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Darłowo Coat of Arms
Darłowo (Poland)
Basic data
State : Poland
Voivodeship : West Pomerania
Powiat : Sławno
Area : 19.93  km²
Geographic location : 54 ° 25 '  N , 16 ° 25'  E Coordinates: 54 ° 25 '20 "  N , 16 ° 24' 40"  E
Height : 1 m npm
Residents : 13,710
(Jun. 30, 2019)
Postal code : 76-150 and 76-151
Telephone code : (+48) 94
License plate : ZSL
Economy and Transport
Street : DK 37 Darłowo ↔ Karwice
Ext. 203 KoszalinUstka
Ext. 205 Darłowo ↔ Bobolice
Rail route : PKP No. 418 ( Korzybie - Sławno - Darłowo )
Next international airport : Szczecin-Goleniów
Gminatype: Borough
Surface: 19.93 km²
Residents: 13,710
(Jun. 30, 2019)
Population density : 688 inhabitants / km²
Community number  ( GUS ): 3213011
Administration (as of 2012)
Mayor : Arkadiusz Klimowicz
Address: pl. Kościuszki 9
76-150 Darłowo
Website : www.darlowo.pl

Darłowo [ darˈwɔvɔ ] ( German Rügenwalde ) is a town in the powiat Sławieński ( Schlawe district ) of the Polish West Pomeranian Voivodeship . It is known nationwide for the historic residential palace of the Pomeranian dukes .

Geographical location

The city on the Wipper ( Wieprza ) is located in Western Pomerania , about 29 kilometers northeast of Köslin ( Koszalin ) and 19 kilometers northwest of Schlawe ( Sławno ).

The city can be reached via Landesstraße 37 from Landesstraße 6 (formerly German Reichsstraße 2 , today also Europastraße 28 ) - or via Voivodeship roads 203 from the direction of Ustka (Stolpmünde) or 205 from the direction of Koszalin (Köslin) . The city, which is about 3.5 kilometers south of the mouth of the Wieprza (Wipper) in the Baltic Sea , is also the terminus of the railway line from Sławno , although passenger traffic on this section is currently suspended.

Baltic Sea beach near Rügenwaldermünde

Southwest of the village is a military airfield of the Polish Navy , one of two locations 44. Baza Lotnictwa Morskiego (44th BLM). It serves as a base for SAR helicopters.


Rügenwalde on the Lubin map from 1618. On the left the Marienkirche, in the middle the Wippertor, on the right in the background the stone gate and the tower of the Gertrudkirche, on the right castle and castle mill, in the foreground left in front of the Wipperbrücke the Georgskapelle.

Rügenwalde was founded in a region of the Schlawer Land, in which numerous archaeological finds such as stone tools, urns, fibulas, buckles, rings point to early settlement approaches. However, the city is not at the point where a place of the Rugians called "Rugium" is recorded on the map Germania magna of Ptolemy . According to this map, Rugium was on the left bank of the Grabow river ; the center of Rügenwald, on the other hand, is on the right bank of the Wipper, a few kilometers away. However, the city owes its name to the Rugians.

middle Ages

Description of the town by M. Merian from 1652.

Long before the city was founded, the Thirlow or Dirlow Castle existed in the area with the castellany of the same name, a castle district called terra Dirlova in Latin documents . However, the castle was located near the mouth of the Wipper, a few kilometers away from the place where the town of Rügenwalde later emerged. The current Polonized name of the city comes from this castle. It was first mentioned as a town on February 5, 1271 in a document issued at Schlawe Castle, with which Duke Wizlaw II of Rügen gave the Buckow monastery two houses and two Hufen land "in civitate nostra Ruyenwolde" (lat. "In our City of Rügenwalde ”). It is believed that Wizlaw II relocated the Slavic settlement in 1270 according to Luebian law .

