Calendar overview 1557
Heinrich II continues
the persecution of
the Huguenots .
Conrad Gessner publishes the
Lexicon sive dictionarium Graecolatinum .
Spain's victory in the Battle of Saint-Quentin
, the decades-old Habsburg-French conflict is
about to end.
|1557 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1005/06 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2100/2101 (southern Buddhism); 2099/2100 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||919/920 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3890/91 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||964/965 (turn of the year 23/24 October)|
|Jewish calendar||5317/18 (25/26 August)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1867/68 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1868/69 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1613/14 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- February 3 : Emperor Charles V moves into his refuge attached to the monastery of Yuste after completion , where he spends the last months of his life after his abdication.
- June 11th : After the death of Johann III. his grandson Sebastian succeeds him to the Portuguese throne. The three-year-old is temporarily under the tutelage of his grandmother Catherine of Castile .
- July 24th : In the Edict of Compiègne , the French King Henry II threatens the Huguenots with jurisdiction if they disturb order.
- August 10 : With Spain's decisive victory in the battle of Saint-Quentin , the decades-old Habsburg-French conflict is about to end.
- Abdallah al-Ghalib becomes the second sultan of the Saadians in Morocco after the death of his father Muhammad al-Sheikh . First, he must assert himself against several other heir apparent.
- The Battle of Uenohara is fought in Japan . The third battle between Takeda Shingen and Uesugi Kenshin ends without a decisive winner.
- The Portuguese set up a first settlement in Macau with Chinese permission . However, sovereignty over the trading post remains with the Empire of China .
Spanish colonies in America
- January 9 : García Hurtado de Mendoza is appointed Governor of Chile by his father, Andrés Hurtado de Mendoza , Viceroy of Peru . He mercilessly continues the Arauco war against the Mapuche . On April 1st, his general Pedro de Villagra y Martínez succeeds in killing their leader Lautaro in a surprise attack, but suffers a heavy defeat at the Battle of Millapoa . Lautaro was succeeded as the leader of the Mapuche by Caupolicán and Galvarino , who continued the war against the Spaniards.
- November 8 : Galvarino and 150 Mapuche are arrested in the Battle of Lagunillas near the Río Bío Bío . The prisoners' hands are cut off before they are released.
- November 30th : Galvarino and Caupolicán are captured at the Battle of Millarapue .
Voyages of discovery
- November 17th : Juan Fernández Ladrillero , who has been commissioned by Governor Mendoza to explore the area south of Valdivia and in particular the Strait of Magellan , leaves Valdivia with two ships. The flagship is lost in a storm a short time later. On December 4th , the second ship reached the Eyrefjord , but the expedition did not manage to find the passage through the Strait of Magellan.
- April 12th : The city of Santa Ana de los Cuatro Ríos de Cuenca is founded by the Spaniards on the site of the former Inca city of Tumipampa in today's Ecuador .
- October 9 : The Spanish conquistador Diego García de Paredes founds the city of Trujillo in what is now Venezuela.
First documentary mentions
- First mention of Zagreb as the Croatian capital
- Spain’s King Philip II declares national bankruptcy . Affected by this is the Welser trading house as a main creditor .
Science and culture
- The German doctor and botanist Adam Lonitzer wrote a Kreüter book .
- The Swiss scholar Conrad Gessner publishes the Lexicon sive dictionarium Graecolatinum .
- In Halle an der Saale is Stadtgottesacker on the model of Campo Santo - cemeteries in Italy built.
At the Worms Religious Discussion , Protestant and Catholic theologians try unsuccessfully to reach a consensus on central questions of theological doctrine.
- The Electoral Palatinate introduced the Reformation in reformed form . At the same time, some condominiums in the Electorate of the Palatinate are also turning to the Reformation, for example Sponheim and Pfalz-Zweibrücken .
