|Hernán Cortés has the last Aztec ruler Cuauhtémoc executed.||
Francis I of France is
captured by the Habsburgs.
|battle for supremacy in Italy at the Battle of Pavia .|
|1525 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||973/974 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||6. Feuerstein - Chicuace Tecpatl (until the end of January / beginning of February: 5th pipes - Macuilli Acatl )|
|Buddhist calendar||2068/69 (southern Buddhism); 2067/68 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||887/888 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3858/59 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||931/932 (turn of the year 17th / 18th October)|
|Jewish calendar||5285/86 (September 17-18)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1835/36 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1836/37 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1581/82 (turn of the year April)|
1525 is the central year of the German Peasant War . After the first uprisings had already taken place in 1524 , leaders such as Matern Feuerbacher , Wendel Hippler and Florian Geyer led to organized mass uprisings . Initially, Martin Luther was also benevolent towards the cause of the peasants, only when there were violent riots among Jäcklein Rohrbach and his gang, he turned away from the peasant uprisings with the text Against the robbery and murderous gangs of the peasants .
However, due to their poor armament and military organization, the uprising soon collapsed and was cruelly suppressed , especially by Georg Truchsess von Waldburg-Zeil , known as Bauernjörg. Only the tightly organized black heap of Florian Geyers can evade complete annihilation.
In the Battle of Pavia during the Italian Wars for supremacy on the Italian peninsula, the French King Francis I suffers a crushing defeat against a Habsburg army and is captured by Emperor Charles V. His mother Luise of Savoy then takes over the reign of France .
Politics and world events
- During the Italian wars for supremacy on the Italian peninsula, the French King Francis I succeeded in establishing an alliance with the Papal States, which - like France - was clasped by Habsburg in the north and south , feels threatened. To support Pope Clement VII , he crossed the Alps with an army of 26,000 mercenaries - among them French, Italian and Swiss - and entered Milan . A little later, Franz laid a siege ring around the strategically important old Lombard residence of Pavia , which was held by a 6,000-strong crew. To relieve them, the German Emperor Charles V sent an army of 23,000 men under the command of Fernando Francesco d'Avalos di Pescara , who began the attack on the night of February 23 .
- February 24th : The Habsburg troops defeat the French in the Battle of Pavia . The French King Francis I from the House of Valois-Angoulême was taken prisoner by Charles V and was brought to Madrid by Fernando Francesco d'Avalos. In the attempt to save the king, numerous high-ranking French military commanders are killed, among them Guillaume Gouffier de Bonnivet , Louis II. De La Trémoille and Thomas de Foix , who died a few days later from his wounds.
German Peasants' War
|The German Peasant War|
Oberschwäbische Haufen wrote
the 12 articles .
Georg Truchsess von Waldburg-Zeil puts down
|bloody deed in Weinsberg : The Countess von Helfenstein asks Jäcklein Rohrbach for mercy for her husband.|
- February 16 : 27 villages belonging to Memmingen protest because of their economic, social and religious circumstances and demand improvements from the imperial city. They bring their demands on February 28 in the so-called Memminger Articles .
- March 17th : The Eternal Council is founded in Mühlhausen , Thuringia , to which the leaders of the peasant army in the peasant war belong.
- March 20 : In the German Peasants' War, the Upper Swabian Heap brings its demands in Memmingen in the so-called Twelve Articles . They are widely used in prints along with federal law during the Peasant War . They count as the first human rights in the world.
- April 1st : The Evangelical Army , part of Florian Geyer von Geyersberg's Black Heap, breaks out of the Odenwald in the Peasants' War . The farmers march to the Schöntal monastery , which houses supplies.
- April 4 : Battle of Leipheim , defeat of the " Baltringer Haufen"
- April 16 : Blood deed in Weinsberg , killing of Count Ludwig von Helfenstein by rebellious farmers in front of Weinsberg
- April 17th : Treaty of Weingarten , dissolution of the "Seehaufens" and the " Allgäuer Haufen "
- April 23 : A peasant uprising in Nussdorf (Palatinate) is the cause of the Palatinate Peasant War .
- May 5th : Martin Luther distances himself in the text Against the Murderous and Reubian Rotten der Bawren from rebellious farmers who also refer to him.
