the decision.
Camp du Drap d´Or is considered to be one of the most representative and extravagant rulers' meetings of the early modern period, which stands between efforts for peace on the one hand and a mutual demonstration of power on the other. The desired rapprochement between the two rulers is not achieved. On July 14th, Henry VIII and Emperor Charles V signed a treaty in which they undertook not to enter into an alliance with France.
In Spain begins on April 16 from Toledo of the starting Comuneros revolt against King Charles I , who until 1522 will last. The rebels, led by Juan de Padilla distribute the royal governor Adrian of Utrecht and call in Ávila the Santa Junta de las Comunidades in life. This declares itself to be the provisional government of Spain and the royal council of Charles for deposed. The rebels conquer Tordesillas and free the royal mother, Johanna , who was held there, who then takes part in the meeting of the Cortes , but refuses to sign any edicts. In view of the emerging radicalization of the movement, which the peasants and the urban lower classes have now joined, however, some nobles are keen to stabilize the situation and try to find a compromise with Karl, who has since gone over to a military counterattack .
Selim I , Sultan of the Ottoman Empire , who had ruled since 1512 , died on September 21 . His successor is his son Suleyman I the Magnificent, who will rule until 1566 and under whose rule the Ottoman Empire finally rises to a world power.
Probably in the same year, Suleyman I takes his former slave Roxelane as his fourth wife. She quickly developed into his main wife.
Pánfilo de Narváez receives from Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar , the governor of the island of Cuba, the order to arrest Hernán Cortés in Mexico and to take command himself. On April 20, Narváez lands at Veracruz with 19 ships, over 1000 men and 60 horses . He sends three ambassadors to the settlement founded by Cortés, where his commander Gonzalo de Sandoval has them captured and brought to Tenochtitlan .
When Cortés received the news that the troops had landed, he appointed Pedro de Alvarado as his deputy in Tenochtitlan and set out on May 20 with 250 men for Veracruz, where he defeated Narváez with a surprise attack and arrested him. He then persuades his soldiers to join him and also takes over his entourage from Narváez, which is attacked by warriors from Texcoco near Zultepec on the way to Tenochtitlan, however, together with local allies . In the following months the approximately 550 men, women and children captured in Zultepec are sacrificed to the gods.
Meanwhile, overburdened Pedro de Alvarado has several thousand people massacred in the courtyard of the Templo Mayor in a panic reaction during the Aztec Spring Festival on May 23 . The angry Aztecs then take up arms, kill seven Spaniards and drive the rest to their quarters in the palace and besiege them there.
On June 24th, Cortés and his troops returned to Tenochtitlan, where the situation was quiet for the time being. However, unrest soon breaks out again and the Spanish are again besieged in the palace. On June 30, the Aztec ruler Moctezuma II , who was captured by the Spaniards, was killed by throwing stones when he was trying to calm the angry crowd on behalf of the Spaniards. In the Noche Triste ("Night of Mourning") that followed, the Spaniards attempt to secretly escape from the palace, taking as much gold with them as they can carry. As the Aztecsdiscover the attempt to escape, they attack the Spaniards from several sides. Of the approximately 1,300 Spanish soldiers, only 425 were able to save themselves to the lakeshore, and the allied Tlaxcalteks were practically completely wiped out. After Moctezuma's death, Cuitláhuac becomes the new ruler of the Aztecs. He ordered an army of several thousand men to pursue the defeated Spaniards.
In the Battle of Otumba on July 14th, several hundred Spaniards defeat the Aztec army. After the death of their commander in chief Matlatzincatl from a targeted attack and heavy losses from repeated attacks by the Spanish cavalry, the Aztec army withdrew. After the battle, which was costly for both sides, Cortés can retreat to Tlaxcala with the few survivors and, with newly arrived reinforcements, begin a large-scale campaign of conquest against the Aztecs. You will receive support from Ixtlilxochitl II , who is in the line of succession to the town of Texcoco , which is located near Tenochtitlan has been passed over several times, and with the help of the Spaniards ultimately ascends the throne.
- January 10th : Ferdinand Magellan's expedition, slowly moving south on the coast of South America south of what will later become Rio de Janeiro , reaches the Río de la Plata . She spends about a month there looking for a passage to the west. Two tall natives, called Patagonians , are taken on board during this time to bring them to Spain.