The area originally belonged to the Pomeranian partial rule Schlawe-Stolp. After the extinction of the rear Pomeranian side line of the Greifenhaus , the rule of Schlawe-Stolp and the area of ​​the later town of Rügenwalde came into the possession of the Pomeranian Duke Swantopolk II after 1227. After Swantopolk II's death in 1266, Duke Barnim I of Pomerania moved in around 1269 the area around Schlawe and Rügenwalde and handed this over to Duke Wizlaw II of Rügen in 1270 as a pledge. This lost the area around 1275 to Duke Mestwin II of Pomerania. The last sovereign ruler of Pomerania from the Samborid line , Mestwin II, had taken his duchy from the Margraves of Brandenburg as a fief in a treaty at the Dragebrücke in 1273 . Since he had no male offspring, he had contractually recognized the Brandenburg expectant rights over the states of Schlawe, Rügenwalde and Stolp, renouncing Danzig from the Treaty of Arnswalde . But by 1278 at the latest, he fell out with the Brandenburgers and entered into an alliance with the Duchy of Greater Poland, which was also in dispute with the Margraviate of Brandenburg. When Mestwin II died in December 1294, Przemysław , Duke of Greater Poland , inherited the Duchy of Pomerania, including the town and country of Rügenwalde. It came to the succession dispute in the course of which Rügenwalde was destroyed in 1297 by the Pomeranian Duke Bogislaw IV .

Castle of the Pomeranian Dukes (museum since 1929)
Renovated market square with Hansa fountain
Town hall with the Marienkirche in the background
Town hall square before the Second World War, to the left of the town hall is the Löwen pharmacy

After the Margraves of Brandenburg had enforced their disputed rights in 1307 due to an alliance with the Swenzonen in Pomerania , the reconstruction of the city began. On May 31, 1312, a document was issued in which it was determined that the city of Lübisches Stadtrecht should apply. The date is still the day the Rügenwald was founded. The re-establishment took place under the administration of the Swenzonen, which entrusted five authorized persons with the practical implementation. The city received a number of privileges on this occasion, including the right to fish for herring. For the latter purpose, six new boats, so-called 'Bordinge' (a type of light vessel suitable for sailing on shallow coastal waters) were purchased, three of which remained the property of the city. In 1317, as a result of the Peace of Templin , the city and its surroundings were transferred from the Mark Brandenburg to the Duchy of Pommern-Wolgast .

It is believed that the construction of the Rügenwalder Marienkirche began during this time . In 1327 the city acquired the Wendish castle Dirlow near the village of Münde, which later became Rügenwaldermünde, for 213 marks.

In the middle of the 14th century, the city built a larger city wall to protect it, into which three city gates were let. In 1350 Rügenwalde joined the Hanseatic League , but was suspended for 14 years in 1356 because the city had not participated in the trade ban during the war against Denmark. In 1352, Duke Bogislaw V. bought the later castle island for 1,500 marks and began building the Rügenwalder ducal castle .

In 1407 a Carthusian monastery was relocated to Marienkron near Rügenwalde. In 1406 the monastery was first moved from the village of Körlin near Lanzig to Schlawe.

Under the dukes Bogislaw VIII and Erich I , who was also king of the Scandinavian countries for 42 years, Rügenwalde was a Pomeranian duchy from 1402 until Erich I's death in 1459. Erich I maintained good contact with the Carthusian monastery.

On September 17, 1497, the city was hit by one of the largest storm surges on the Pomeranian coast. On February 8, 1558, another flood reached the city.

Long before the Reformation, there was a Latin school in Rügenwalde run by clergymen. In 1333 it was directed by Rector Stephanus. According to the donation book ( liber beneficiorum ) of the Carthusian monastery, the headmasters were Arnoldus in 1431, Ryke in 1434 and Hinrich Hildebrant in 1502. Graduates from Pomeranian Latin schools preferred to attend the universities of Greifswald (founded in 1456), Rostock (founded in 1419), Frankfurt an der Oder (founded in 1506) and Wittenberg (founded in 1502). The number of Rügenwalder students in Rostock was 14 in the period from 1456 to 1490 and a total of 20 in the period from 1491 to 1524; in Greifswald it was 14 and 8 respectively in the same two periods.