- May 6 : In the Peasants' War begins the black pile of Florian Geyer together with the Frankish army to storm Würzburg where the taking of the fortress Marienberg fails because of their occupation.
- May 7th : Insurgent farmers take the city of Würzburg under the leadership of Götz von Berlichingen , the fortress Marienberg resists the rural people.
- May 12th : In the battle of Böblingen , the mercenary army of the Swabian League mastered the situation.
- May 15 : Battle of Frankenhausen am Kyffhäuser: Execution of Thomas Müntzer
- May 21 : Jäcklein Rohrbach is burned alive near Neckargartach . At the same time, other captured farmers are beheaded and tied to trees.
- June 2nd : The Neckartaler and Odenwald farmers are defeated in the Peasants' War by the army of the Swabian Federation under Georg Truchsess von Waldburg-Zeil near Königshofen .
- June 4th : During the Peasants' War , the Landsknechte of the Truchsess von Waldburg smashed the “Hellen Lichten Haufen” of the Franconian peasants in the battle of Sulzdorf ( Giebelstadt ). Florian Geyer's tightly organized Black Heap can evade destruction.
- 23 / June 24 : In the battle of pfeddersheim Elector defeated Ludwig V. of the Palatinate , the rebellious peasants in Palatine Peasants' War .
- June 25 : After the farmers capitulated the day before in the battle of Pfeddersheim in the Palatinate Peasants' War , the non-Palatinate farmers are ordered to leave the imperial city of Pfeddersheim unarmed . Around 3,000 people followed the request. It is bound by the condition not to flee. When it comes to escape attempts, the troops of Elector Ludwig V cause a bloodbath among the rebels that cost 800 of them their lives.
Other events in Europe
- April 8 : The Treaty of Krakow ends the centuries-long conflict between the Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Order . Under Albrecht von Brandenburg-Ansbach , the area of the Teutonic Order is secularized and the Duchy of Prussia is established.
- May 3 : Adolf von Anhalt-Zerbst , the last Catholic bishop of Merseburg , has to flee to Leipzig because of Protestant unrest. On May 8, insurgents try to storm the cathedral freedom . On June 10th, four citizens and four farmers will be beheaded on the Merseburg market.
- July 19 : Catholic sovereigns in northern Germany form the Dessau Bund . You want to resolutely oppose uprisings and the spread of Martin Luther's teaching .
European voyages of discovery
- July 24th : From the Spanish port of A Coruña , a fleet of seven ships of different types leaves under the command of García Jofre de Loaísa . She was given the task of finding a sea route to the Spice Islands across the Atlantic and Pacific by circling the southern tip of South America in the wake of the Magellan Expedition . The chief navigator is Juan Sebastián Elcano , who will complete his circumnavigation after Magellan's death . After a stopover on La Gomera , the expedition heads south-west to Patagonia .
- February 28 : Spanish conquest of Mexico : The Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés has the last Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlán , Cuauhtémoc , executed for alleged high treason.
- May 16 : Trujillo is founded as the first capital of Honduras .
- Gonzalo de Alvarado founds the city of San Salvador , which, however, has to be abandoned after an uprising.
- In order to prevent smuggling into Japan , the Ming Emperor Jiajing had all ocean-going ships in China destroyed.
- Sodoma begins with the frescoes from the life of Saint Catherine in the Chapel of the Saints in the Church of San Domenico in Siena , one of his main works.
Reformation and theological debates
- January 2 : As part of the Memmingen Reformation , the Memmingen disputation is held in the Memmingen town hall , at the end of which, unlike other discussions, an agreement is reached. The clergy, all councilors and one member of the citizenship of Memmingen from each guild are present .
- April 21 : The council of the imperial city of Nuremberg forbids the holding of Catholic masses , after the Nuremberg Religious Discussion in the previous month.
- September 9 : Reval becomes formally Protestant through the adoption of a Lutheran church order by the council and the guilds .
- October 21 : In the Last Supper dispute, theologians around Johannes Brenz send the Syngramma Suevicum to Johannes Oekolampad .
- October 29th : Martin Luther holds the first mass in German in Wittenberg .
