1951

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1951
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg are sentenced to death for betraying atomic secrets
Hossein Ala
The Iranian oil industry is nationalized under Prime Minister Hossein Ala
Signing of the San Francisco Peace Accords
Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida signs the San Francisco Peace Treaty
1951 in other calendars
From urbe condita 2704
Armenian calendar 1399-1400
Ethiopian calendar 1943-1944
Badi calendar 107-108
Bengali calendar 1357-1358
Berber calendar 2901
Buddhist calendar 2495
Burmese calendar 1313
Byzantine calendar 7459-7460
Chinese calendar
 - era 4647-4648 or
4587-4588
 - 60 year cycle

Metal tiger (庚寅, 27) -
metal bunny (辛卯, 28)

French
revolution calendar
CLIX - CLX
159-160
Hebrew calendar 5711-5712
Hindu calendar
 - Vikram Sambat 2007-2008
 - Shaka Samvat 1873-1874
Iranian calendar 1329-1330
Islamic calendar 1370-1371
Japanese calendar
 - Nengō (era): Shōwa 26
 - Kōki 2611
Coptic calendar 1667-1668
Korean calendar
 - Dangun era 4284
 - Juche era 40
Minguo calendar 40
Modern Olympics XIV
Seleucid calendar 2262-2263
Thai solar calendar 2494

The year 1951 was marked by the increasing hostilities between the Eastern Bloc and the Western world , which were reflected in the Korean War and the McCarthy era , especially the trial of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg .

overview

Korean War

After the North Korean and Chinese troops managed to take Seoul in the Korean War at the beginning of the year , the international coalition was able to recapture the city some time later. The war of movement, however, turned into a war of positions. In this situation, Commander-in-Chief Douglas MacArthur pleaded for an expansion of the war through the use of atomic bombs against the Chinese supply lines; However, US President Harry S. Truman rejected this with reference to the possible threat to world peace and had MacArthur replaced by Ridgway. Nevertheless, the United States tested its nuclear weapons in Nevada under tactical conditions. H. with the participation of infantry troops.

Federal Republic of Germany

In the meantime, the Adenauer government in the Federal Republic of Germany gradually emancipated from the Western occupation regime. The young Federal Republic was granted further characteristics of state sovereignty - the Federal Constitutional Court began its work, as did the new Foreign Ministry under the leadership of Adenauer himself; The merchant navy was now also allowed to fly the German flag - but at the same time the commitment to the Western allies was affirmed and the possibility of an own defense contribution against possible aggression from the east was explored, against the resistance of the SPD, which under Kurt Schumacher consistently opposed a Pronounced remilitarization. While the Americans initially continued denazification by executing some high-ranking SS officers , the growing independence of the German judiciary meant that Nazi perpetrators were increasingly able to benefit from amnesties. By January 31, 1951, 792,176 people had been granted an amnesty.

GDR

The amnesty of the National Socialists by the Federal Government was also a topic of the East German propaganda, which at the same time achieved respectable success through mass events such as the World Youth Festival . Border and air incidents, the deportation of unwelcome critics from West Berlin to the East, as well as show trials that also killed young people, cast shadows on the rhetoric of the communist government in East Berlin. Their demand for free elections in Germany as a whole had no consequences in view of the ideological differences between East and West. Processes similar to those in the GDR were also taking place in other bloc states in the east, such as the show trials of Jihlava in Czechoslovakia against representatives of the Church.

United States

In the USA, too, during the so-called McCarthy era , developments in Korea and Europe resulted in increasingly harsh Cold War rhetoric, which was directed against artists and other intellectuals with leftist sympathies and which was particularly spectacular in the trial of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg showed in which the judge accused the couple of betraying nuclear secrecy to the Soviet Union, which is why the two were also directly responsible for the Korean War; the death penalty was accordingly imposed on them.

Greece and Turkey

The admission of Greece and Turkey to NATO was intended to counter Soviet influence in the Balkans and the Middle East.

UK and Middle East

Great Britain had to deal primarily with independence efforts from the Egyptian and Iranian side. The Egyptian government under Prime Minister Mustafa an-Nahhas Pascha and King Faruq had unilaterally terminated the alliance treaty of 1936, which in particular endangered British sovereignty over the Suez Canal and thus Britain's free access to its remaining Asian colonies. Meanwhile, in Iran, Prime Minister Hossein Ala relied on the nationalization of the oil industry, which until then had been in British hands. The Labor government of Clement Attlee did not always act happily in these conflicts and was subsequently voted out in favor of the Conservative World War I Prime Minister Winston Churchill .