Historical maps and views
Date of birth saved
- February 15 : Vittoria Accoramboni , Italian nobleman († 1585 )
- February 24 : Matthias , Holy Roman Emperor († 1619 )
- March 22nd : Casimir VI. , non-ruling Duke of Pomerania († 1605 )
- April 4 : Lev Sapieha , Polish-Lithuanian statesman († 1633 )
- April 11th : Friedrich , Count Palatine and Duke of Pfalz-Parkstein († 1597 )
- May 31 : Fyodor I , Tsar of Russia from 1584 to 1598 († 1598 )
- June 26 : Leandro Bassano , Italian painter († 1622 )
- July 17 : Georg Huber , Mayor of St. Gallen († 1642 )
- August 16 : Agostino Carracci , Italian painter and engraver († 1602 )
- August 19 : Friedrich I , Count of Mömpelgard and Duke of Württemberg († 1608 )
- August 24 : Bartholomäus Gölnitz , German legal scholar († 1635 )
- September 4 : Sophie von Mecklenburg , Queen of Denmark († 1631 )
- October 9 : Georg von Schoenaich , important German humanist and promoter of the Reformation († 1619 )
- December 6 : Ernst Cothmann , German lawyer and jurist († 1624 )
- December 12th : Anton Varus , German logician and physician († 1637 )
- December 16 : Martin Behm , German writer and hymn writer († 1622 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Paul Albert , Bishop of Breslau († 1600 )
- Hans Ardüser , Swiss traveling painter, schoolmaster and chronicler († around 1617 )
- Julius Caesar , English judge and royal government official († 1636 )
- Giovanni Croce , Italian composer, conductor and priest of the Venetian Renaissance († 1609 )
- Heinrich Eckstorm , German Protestant theologian and educator († 1622 )
- Giovanni Gabrieli , Italian composer († 1612 )
Date of death secured
- January 2 : Jacopo da Pontormo , Florentine painter (* 1494 )
- January 8 : Albrecht II. Alcibiades , Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach (* 1522 )
- January 12 : Eberhard Billick , counter-reformer and auxiliary bishop in Cologne (* 1499 or 1500 )
- April 9 : Mikael Agricola , Finnish theologian and reformer (* 1509 )
- April 29th : Lautaro , war chief of the Mapuche in the Arauco War in Chile (* before 1535)
- May 18 : Johann II of Simmern , Count Palatine (* 1492 )
- June 11 : Johann III. , King of Portugal from the house of Avis (* 1502 )
- July 10 : Giovan Battista Ramusio , Italian humanist, historian and geographer (* 1485 )
- July 16 : Anna von Kleve , Queen of England as wife of King Henry VIII (* 1515 )
- September 1 : Jacques Cartier , French explorer and navigator (* 1491 )
- September 13 : Veit Amerbach , German scholar and humanist (* around 1503 )
- September 13 : John Cheke , English scholar and statesman (* 1514 )
- September 27 : Go-Nara , 105th Emperor of Japan (* 1497 )
- September 27 : John Sackville , English member of parliament (* 1484 )
- October 5th : Caramuru , Portuguese colonist and liaison between the Brazilian natives and the Portuguese crown (* around 1475 )
- October 20 : Jean Salmon Macrin , neo-Latin poet of French origin (* 1490 )
- November 15 : Ferrante I. Gonzaga , Count of Guastalla, Viceroy of Sicily and Governor of Milan (* 1507 )
- November 19 : Bona Sforza , Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania (* 1494 )
- November 28 : Robert Rochester , English Catholic politician (* around 1494 )
- December 6th : Elisabeth of Hesse , Hereditary Princess of Saxony (* 1502 )
- December 13 : Nicolo Tartaglia , Italian mathematician (* 1499 )
Exact date of death unknown
- January: Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus , Scottish nobleman (* around 1489 )
- June: David Douglas, 7th Earl of Angus , Scottish nobleman (* around 1515 )
- John Braye, 2nd Baron Braye , English nobleman and politician
- Thomas Crécquillon , Franco-Flemish composer (* probably between 1480 and 1505)
- Lorenzo Lotto , Italian painter (* 1480 )
- Muhammad el-Sheikh , first Saadian sultan in Morocco
- Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca , Spanish navigator and explorer, (* 1490 ?)