|Girolamo Savonarola organizes the "burning of vanities" in Florence .||
Giovanni Caboto ,
Italian seafarer in English service, is the first European after Leif Eriksson to reach the North American continent.
|Pinturicchio paints a fresco in the cathedral of Spoleto .|
|1497 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||945/946 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||4. Feuerstein - Nahui Tecpatl (until the end of January / beginning of February: 3rd pipes - Jei Acatl )|
|Buddhist calendar||2040/41 (southern Buddhism); 2039/40 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||69th (70th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||859/860 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3830/31 (2/3 October)|
|Islamic calendar||902/903 (turn of the year 29/30 August)|
|Jewish calendar||5257/58 (August 27-28)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1807/08 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1808/09 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1553/54 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Holy Roman Empire
- February 7th / February 17th : Girolamo Savonarola organizes a book burning in Florence with the “Bonfire of the Vanities” . On May 13th, the Dominican monk and penitential preacher, who loudly denounced the grievances in the church, was given by Pope Alexander VI. excommunicated as "heretic, schismatic and despiser of the Holy See" . Savonarola responds to the excommunication with the Epistola contra sententiam excommunicationis .
- November 7th : After the death of his father Philip II , Philibert II becomes Duke of Savoy .
- April 3 : The Spanish heir to the throne John of Aragon and Castile marries Margaret of Austria . Only six months later he dies on October 4th . Their child is born dead a few weeks later. Thus the succession to the throne in Aragon and Castile goes to John's sister Johanna , who has been married to the Habsburg Philip the Fair since the previous year .
- May: King Manuel I, the lucky one , of Portugal marries the Infanta Elisabeth of Spain . The Spanish royal family only approved the wedding on the condition that all Jews were expelled from the country . Manuel, who cannot afford such “bloodletting” from his country, instead carries out mass baptisms . At the same time he issues an edict that these Cristãos novos may not be persecuted for deviant religious behavior for 20 years.
- August 10 : Ferdinando II of Aragon is named Ferdinand III. declared King of Naples .
- June 17 : In the Battle of Deptford Bridge the royal troops defeat of Henry VII. Of England an army Cornish insurgents under Thomas Flamank and Michael An Gof . The leaders will be executed on June 24th .
Northern and Eastern Europe
Voyages of discovery
- June 24 : Giovanni Caboto and his son Sebastiano are the first European to reach the North American mainland on an English assignment , but thinks they are in China . Where exactly he went ashore, whether in Labrador , New England or Newfoundland , is uncertain. St. John's claims to have been the first European settlement in North America to have been founded by him; it is named after John the Baptist . Caboto returns to Bristol in August.
The sea route to India
On behalf of the Portuguese ruler Manuel I of sailors leaving Vasco da Gama on 8 July the port of Lisbon in search of the sea route to India . His fleet consists of the flagship, the Nau São Gabriel , the Nau São Rafael under the command of his brother Paulo da Gama , another Nau under Nicolao Coelho as captain and a transport ship under the command of Gonçalo Nunes. A total of 150 to 170 men take part in the trip. The fleet includes the best pilots in Portugal, who are largely familiar with the current and wind conditions, especially in the South Atlantic. Bartolomeu Diaz , who sailed around the Cape of Good Hope for the first time in 1488, also accompanies the small fleet as an advisor to the Cape Verde Islands .
From here, Da Gama sails through the Atlantic Ocean on a long course to the west and clearly separates itself from the coast in order to avoid the well-known lulls in the Gulf of Guinea and to take advantage of better wind conditions. On November 4th, he reached Saint Helena Bay on the west coast of South Africa. Here contact is made with the locals and the ships are overhauled. The bypassing of the Cape of Good Hope succeeds only after several attempts on November 22nd and the fleet lands on November 25th at Aguada de São Braz , where a padrão is set up. At Christmas, the fleet reaches a stretch of land that da Gama calls Natal on this occasion , while the rest of the year the Portuguese follow the East African coast north.
- Maximilian I raised the Leipzig annual fairs to the imperial fair , which considerably fostered their boom.
- Maximilian I gave Linz the right to build a bridge over the Danube . This bridge , which was completed in 1501, is only the third Danube bridge in the Austrian hereditary lands after Vienna and Krems .
science and technology
- Luis Ramírez Lucena publishes his chess book Repetición de amores e arte de axedrez . In the work printed with incunabula , the modern rules of chess are described for the first time.