High gate or stone gate - city side
Hansabrunnen on the town hall forecourt of Rügenwalde (created by Wilhelm Groß , donated by the Hemptenmacher shipping company ).

After the Reformation

When Johannes Bugenhagen campaigned for the introduction of the Reformation in Pomerania in 1534 and 1535 , he chose the Rügenwalder Castle as one of his bases. In 1534 the Marienkron Carthusian monastery was dissolved.

On July 4th, 1589, Rügenwalde was badly damaged by a devastating fire. Most of the Marienkirche also burned down. From 1622 to 1637 the last Pomeranian Duke Bogislaw XIV made Rügenwalde Castle his residence. As early as 1618 he had opened a mint in the castle. On November 11, 1624 , the city fell victim to a major fire for the second time, in which the Marienkirche was completely destroyed. It could not be rebuilt until 1639. During the Thirty Years War , Scottish troops led by the Scottish officer Robert Monroe, fighting for the Swedish king Gustav Adolf, marched into Rügenwalde and drove out the Imperialists. Swedish troops were then billeted. On August 10, 1648 , Rügenwalde was destroyed again by fire.

In front of the port of Rügenwaldermünde , which had already been destroyed by the Imperialists during the Thirty Years 'War (1618–1648) , an association of Russian warships anchored during the Seven Years' War on July 30, 1761, and during the following days Rügenwalde received a number of several thousand men Russian occupation. The port facilities were not rebuilt until 1772, at the instigation of Frederick the Great , King of Prussia . The port became an important economic factor in the Rügen Forest. As a harbinger of the impending industrialization, a canvas factory and a canvas manufacture were founded in 1778 . Soon afterwards, the city was regarded as an important training center for rope and sailmakers . There was already a shipyard where larger ships were built. Rügenwalde had its own lime distillery .

In the 19th century

Rügenwalde west of Danzig and Stolp and northeast of Köslin on a map from 1910

In the coalition war against Napoleon , Rügenwalde was occupied by French troops from 1806 to 1808, and the ducal palace became a French military hospital.

After the end of the French occupation, administrative reforms were carried out in Prussia . The city of Rügenwalde was assigned to the newly created district of Schlawe in the administrative district of Köslin , to which it belonged until 1945 , for the purpose of the regional administration of the province of Pomerania .

From 1814 the doctor Georg Büttner built the suburb of Rügenwaldermünde into the first Prussian seaside resort . From 1831 to 1853, Rügenwalde, which then had 3,400 inhabitants, suffered from cholera and other epidemics. From 1836 onwards, when the connection to the Pomeranian trunk road network was established with the construction of a new highway, the infrastructure in and around the city began to improve. In 1848 the Rügenwalde shipowners owned 17 merchant ships. The port was taken over by the Prussian state and expanded, so that in 1856 a new record was set with 50 ships at anchor. In 1863 Rügenwalde was connected to the telegraph network and in 1878 to rail traffic with the construction of the Rügenwalde – Schlawe line (19 km). Rügenwaldes industrial boom was also evidenced by the fact that at the end of the 19th century the largest shipping company in Pomerania with over 40 ships was based there.

In 1866, the poet Paul Heyse published the play in Rügenwalde in five acts "Hans Lange", which is based on a legend that revolves around the childhood of the Pomeranian Duke Bogislaw X. The subject had previously been taken up by the Pomeranian poet Wilhelm Meinhold (1797-1851).

At the end of the 19th century there were two Protestant churches in Rügenwalde, a synagogue (Müllerstraße), a district court, a main customs office, two hospitals, a seaman's office, a Reichsbank branch, a sausage factory, and shipping and trade. The main trade was in meat products (smoked fish and goose breasts as well as long-life sausages) and with grain and wood. Rügenwalde has been known throughout Germany since the middle of the 19th century through the distribution of the "Rügenwalder Teewurst ". After the escape and expulsion, the Rügenwalder Mühle company, which is now based in Lower Saxony, and the Rügenwalder Specialties Plüntsch company, which is based in Hesse, emerged from the manufacturing companies of the "Rügenwalder Teewurst" .