- December: Martin Luther writes De servo arbitrio, directed against Erasmus von Rotterdam and his thesis De libero arbitrio .
- Ulrich Zwingli writes Commentarius de vera et falsa religione . In it he deals in detail with the central points of his theology in contrast to the Catholic tradition .
- January 21 : In the conflict over the Zurich reformation process, it comes under the name Swiss brothers to establish a Baptist congregation ; The initiators of this foundation are u. a. Konrad Grebel , Felix Mantz and Jörg Blaurock .
- The still young Le Havre falls victim to a storm surge that kills around 100 of the around 600 city dwellers.
Historical maps and views
Date of birth saved
- March 19 : Caspar Cruciger the Younger , Lutheran theologian († 1597 )
- April 15 : Tilemann Stella , German librarian, mathematician, geometer, cartographer and astronomer († 1589 )
- September 11th : Johann Georg , Elector of Brandenburg († 1598 )
- September 25 : Stephen Borough , English navigator and explorer († 1584 )
- November 7 : Georg Cracow , German lawyer and statesman († 1575 )
- December 1 : Tadeáš Hájek z Hájku , Czech astronomer and personal doctor of Rudolf II († 1600 )
- December 3 : Justus Jonas the Younger , German lawyer and diplomat († 1567 )
- December 23 : Johann Albrecht I , Duke of Mecklenburg-Güstrow and Mecklenburg-Schwerin († 1576 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Simon Bruns , German Lutheran theologian and reformer († 1570 )
- Friedrich Dedekind , German writer and theologian († 1598 )
- James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton , Scottish nobleman († 1581 )
Born around 1525
Date of death secured
- January 6th : Amalie von der Pfalz , Countess Palatine of Simmern and Duchess of Pomerania (* 1490 )
- January 24th : Franciabigio , Italian painter (* 1482 )
- February 24th : Louis II. De La Trémoille , French general, killed in the Battle of Pavia (* 1460 )
- February 24 : Richard de la Pole , last aspirants of the House of York to the English throne (* around 1480 )
- February 28 : Cuauhtémoc , last Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlán (* 1495 or 1502 )
- March 3 : Thomas de Foix , Bishop of Tarbes, French military and Marshal of France (* unknown)
- April 3 : Giovanni Rucellai , Italian poet (* 1475 )
- April 5 : Hans Jakob Wehe , German preacher and peasant leader
- May 5 : Frederick the Wise , Elector of Saxony (* 1463 )
- May 12 : Anna , Princess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Landgrave of Hesse (* 1485 )
- May 18 : Pietro Pomponazzi , Italian humanist and philosopher (* 1462 )
- May 20 : Alonso Fernández de Lugo , Andalusian nobleman and the conqueror of some Canary Islands (* 1456 )
- May 20 or 21 : Jäcklein Rohrbach , German farmer's guide (* end of the 15th century?)
- May 27 : Thomas Müntzer , Protestant theologian and revolutionary (* around 1489 )
- May 27 : Heinrich Pfeiffer , Protestant theologian and colleague of Thomas Müntzer (* before 1500 )
- June 10 : Florian Geyer , German knight, diplomat and peasant leader in the German Peasants' War in 1525 (* around 1490 )
- June 13 : Jakob von Wattenwyl , mayor of Bern (* 1466 )
- June 15 : Eitel Friedrich III. , Count of Hohenzollern (* 1494 )
- July 5th : Johann von Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach , Viceroy of Valencia (* 1493 )
- July 12 : Nicolaus Marschalk , German legal scholar, humanist and historian (* around 1455 )
- August 4th : Andrea Della Robbia , Florentine sculptor (* 1435 )
- September 7th : Matthias Waibel , German theologian of the Reformation and martyr during the Peasant Wars (* end of the 15th century)
- September 23 : Giovanni Gonzaga , Italian condottiere (* 1474 )
- October 3 : Sebastian Sprenz , Prince-Bishop of Brixen (* around 1480 )
- November 17th : Eleanor , Queen of Portugal (* 1485 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Attavante degli Attavanti , Italian painter (* 1492 )
- Ulrich Fugger the Younger , Augsburg merchant (* 1490 )