- Pinturicchio creates frescoes in the chapel of the Bishop of Eroli in the Cathedral of Santa Maria dell'Assunta in Spoleto .
Sebastian Brant's satire Ship of Fools , written in 1494 , appears in the Latin translation Stultifera Navis by his pupil Jakob Locher on June 1st in Strasbourg, printed by Johannes Grüninger . This edition quickly spread across national borders and made Brant's work an international success. Locher's translation is not a literal, but rather a Latin adaptation that takes into account the expectations of the audience who knows Latin and their traditional educational background. A Middle Low German edition is printed by Hans van Ghetelen in Lübeck under the title Dat narren schyp .
- Guillaume Briçonnet succeeds his brother Robert Briçonnet , who died on June 3rd, as Archbishop of Reims . In the same year he also becomes Bishop of Toulon .
- September 17th : Pomerania is hit by a severe storm surge . The towns of Rügenwalde and See Suckow in particular are badly affected.
Date of birth saved
- January 17 : Friedrich von Brandenburg-Ansbach , provost in Würzburg Cathedral († 1536 )
- January 26 : Go-Nara , 105th Emperor of Japan († 1557 )
- February 16 : Philipp Melanchthon , German Reformation theologian († 1560 )
- February 24 : Sebastian Fröschel , German theologian of the Reformation period († 1570 )
- April 17 : Pedro de Valdivia , Spanish conquistador († 1553 )
- May 1 : Johannes Knipstro , German Lutheran theologian and reformer († 1556 )
- June 26 : Ernst I , Prince of Lüneburg († 1546 )
- September 8 : Wolfgang Musculus , German Reformed theologian († 1563 )
- October 29 : Benedetto Accolti , Italian Cardinal of the Catholic Church, Archbishop of Ravenna († 1549 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Lebna Dengel, under the name of David II negus negest of Ethiopia († 1540 )
- Lütke Namen , German theologian and Franciscan († 1574 )
- Mauritius Piderit , German Lutheran theologian († 1576 )
- Dionisio Neagrus Laurerio , Italian cardinal († 1542 )
- Ambrosius Schlumpf , Swiss Mayor († 1566)
- Margaret Eriksdotter Wasa , Swedish noblewoman, sister of King Gustav I of Sweden († 1536 )
Born around 1497
- Thomas Abel , English clergyman († 1540 )
- Jean François Fernel , French physiologist († 1558 )
- Stephan Gardiner , English theologian, statesman, humanist and Graecist († 1555 )
- Girolamo da Treviso , Italian painter and sculptor († 1544 )
- Katharina Zell , German Reformation author († 1562 )
First half of the year
- January 2 : Beatrice d'Este , Duchess of Milan (* 1475 )
- January 25 : Katharina , Hereditary Duchess of Geldern (* around 1440 )
- February 6 : Johannes Ockeghem , Flemish composer, singer and clerics (* around 1410 / 1420 )
- April 19 : Pierre Basin , Flemish singer (* before 1435 )
- May 24th : Benedetto da Maiano , Italian sculptor and builder (* 1442 )
- June 3 : Robert Briçonnet , Archbishop of Reims
- June 14 : Juan Borgia, 2nd Duke of Gandía , Spanish-Italian Renaissance prince (* 1476 or 1478 )
- June 24th : Michael An Gof , English blacksmith, leader of the Cornish Revolt of 1497
- June 24th : Thomas Flamank , English lawyer, leader of the Cornish uprising of 1497
- June 27th : Nicholas II , Duke of Opole
Second half of the year
- July 23 : Barbara Fugger , Augsburg citizen and businesswoman (* 1419 )
- July: Estêvão da Gama , Portuguese nobleman, father Vasco da Gamas (* around 1430 )
- around August 24 : Sophia , Duchess of Pomerania (* around 1435 )
- August 25 : Johann von Tiefen , Grand Master of the Teutonic Order (* 1440 )
- October 4th : Benozzo Gozzoli , Italian Renaissance painter (* 1420 )
- October 4th : John of Aragon and Castile , Prince of Asturias, only son of the Catholic Kings (* 1478 )
- October 23 : Anna von Werdenberg , abbess of Buchau women's monastery
- November 7th : Philip II , Duke of Sayoyen (* 1438 )
- November 20 : Nikolaus Kempf , German mystic and theologian (* around 1415 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Albert de Brudzewo , Polish astronomer and mathematician (* 1445 )
- Thomas Lumley, 2nd Baron Lumley , English nobleman and diplomat (* 1408 )