- March 30th : The expedition reaches Puerto San Julián . This is to be wintered. Because supplies are running low, Magellan has the food rations cut.
- April 1 : A mutiny breaks out that can only be put down with great effort.
- May 22nd : The Santiago is shipwrecked on an exploration voyage.
- August 21st : The expedition leaves its winter quarters in Puerto San Julián and reaches the hoped-for passage on October 21st . Another mutiny breaks out on the San Antonio , the largest ship in the fleet, and the ship returns to Spain.
- October 21 : On his circumnavigation of the world , Ferdinand Magellan spotted a cape that he named Cabo Virgenes after the day it was discovered . The Cape of Virgin Mary is located in today's Región de Magallanes y de la Antártica Chilena at the entrance to the Strait of Magellan, which was later named after him .
- A severe storm that lasted more than 36 hours drove two of his ships into a bay on November 1 , which later turned out to be a passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. A landing party is sent to the north coast, in that harsh and cold region that Magalhães previously called Patagonia . But apart from an old tomb with two hundred human skeletons, the sailors cannot discover anything essential. In the south of the strait, however, as Antonio Pigafetta , Magellan's chronicler, reports, they see many fires at night from the ship. The captain general calls the land Tierra del Fuego , Land of Fire.
- On November 28, Ferdinand Magellan crossed the Strait of the Sea, later named after him, at the southern tip of America and, after many adverse storms, reached the Pacific Ocean that Magellan baptized .
City rights and first documentary mentions
- Duke George the Bearded of Saxony forbids “ Blue Monday ” for craftsmen by decree .
- Freudenstein Castle near Sankt Joachimsthal in Bohemia is completed on behalf of Count Schlik . It serves to protect and manage the silver mining in the area.
- King Manuel I of Portugal founds the first Portuguese post office under the name serviço de correio público .
science and technology
- October 11 : The City Council of Frankfurt am Main appoints Wilhelm Nesen as the first rector of the newly founded Latin school .
- April 6th : With the death of Raphael , the commissioned picture Transfiguration was completed, except for a few small parts.
- July 15 : Eight years after a devastating fire, the renovated and gothic church of St. Zeno in Bad Reichenhall - the largest Romanesque basilica in Old Bavaria - is consecrated.
- After 300 years of construction, the Gothic cathedral of Metz is completed.
- around 1520: The Frangipani altar in the parish church of St. Martin in Obervellach in Carinthia , painted by Jan van Scorel in the Renaissance style, is created. It consists of three panels on which the Holy Family , Saint Christopher and Saint Apollonia are represented. The last two saints depicted on the side wings suggest the commissioner, the Imperial Field Captain Christoph Frangipani and his wife Apollonia Lang von Wellenburg.
- around 1520: The Kilwachronik , a list of the kings of the East African city of Kilwa Kisiwani , is created.
- At the beginning of June, the book From the good works of Martin Luther appears at Melchior Lotter in Wittenberg.
- Pope Leo X threatens Martin Luther in his bull threatening exsurge domine on June 15 with excommunication if he does not revoke 41 of his 95 theses within 60 days . Luther replied with the memorandum, consisting of 30 theses, on the freedom of a Christian and, after the withdrawal period had expired, on December 10th with the burning of the papal bull .
- In July the Eccius Dedolatus ( Der enteckte Eck ) appears, a mockery against Luther's opponent Johannes Eck .
- August 5th : Martin Luther publishes To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation, about the improvement of the Christian class .
- In the Reformation writing On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church , Martin Luther publicly questions the seven number of the sacraments for the first time . In his opinion there are only three sacraments: Baptism , Penance and Lord's Supper , although at the end of the Scriptures he admits that there can be only two sacraments, since penance lacks a sign that is an essential part of a sacrament. With this treatise, Luther also breaks with the church of his time in the doctrine of the sacraments. As a script from the early Reformation period, it is fundamental to the evangelical doctrine of the sacraments.
- 15 / July 16 : Eight years after a devastating fire, the renovated and gotisierte Church of St. Zeno in Bad Reichenhall - the largest Romanesque basilica Old Bavaria - by Bishop Berthold of Chiemsee rededicated.
- Pope Leo X. forbids the writings of Johannes Reuchlin , especially the ophthalmoscope , through a power ruling .