In the 20th century

View around 1900

The city was not directly affected by the First World War . Rügenwalde issued its own emergency money in the post-war period (see also German inflation 1914 to 1923 ). In the 1920s, the city was expanded with the establishment of the Kopfberg settlement. In 1929 the district took over the ducal castle, which had been partially demolished in the previous decades and had served as a courthouse, prison and grain store in order to set up the district's local museum.

On Rathausplatz there was a pharmacy right next to the town hall, the Löwen-Apotheke, whose operators could look back on a 300-year history. The Löwen-Apotheke was run until the end of World War II , when the German pharmacist was driven out. The pharmacy building was demolished after the war.

After the beginning of the Second World War, there was another economic expansion in Rügenwalde for a short time. In 1935 the Rügenwalde-Bad shooting range was built in Rügenwaldermünde . In 1939 the construction of two large silos began in the port. In 1943 the first large concrete ship was launched in the Rügenwalder shipyard under great secrecy . In March 1943, the 80 cm cannon (E) , a railway gun and the largest gun in the world , was tested on the firing range .

The end of the upswing began in 1943, when the ducal castle was converted into a compulsory flour warehouse and shortly afterwards a hospital was set up in the Hanseatic school. On August 2, 1944, all citizens of Rügenwald capable of working were compulsorily obliged to build the so-called Pommernwall . In December 1944 the first refugees from East Prussia and West Prussia arrived in the city. Families from Hagen and Bochum were also evacuated to Rügenwalde . From January 1945 a large-scale evacuation operation by the Navy started , with which 5,600 people left the city. Around 3500 residents remained in the city. In addition, there were a large number of newly arrived refugees from East and West Prussia.

Before 1945 there were a total of six places to live in Rügenwalde:

  • Friedrichshof
  • Gittelsmühle
  • Ruegenwalde
  • City forest house
  • Tunnel mountain
  • Villa colony

Until 1945 Rügenwalde belonged to the district of Schlawe in the administrative district of Köslin of the Pomerania province of the German Empire .

Towards the end of the Second World War , Rügenwalde was occupied by the Red Army on March 7, 1945 . In July 1945, Western Pomerania, along with West Prussia and the southern half of East Prussia, was placed under Polish administration by the Soviet Union . Subsequently, the immigration of Poles from central Poland and Poles and Ukrainians from the areas east of the Curzon Line that fell to the Soviet Union began in Rügenwalde . Rügenwalde was renamed Darłowo .

With the exception of people who were indispensable for maintaining the city's infrastructure or who had been deported to labor camps, the entire resident city population of Rügenwalde was expelled in the period that followed . The first evictions took place on October 17, 1945. Freight wagons were used for transport. From August 17, 1946, further transports were regularly organized until in October 1948 only about 200 Germans lived in the city, in 1949 only around 70 (see also German minority in Poland ).

Population development

Until the end of the Second World War, the population of Rügenwald was predominantly Protestant , since the end of the war the population of the city has been predominantly Catholic .

Rügenwalde's main shopping street, which leads from the Hohen Tor (in the background) past the town hall forecourt to the Wipperbrücke and the Georgskapelle (2008).
year Residents Remarks
1740 1,973
1782 2,255 mostly Protestants , 21 Jews
1784 2,290
1791 2,331 mostly Protestants, 29 Jews
1817 3,754
1875 5,174
1890 5,296 27 Catholics, 102 Jews
1910 5,978
1925 6,037 46 Catholics, 42 Jews
1933 7. 240
1939 8,392
1944 approx. 11,000
2008 14,140


coat of arms

Old city coat of arms

Blazon : “In red over a silver shield base, inside two, a right and left, below merging in an obtuse angle blue wavy bars , a gold-tongued and gold-reinforced silver fish griffin , on the upper edge of the shield a black-grooved golden tinned city wall with two pinnacle towers, between the two with a gold one eight-spoke steering wheel occupied (city coat of arms). "

