Asunción on the map of Paraguay
|City foundation||August 15, 1537|
|Population density||4411.1 inhabitants / km 2|
|Time zone||UTC −4|
|City Presidency||Mario Ferreiro|
Asunción [ asunˈθi̯ɔn , Latin America. asunˈsi̯ɔn ] is the capital and with around 525,000 inhabitants (as of 2016), it is also the largest city in the state of Paraguay in South America . Her name ( Spanish for Ascension, Ascension ) stands for Assumption , her full name is La Muy Noble y Leal Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa Maria de la Asunción . The Asunción metropolitan area has around 1.9 million inhabitants. Its name in the local language Guaraní is Paraguaŷ (not to be confused with Paraguái, the country name in Guaraní).
Asunción is located on the left bank of the Río Paraguay , on the bay ( bahía ) Asunción. In the northeast it borders on Mariano Roque Alonso , in the east on Luque , in the southeast on Fernando de la Mora and in the south on Lambaré and Villa Elisa .
The highest point is the Cerro Lambaré in the Santa Ana district on the border with the neighboring town of Lambaré. The Cerro Lambaré was awarded to Asunción in 1965. Lambaré tried in the years 2008-2009 to restore the old border line, but failed because of resistance from the Senate.
Further elevations are hills ( lomas or colinas ) . These are fully integrated into the urban planning. The most important - seven in number, located in the city center - are:
- Loma Cabará : this is where Asunción was founded
- Loma San Gerónimo
- Loma Clavel : today's headquarters of the marine infantry
- Loma Cachinga
- Loma del Mangrullo : today's Parque Carlos Antonio López
- Loma de la Encarnación
- Loma de las piedras de Santa Catalina : today Escalinata Antequera.
Today one also counts the Lomas Tarumá and Tacumbú, the seat of the penal institution .
Asunción is crossed by many small streams that flow into the Paraguay River . Most of these streams have their source in the urban area of Asunción and served as a drinking water supply in earlier centuries. Nowadays they are mostly perverted . In heavy rain, they can turn into raging waters and then flood adjacent streets and properties. The most important of these streams are called Mburicaó, Cará Cará, Jaén, Mburicá, Salamanca, Zanja Morotí, San Vicente and Leandro. Runoff water accumulates in lagoons near the river . Since these are practically "standing water", they represent a relevant health risk.
Aedes Aegypti mosquito breeding grounds
In the standing waters there are breeding grounds for the dengue- transmitting mosquitoes Aedes Aegypti . The lack of a rainwater sewer system to discharge the precipitation and the customary illegal disposal of waste on uninhabited properties aggravate the situation. Due to the relatively high population density , this led to a dengue epidemic in January 2007 with over 10,000 sick people in Asunción alone. The state of emergency was declared . The worst dengue epidemic in the country broke out in 2013, with over 150,000 infected people and 262 deaths, particularly in the capital.
Infection rates can vary greatly from one neighborhood (barrio) to another, depending on local conditions. The districts with the highest infection rates in January 2018 were: Ycuá Satí 12.5%, Manorá 11%, Ricardo Brugada 10.7%, Bella Vista 10%, Zeballos Cué 9%, Tucumbú 9%, San Blas 7.8%, Herrera 7.8%, Loma Pytá 6.5%, Mburucuyá 6%, Obrero 3.9%.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Asunción
Overview / specialty
Asunción is divided into districts (distritos) and districts (barrios). The division according to Distritos dates from the middle of the 19th century and is based on the division of the city into Catholic dioceses . The division according to distritos therefore only includes today's inner city and does not extend over newer barrios.
Asunción is a city that grows from the inside out. Every year new districts emerge, which meanwhile completely fill the areas between the actual city of Asunción and the surrounding cities of Mariano Roque Alonso , Luque , Fernando de la Mora , Ñemby and Lambaré (also called “Gran Asuncíón”). The barrios are often built on the basis of “ urbanizaciones ”, residential areas developed by real estate agents in as yet unnamed districts. In newer barrios, the name of the urbanización and the actual name of the barrios coincide. In many cases, the name of the urbanización is more popular than the official name of the barrios.
- La Encarnación
- San Roque
- Zeballos Cué
Asunción currently has 70 barrios. The most populated barrios are Roberto L. Petit, San Pablo and Obrero. ( Status: 2002 )
The Fort Asunción was founded on August 15, 1537 by Juan de Salazar y Espinosa de los Monteros (also: de Espinoza ) at the behest of Pedro de Mendoza . On September 16, 1541, the city status was recognized.
Asunción is one of the oldest Spanish cities in South America . The place was probably first visited by Juan de Ayolas . The founding name is La muy noble y leal ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María de la Asunción ("The very venerable and ( Spain -) loyal city of Our Blessed Virgin Mary of the Assumption", meaning the Assumption ). This name is the official name of Asunción to this day.
