Black-red-yellow coalition

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Election poster for the Weimar coalition (1924)

As a black-red-yellow coalition or Germany coalition in is Germany a coalition government from a conservative or Christian democratic (with the recognition color black), a social democratic or socialist (recognition red), and a liberal party (recognition color yellow), respectively.

The first coalition of this kind was the Weimar coalition of the Center Party (black), SPD (red) and DDP (yellow) formed in the Weimar National Assembly in 1919 . It later existed several times in the Reichstag and in some countries , including Prussia (Cabinets Braun I and Braun III ).

In today's Federal Republic of Germany, a coalition of CDU / CSU , SPD and FDP is known as a black-red-yellow coalition. So far, it has only existed at the state and municipal level.

State level


In the first election after the Second World War , the SPD narrowly missed an absolute majority with 48.7 percent of the votes cast. Due to the tense political situation against the background of the looming Cold War , the SPD formed a coalition with the CDU and LDP, so that the SED represented the opposition in the city council. First mayor was Otto Ostrowski (SPD), who was replaced by his party colleague Ernst Reuter in 1947 .

Against the background of the crisis in the city (especially against the background of the Berlin blockade ), this coalition was continued at West Berlin level even after the elections of 1948 and 1950 . Ernst Reuter headed this coalition as Lord Mayor, or from 1951 as Governing Mayor. Since the SPD represented the strongest force in the city parliament at this time, it is correct to speak of a "red-black-yellow coalition" in this case. After Reuter's death on September 29, 1953, the coalition broke up. The CDU and FDP, which alone had 66 seats in the House of Representatives, formed a black-yellow coalition, the SPD went into the opposition with 61 seats. Walther Schreiber (CDU) became the new governing mayor and remained so until the Berlin election in 1954 .


After the mayor elections in Bremen in 1951 , the mayor of Bremen, Wilhelm Kaisen (SPD), formed a coalition of the SPD, FDP and CDU ( Senate Kaisen IV ). This was continued after the 1955 election despite an absolute majority in the SPD ( Senate Kaisen V ). After the state elections in 1959 , the SPD was able to expand its absolute majority, but the SPD continued to work with the FDP within the framework of a social-liberal coalition ( Senate Kaisen VI ), and the CDU had to go into opposition.


After the state elections in Saarland in 1955 , the parties of the so-called Heimatbund (CDU, SPD and FDP / DPS) formed a joint state government under Hubert Ney (CDU) ( Ney cabinet ). After Ney's resignation in 1957, the coalition was continued under the leadership of Egon Reinert (CDU) until 1959 ( Reinert I cabinet ). Then Reinert formed a government of his CDU with the SPD and the CVP .

Local level

A German coalition has ruled Bremerhaven since 2019 . In Saarbrücken's Mitte district, the CDU and SPD have been cooperating with the FDP since 2019.

Individual evidence

  1. "This time we won't vote for you" , Frankfurter Allgemeine, February 12, 2016 (accessed: February 12, 2016)
  2. Red-Black plus FDP: Bremerhaven's "Germany Coalition" is in place , Buten and within August 16, 2019
  3. Greens for cooperation with the SPD in the Saarbrücken-Mitte district council , Saarnews from June 30, 2019

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