The griffin in the city coat of arms of Darłowo, whose lower half of the body ends in a sturgeon tail, is a so - called fish griffin according to the coat of arms of the Swenzonen , which played an important role in the second founding of the city of Rügenwalde in 1312. In the 14th to 15th centuries, the fish grasping in the coat of arms of Rügenwald was carried between oak branches and over water waves. Since the 17th century, the fish griff has appeared over two watercourses flowing together at obtuse angles, which is intended to indicate the union of Wipper and Grabow before the confluence with the Baltic Sea.

Culture and sights


Darłówko Lighthouse
  • Marienkirche , a late Gothic brick building (basilica) from the 14th century with a 'princely crypt', the sarcophagi of King Erich I (* 1382, † 1459), Princess Hedwig (* approx. 1595, † 1650) and the last Pomeranian Duchess Elisabeth (* 1580, † 1653) contains.
  • Church of St. Gertrud , late Gothic central building (15th century) with a tent roof and a splendidly carved Baroque pulpit from the former ducal castle church, which Bogislaw XIV had built and which was closed in 1805.
  • Steintor , a town gate with stately gable structures that was renewed in 1732.
  • Rügenwalde Castle , a late Gothic brick building near the city park. It housed from 1929 to 1945 that of the Rügenwalder teacher Karl Rosenow founded in 1917 Kreisheimatmuseum (until 1945 was Rosenow head of the museum). The museum continues today (2008) as a regional museum.
  • St. George's Church , in the Wipper suburb on the other side of the river. In the Middle Ages it served as a hospital for plague and cholera sufferers.
  • Patrician house from the Renaissance period (1630), corner of Mündener Str. 7.
  • Hansabrunnen in front of the town hall, created by Wilhelm Groß , donated by the Hemptenmacher shipping company. On the raised water bowl of the fountain stands the bronze figure of a sailor with a cap, who is carrying a model of a ship in his hands. On the substructure of the fountain, four bronze reliefs with motifs from the history and the industries of the city are attached at seat height.


sons and daughters of the town

Personalities who have worked locally

  • Bogislaw V. (1318–1374), bought what would later become the castle island in 1352 and began building the ducal castle.
  • Georg Kleist (around 1435–1508), was the town's governor and chancellor of Duke Bogislaw X from around the last quarter of the 15th century .
  • Peter Artopoeus (1491–1563), actually Peter Becker , theologian and reformer, worked as a teacher at the Rügenwalder Latin School.
  • Paul Fischer († around 1655), organ builder
  • Daniel Symonis (1637–1685), German writer, translator and Evangelical Lutheran clergyman, became rector in Rügenwalde in 1665 and worked here from 1671 as pastor and praepositus.
  • Kaspar Otto von Massow (1665–1736), politician, was appointed governor of Rügenwalde in 1701.
  • Emil Palleske (1823–1880), writer and lecturer, spent his youth in the house at Lange Str. 26.
  • Karl Rosenow (1873–1958), from 1895 to 1933 teacher / deputy principal at the city school (elementary school), local history researcher and journalist, founder and director of the district home museum housed in the ducal palace , lived in Rügenwalde until 1947.


After the Reformation , the overwhelming majority of the urban population belonged to the Protestant denomination. The city was the seat of the Rügenwalde Synod, to which a total of 22 parishes belonged around 1780. The 1925 census counted 46 Catholics and 42 Jews.

Rural municipality of Darłowo

The rural community ( gmina wiejska ) Darłowo, to which the city itself does not belong, covers an area of ​​269 km² with 7955 inhabitants (as of June 30, 2019).