Japan

The San Francisco Peace Treaty returned full sovereignty to Japan, thereby ending the period of American occupation .

events

Politics and world events

Berlin-Tempelhof Airlift Memorial

1951 saw the first amnesties for people who had been convicted of their involvement with National Socialism. B. for the armaments magnate Krupp .

business

science and technology

Culture

religion

Sports

August 5th: Youth sports show after the opening
First Mediterranean Games

Disasters

  • January 21: The eruption of the volcano Lamington on the island of New Guinea die almost 3,000 people.
  • In August, over 200 residents of the French community of Pont-Saint-Esprit were poisoned, 7 of whom died, from ergot that was processed into flour by a local bakery.
  • At the end of November there is a devastating flood disaster in northern Italy when the Po overflows its banks.

Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Disaster .

Born

January

Phil Collins , 2007

February

Gordon Brown (2008)

March

April

May

June

July

Fred Schneider, 2007
Elio Di Rupo , 2012

August

September

Mark Harmon , 2006
Paul Breitner (front)

October

Sting , 2009
Bob Geldof , 2009
Franz-Josef Sehr, 2016

November

Thomas Roth

December

Day unknown

Died

January

Ferdinand Porsche († January 30)

February

André Gide († February 19)
Alfred Hugenberg († March 12)

March

April

Arthur H. Vandenberg

May

June

  • 0June 2: Émile Chartier , French philosopher, writer and journalist (* 1868)
  • 0June 4: Sergei Kussewizki , Russian-American conductor and double bass player (* 1874)
  • 0June 7th: Werner Braune , SS-Standartenführer, head of the Gestapo in Wesermünde (* 1909)
  • 0June 7: Paul Blobel , architect, SS-Standartenführer (* 1894)
  • 0June 7th: Erich Naumann , Head of Task Force B, Head of Office III SD Main Office (* 1905)
  • 0June 7th: Otto Ohlendorf , SS general, head of the Reich Main Security Office (RSHA) (* 1907)
  • 0June 7th: Oswald Pohl , member of the SS who was significantly involved in the implementation of the Holocaust (* 1892)
  • 0June 9: Carl Fuchs , English cellist (* 1865)
  • June 10: Jean-Jacques Waltz , Alsatian graphic artist and local researcher (* 1873)
  • June 12: Anna Feldhusen , German painter and etcher (* 1867)
  • June 12: Marcel Tournier , French harpist and composer (* 1879)
  • June 13: Maurice Benoist , French racing car driver (* 1892)
  • June 13: Ben Chifley , Australian politician and Prime Minister (* 1885)
  • June 19: Albert Bertelin , French composer (* 1872)
  • June 21: Charles Dillon Perrine , American astronomer (* 1867)
  • June 23: Victor Johnson , British cyclist, Olympic and world champion (* 1883)
  • June 23: Armin Knab , German composer (* 1881)
  • June 26: Frank Ferera , Hawaiian musician (* 1885)
  • June 26: George Udny Yule , Scottish statistician (* 1871)
  • June 28: Fumiko Hayashi , Japanese writer (* 1903)

July

Ferdinand Sauerbruch († July 2)
Arnold Schönberg († July 13)
Philippe Pétain, around 1930

August

September

October

  • 0October 1: Karel Teige , Czech artist, art theorist, critic, publicist and translator (* 1900)
  • 0October 1st: Otto Wurzburg , composer of chess problems (* 1875)
  • 0October 2: Hermann Pistor , German optician and physicist (* 1875)
  • 0October 4: Henrietta Lacks , donor of a tissue sample from which the HeLa cells were developed (* 1920)
Otto Meyerhof, 1923

November

December

Day unknown

Nobel Prizes

Web links

Commons : 1951 (Category)  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Commons : 1951  - album containing pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ In the Landsberg War Crimes Prison , under US orders from 1946 to 1958, the last seven of a total of 308 war criminals sentenced to death were hanged on June 7, 1951 :
  2. ^ Spiegel.de February 21, 2006: Amnesia and Amnesty