Calendar overview 1419
|Burgundian Duke Johann Ohnefurcht is murdered on the bridge of Montereau-Fault-Yonne .||Hussite Wars begin with the first lintel in Prague .|
|Portuguese are entering Madeira for the first time .|
|1419 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||867/868 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||4th rabbit - Nahui Tochtli (until the end of January / beginning of February: 3rd house - Jei Calli )|
|Buddhist calendar||1962/63 (southern Buddhism); 1961/62 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||68th (69th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||781/782 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||821/822 (turn of the year January 27/28)|
|Jewish calendar||5179/80 (September 20/21)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1729/30 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1730/31 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1475/76 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Hundred Years War
- January 19 : In the Hundred Years War with France , the English King Henry V takes the city of Rouen after a six-month siege . The Normandie is assumed the English crown.
- September 10th : The assassination of the Burgundian Duke Johann Ohnefurcht on the bridge of Montereau-Fault-Yonne with the knowledge of the Dauphin Karl undermines peace attempts in the French civil war of the Armagnacs and Bourguignons . Johann's son and successor Philip III. As the new Duke of Burgundy and leader of the Bourguignons seeks the alliance with England that his father has so far avoided.
- July 30th : The Hussite Wars begin with the first lintel in Prague : supporters of Jan Hus, who was executed at the stake as a heretic four years earlier at the Council of Constance, storm the New Town Hall on Karlsplatz in Prague to free fellow believers imprisoned there. They throw ten people out of the window, who are then killed with cutting weapons . The popular uprising was prepared by radical reform supporters with the preacher Jan Želivský at the head. The Bohemian King Wenceslas flees to Wenceslas Castle, which is besieged a little later by Prague citizens.
- August 16 : After the death of Wenceslas his half-brother Sigismund , since 1387 King of Hungary and Croatia and Roman German king since 1411 , also king of Bohemia . For the Hussites, this is considered the murderer of Jan Hus and is therefore unacceptable as a ruler.
- October 25 : Hussite troops capture the Prague district of Vyšehrad .
- November 13th : After heavy fighting between radical Hussites and Vinzenz von Wartenberg's mercenaries around the Lesser Town in Prague , peace is finally concluded after Wenceslas widow Sophie von Bayern promised to protect the Hussites everywhere in Bohemia.
- December: A royal Catholic unit suffers its first defeat near Pilsen against a small Hussite contingent.
- December: In the undecided battle of Nekmíř , the Hussites under Jan Žižka use the formation of wagon castles for the first time .
- The Portuguese sailors João Gonçalves Zarco and Tristão Vaz Teixeira discover the island of Madeira from Porto Santo and go ashore for the first time in the Bay of Machico . Bartolomeu Perestrelo , who later became father-in-law of Christopher Columbus , also took part in this trip . In the next few years, the island will be colonized on the orders of Heinrich the Navigator, making it the first island outside of Europe to be permanently colonized by Europeans.
- During the siege of Ceuta , the defending Portuguese triumphed against the Merinid besiegers, who received support from the Emirate of Granada . The ultimate loss of Ceuta creates a crisis in the Merinid Empire , while the Portuguese Algarve across the sea experiences consolidation.
Other events in Europe
- Jean I , Lord of Menton and Roquebrune , bought back the Monaco fortress , which his grandfather Charles I lost to the Genoese in 1357 , together with his brothers Ambroise and Antoine , from the owner Yolande d'Aragon . The three brothers rule together for the time being.
- On the occasion of his wedding to Marie of Aragon, King John II of Castile , whose mother Catherine of Lancaster died the previous year, is declared of legal age at the age of 14.
- Andorra receives its first parliament, the Consell de la Terra .
- A Wokou pirate fleet is sighted by a Chinese military commander in the Yellow Sea , captured and defeated in a great sea battle.
science and technology
- February 13th : In the Hanseatic city of Rostock , at the request of Dukes Johann IV and Albrecht V of Mecklenburg, the first university in the entire Baltic region is founded by means of a papal bull by Martin V. The opening ceremony is on November 12th under its Chancellor Bishop Heinrich III. von Wangelin , who also appoints the first rector, Petrus Stenbeke .
Culture and society
Date of birth saved
- January 14th : Johann I , Duke of Kleve († 1481 )
- March 7th : Mechthild von der Pfalz , Archduchess; outstanding personality of the German Middle Ages († 1482 )
- June 3 : Agostino Barbarigo , 74th Doge of Venice († 1501 )
- July 10 : Go-Hanazono , 102nd Tennō (Emperor) of Japan († 1470 )
- November 1st : Albrecht II , Duke of Braunschweig-Lüneburg and Prince of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen († 1485 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Adolf X. , Count of Holstein-Pinneberg († 1474 )
- Hinrich Castorp , German businessman and mayor of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck († 1488 )
- Juan Pacheco , Spanish Duke of Escalona († 1474 )
- Hans vom Staal , Swiss town clerk and envoy from Solothurn († 1499 )
- Johann Wessel , German humanist scholar († 1489 )
Born around 1419
First half of the year
- February 10 : Ulrich Ensinger , master builder of the South German Gothic (* 1350 )
- April 5 : Vinzenz Ferrer , Catalan Dominican preacher and Catholic saint (* 1350 )
- May 28 : Johannes von Wallenrode , knight in the Teutonic Order, Archbishop of Riga and Bishop of Liège (* around 1370 )
- June 10 : Giovanni Dominici , Italian Dominican, theologian, religious reformer, cardinal and archbishop of Dubrovnik (* around 1356 )
- June 11 : Rudolf III. , Duke of Saxony-Wittenberg and Elector of the Holy Roman Empire (* around 1373 )
Second half of the year
- July 2 : Eberhard IV. , Count of Württemberg (* 1388 )
- July 11th : Stella de 'Tolomei , mistress of Marquis Niccolò III. d'Este, Lord of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio nell'Emilia (* around 1386 )
- August: Arnold Stoltevoet , Bishop of Reval
- August 12 : Heinrich Grymhardt , German priest and official in Cologne
- August 16 : Wenzel , Roman-German King and, as Wenzel IV, King of Bohemia, Elector of Brandenburg (* 1361 )
- September 10 : Johann Ohnefurcht , Duke of Burgundy (* 1371 )
- September 11th : Albrecht von Wernigerode , Bishop of Halberstadt (* 1346 )
- September 23 : Johann II of Nassau , Archbishop of Mainz (* around 1360 )
- December 22nd : John XXIII. , Antipope 1410-1415 (* around 1370 )
- December 30th : Wenzel von Liegnitz , Duke of Liegnitz, Bishop of Lebus and Breslau (* 1348 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Edigü , Mongolian general, emir and de facto ruler of the Golden Horde
- Johan Maelwael , Flemish painter (* around 1365 )
- Sai Lue Thai , ruler of the Sukhothai Kingdom of Thailand