See also



  • Gustav Kratz : The cities of the province of Pomerania - an outline of their history, mostly according to documents . Berlin 1865 (reprinted in 1996 by Sendet Reprint Verlag, Vaduz, ISBN 3-253-02734-1 / 3-253-02734-1), pp. 327–338 ( full text ) (including the city chronicle that extended beyond the middle of the 19th century numerous references.)
  • The Schlawe district (M. Vollack, ed.). Volume I: The district as a whole , Husum 1986. Volume II: The cities and rural communities , Husum 1989, ISBN 3-88042-337-7 .
  • F. Böhmer: History of the city of Rügenwalde up to the repeal of the old city constitution. Szczecin 1900.

General representations

  • Carlheinz Rosenow: From the home of Rügenwalde (district of Schlawe - Pomerania) - yearbook 1987. Glücksstadt 1987.
  • Karl Rosenow : Rügenwalde - For the 600th anniversary celebration of the old Hanseatic city - A festive offer on May 21, 1912. Rügenwalde 1912.
  • Karl Rosenow : Ducal castle and princely crypt - Rügenwalder architectural and art monuments ( local history series of the Schlawe district , 3rd section). Albert Mewes, Rügenwalde (no year, 1925 or later).
  • Our Pommerland , vol. 9, no . 4–5: Rügenwalde .
  • Johann Ernst Fabri : Geography for all classes . Part I, Volume 4, Leipzig 1793, pp. 574-578 ( full text ).
  • Geographical-topographical lexicon of Upper Saxony and Upper and Lower Lusatia . Volume 7, Ulm 1805, pp. 228-223.