Historical maps and views
World map, Pietro Coppo , Venice 1520
Date of birth saved
- February 13 : Elisabeth von Pfalz-Simmern , Countess von Erbach († 1564 )
- February 22nd : Friedrich III. , Duke of Haynau and Liegnitz († 1570 )
- March 11th : Vollrad von Mansfeld , German mercenary leader († 1578 )
- August 1st : Sigismund II. August , King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, last King of the Jagiellonians († 1572 )
- August 10 : Madeleine of France , Queen of Scotland († 1537 )
- August 21 : Bartholomäus Sastrow , German writer († 1603 )
- September 17 : Laurentius Lindemann , German jurist and Saxon statesman († 1585 )
- October 7 : Alessandro Farnese , Italian Cardinal († 1589 )
- November 10 : Dorothea of Denmark and Norway , Countess Palatinate of the Electoral Palatinate († 1580 )
- December 6 : Barbara Radziwiłł , Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania († 1551 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Filippa Duci , Piedmontese noblewoman and mistress of the French King Henry II († 1586 )
- Johannes Acronius Frisius , West Frisian scholar, doctor, astronomer and mathematician († 1564 )
- Abén Humeya , Moorish king († 1569 )
- Pieter Overd'hage , Dutch printer, teacher and Reformed theologian († 1604 )
- Agatha Streicher , nationally known doctor in the imperial city of Ulm († 1581 )
- Jane Stuart , Scottish noblewoman, governess of Maria Stuart and mistress of the French King Henry II († 1563 )
Born around 1520
- Solomon Abenaes , Marran businessman and diplomat († 1603 )
- Jacob Beurlin , German Protestant theologian and reformer († 1561 )
- Jean Crespin , French-Swiss lawyer, author and printer († 1572 )
- Kaspar Suter , Swiss soldier and chronicler († 1554 )
Date of death secured
- February 3 : Sten Sture the Younger , imperial administrator in Sweden (* 1493 )
- February 5 : Eberhard von Rentelen , councilor of the Hanseatic city of Lübeck
- February 7th : Alfonsina Orsini , Italian nobleman (* 1472 )
- February 13 : Dorothea von Brandenburg , abbess in the Poor Clare Monastery in Bamberg (* 1471 )
- February 24 : Alfonso of Aragon , Archbishop of Saragossa and Valencia (* 1470 )
- February 26 : Dietrich von Plieningen , German nobleman, lawyer and humanist (* 1453 )
- March 16 : Martin Waldseemuller , a German cartographer, coined the name America (* around 1472 / 1475 )
- April 6 : Raffael , Italian painter and builder (* 1483 )
- April 6th : Hans Schicklin , Swiss cabinet maker and picture carver
- April 11th : Agostino Chigi , Italian banker and patron (* 1466 )
- May 22nd : Jan Lubrański , Bishop of Płock and Posen (* 1456 )
- May 30th : Claude de Seyssel , French humanist, lawyer, philologist, editor, author, bishop and theologian (* 1450 )
- May 31 : Johannes Aesticampianus , Sorbian scholar, theologian and humanist, poeta laureatur (* 1457 )
- June 30th : Moctezuma II , ruler of the Aztecs (* around 1465 )
- July 1 : Juan Velázquez de León , Spanish officer and conquistador
- July 24th : Petrus de Scotia , Scottish theologian and rector of the University of Copenhagen (* 1450 )
- August 2nd : Johannes V. Thurzo , Prince-Bishop of Breslau (* 1466 )
- August 12 : Angelina Branković , Serbian Despoina, saint of the Serbian Orthodox Church (* before 1460 )
- August 12th : Johannes von Schlabrendorff , Bishop of Havelberg
- September 3 : Ippolito I. d'Este , Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, Archbishop of Gran and Milan (* 1479 )
- November 9th : Joakim Brahe , Swedish nobleman and councilor
- December 6 : Bartolomé Ordóñez , Spanish sculptor (* around 1480 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Şeyh Hamdullah , Ottoman calligrapher (* 1429 )
- Soltan Ali Maschhadi , Persian calligrapher (* 1435 )
- Marx Reichlich , Tyrolean painter (* around 1460 )
Died around 1520
- Hermann Bote , German customs clerk, chronicler and writer (* around 1450 )
- Lopo Soares de Albergaria , Portuguese navigator and third governor of Portuguese India (* around 1460 )