Web links

Commons : Darłowo  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

Web links to history

Map: Rugium, place of the Rugians in Germania Magna

See also

References and comments

  1. a b population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed December 24, 2019 .
  2. Gustav Kratz : The cities of the province of Pomerania - outline of their history mostly based on documents . Sendet, Vaduz 1996 (unchanged reprint of the 1865 edition), ISBN 3-253-02734-1 , pp. 327–338.
  3. Schlawe and Rügenwalde were not under his direct rule at the time the contract was signed.
  4. Mestwin II terminated the contracts and cooperation with the Brandenburgers unilaterally at the latest de facto and de jure through the Treaty of Kempen in 1282 with the Duchy of Greater Poland.
  5. ^ Friedrich von Restorff : Topographical description of the province of Pomerania with a statistical overview . Nicolai, Berlin 1827, p. 255.
  6. ^ Karl Friedrich Pauli : General Prussian State History . Fifth volume, Franckens, Halle 1764, p. 260.
  7. Gustav von Wilmowski : Lübisches Recht in Pommern , Berlin 1867 (on p. 8 under 'Rügenwalde' instead of '1812' it must read correctly 1312), p. 8.
  8. Johann Jakob Sell : About the strong herring catch on the Pomeranian and Rügen coasts in the 12th and 14th centuries . Translated from Latin by DE H Zober. Stralsund 1831. 26 pages, p. 15.
  9. Gustav Gallois: The Hansabund from its creation to its dissolution. 1851, p. 369.
  10. ^ Ernst Boll: Contributions to the geognosy of Meklenburg. In: Archives of the Association of Friends of Natural History in Meklenburg. 19th year, Neubrandenburg 1863, pp. 78–267, here pp. 159–163. Digitized .
  11. ^ Erwin Framke: The Rügenwalder Schools. In: Der Kreis Schlawe - A Pommersches Heimatbuch (M. Vollack, ed.), Volume 1: The district as a whole , Husum 1986, ISBN 3-88042-239-7 , pp. 362–371.
  12. Martin Wehrmann : History of Pomerania. Volume 2. 2nd edition. Verlag Friedrich Andreas Perthes, Gotha 1921, p. 94. (Reprint: Augsburg 1992, ISBN 3-89350-112-6 )
  13. ^ Achim Link: On the way to the state university - studies on the origins of medieval students using the example of Greifswald (1456-1524) . Contributions to the history of the University of Greifswald, Volume 1, Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 978-3-515-07619-7 , 163 ff.
  14. Joachim Krüger: Between the Empire and Sweden The sovereign coinage in the Duchy of Pomerania and in Swedish Pomerania in the early modern period . Greifswald 2004, p. 167 ff. ( Restricted preview )
  15. Anders Fryxell: History of Gustav Adolphs. Leipzig 1852, p. 158 ff.
  16. ^ Johann Ludwig Ewald: Examples of the good ; Stuttgart 1821, pp. 222-223.
  17. Hans Heinrich Ludwig v. Hero: History of the three sieges of Kolberg in the Seven Years' War. Berlin 1847, p. 205 ff.
  18. ^ Johann Georg Krünitz : Economic Encyclopedia . Volume 153, Berlin 1830, p. 9.
  19. contributions to the history of Stattiner trade. The Szczecin shipping under Frederick the Great. In: Baltic Study. Volume 21, Stettin 1866, pp. 168-236, in particular pp. 228 ff.
  20. ^ Johann Georg Krünitz : Economic Encyclopedia . Volume 32, Berlin 1784, p. 673.
  21. ^ E. Wendt & Co. (Ed.): Overview of the Prussian Merchant Navy . Stettin January 1848, p. 16 ( online [accessed June 4, 2015]).
  22. ^ Samuel Buchholtz: Attempt a history of the Churmark Brandenburg. Part 3: New History , Berlin 1767, p. 193.
  23. See also Wikisource Bogislaw X. and Hans Lange .
  24. ^ Paul Heyse: Hans Lange - play in five acts . Berlin 1866, full text
  25. ^ Wilhelm Meinhold: Bogislaw der Große (X.), Duke of Pomerania, and the farmer Hans Lange. Romance in three departments, year of action 1474. In: OLB Wolff: Encyclopedia of German National Literature . 5th volume, Leipzig 1840, p. 218 ff.
  26. ruegenwalde.com
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  28. ^ Karl Rosenow: The lion pharmacy of Rügenwalde, privileged in 1612. In: Ostpommersche Heimat. Supplement to the newspaper for East Pomerania. Born in 1937, No. 12.
  29. ^ Carlheinz Rosenow: Rügenwalde on the Baltic Sea - A short history of the hometown. In: M. Vollack (ed.): The Schlawe district - A Pomeranian home book. Volume 2: The cities and rural communities , Husum 1969, pp. 687–698.
  30. a b c Gunthard Stübs and Pomeranian Research Association: The city of Rügenwalde in the former district of Schlawe in Pomerania (2011)
  31. Earth description of the Prussian monarchy (FG Leonhard, ed.), Volume 3, Halle 1794, pp. 872–872.
  32. a b Geographical-Topographical Lexicon of Upper Saxony and Upper and Lower Lusatia . Volume 7, Ulm 1805, pp. 228-223.
  33. ^ Ludewig Wilhelm Gilbert: Handbook for travelers through Germany . Volume 1, Leipzig 1791, p. 298.
  34. Christian Friedrich Wutstrack (Ed.): Kurue historical-geographical-statistical description of the royal-Prussian duchy of Western and Western Pomerania . Stettin 1793, overview table on p. 736.
  35. Complete and most recent description of the earth of the Prussian monarchy and the Free State of Krakow , edited by G. Hassel. Geographisches Institut, Weimar 1819, p. 207.
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  37. Główny Urząd Statystyczny, "LUDNOŚĆ - STAN I STRUKTURA W PRZEKROJU TERYTORIALNYM", as of June 30, 2008 ( memento of the original of April 19, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. () @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.stat.gov.pl
  38. Ruth Hoevel: Description of some works by the artist Wilhelm Groß from the Schlawer room. In: Der Kreis Schlawe - A Pommersches Heimatbuch (M. Vollack, Hrsg.), Volume 1: The circle as a whole , Husum 1986, ISBN 3-88042-239-7 , pp. 431-434.
  39. Ludwig Wilhelm Brüggemann : Detailed description of the current state of the Royal Prussian Duchy of Western and Western Pomerania. Part II, Volume 1: Description of the districts belonging to the judicial district of the Royal State Colleges in Stettin. Stettin 1784, pp. LXXII – LXXIII, no. 7.