Asunción is known as "Madre de Ciudades" ("City Mother"). This is due to the fact that in the 16th and 17th centuries, starting from Asunción, a number of expeditions and city foundations were carried out. An example is the second founding of today's Argentine capital Buenos Aires .
In 1731 there was the first uprising under Spanish colonial rule under the leadership of the Uruguayan José de Antequera y Castro . This is known as the "Revolución de los comuneros". (Not to be confused with the Spanish comuneros revolt of the same name ).
Paraguay gained its independence from the Spanish crown on May 15, 1811. Shortly afterwards, during the dictatorship of José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francias , the original city center was razed to the ground. The new building was laid out in the typical colonial checkerboard pattern .
During the Triple Alliance War (1865-1870) Asunción was occupied by Brazil . The occupation lasted until 1876. Trade, which had experienced a significant boom since shipping was opened on the Paraguay River in 1858, was severely disrupted by the war unrest.
At the end of the 19th century, Asunción was increasingly populated by European emigrants (mainly Spaniards, Italians and Germans ). At the beginning of the 20th century, it registered a second wave of immigration from the Middle East (particularly Turkey , Syria and Lebanon ).
In 1927, a hurricane killed 300 people.
The Ycua Bolaños Group shopping center fell victim to the fire on August 1, 2004 . 396 people were killed and over 500 injured.
The heart of Asunción city center is the Plaza de los Héroes with the street (calle) Independencia. It runs from north to south and "divides" the streets with east-west course into two sections with different names. The streets in the city center are designed as one-way streets with alternating directions.
Calle Palma / Mariscal Estigarribia, Estrella / 25 de Mayo and Oliva / Cerro Corá run from east to west. Most of the shops, souvenir shops, banks and exchange offices have been located here for over 100 years. Calle Palma is a very busy pedestrian zone on Saturdays, and free concerts are often held here.
- Panteón de los Héroes and Oratorio de la Virgen de la Asunción (Palma and Chile): built in 1863 in honor of the patron saint Virgen de la Asunción, who has the rank of “ Marshal of the Army”. The building was completed in 1936. Since then, the remains of Paraguayan war heroes have been laid out here, including those of the builder Mariscal Francisco Solano López , who is known as the “Héroe Máximo” (highest hero). The design comes from the Italian architect Ravizza based on the model of the Invalides in Paris.
- Estación Central del Ferrocarril (Eligio Ayala at the corner of Mexico): The main train station was inaugurated in 1861 under the government of Carlos Antonio López. You can see the steam locomotive "Sapucai" ( guaraní for scream ), which is very well preserved. This includes a small museum.
- Catedral Metropolitana (Independencia Nacional corner Coronel Bogado): The foundation stone was laid in the 17th century. The very simple structure was added in the 19th century. The remarkable altar is witness to both the Franciscans and the Jesuits who Christianized the country at different times. The cathedral is the episcopal church of the Archdiocese of Asunción , which is located in the city.
- Palacio de Gobierno (El Paraguayo Independiente between Ayolas and O'Leary): The current government palace was built by Francisco Solano López as a residence, hence its other name, Palacio de los López . Mainly the design comes from Alonso Taylor. The U-shaped building contains countless decorative style elements . The model was the greatly reduced Louvre in Paris .
- Cabildo (Avenida República y Alberdi): the building designed as a town hall was built at the beginning of the 19th century. Today the cultural center of the republic is located here (Centro Cultural de la República) .
- Casa de la Independencia (14 de Mayo and Presidente Franco): one of the oldest buildings in Asunción. From here the uprising against the Spanish crown started on May 14th, 1811. The house was the home of the Martínez Sáenz family and the meeting point of the underground movement against the Spanish regime. Since the restoration in 1961, the Casa de la Independencia has housed evidence of the independence revolt.
- Casa Viola and Casa Castelví (Ayolas corner Paraguayo Independiente): named after their first owners, are possibly the oldest surviving buildings in Asunción and were built towards the end of the 18th century. Today the Casa Viola houses the cultural center " Manzana de la Rivera ", where readings, theater and concerts take place. The city library is also at home here.
- Iglesia de la Encarnación (Haedo between Alberdi and 14 de Mayo): this church is hidden in the middle of one of the busiest streets in Asunción. The original church that stands on Colina Cabará was rebuilt after a fire in 1863.
- Iglesia de la Trinidad (Santísimo Sacramento corner Santísima Trinidad): built under the former President Carlos Antonio López, this church was part of his summer retreat. López is buried here.
- Jardín Botánico (Artigas corner Primer Presidente): the botanical garden was also part of President López's summer retreat. There are three museums here: the Museum of Natural History , the Museum of Indigenous People and the Museum of History . The paleontological, archaeological and ethnographic collections are also located here. The zoological garden is also located here. The Jardín Botánico borders the Paraguay River. The historic steam locomotive stops here on its route to Areguá to Lake Ypacaraí.
- Parque Caballero : (Sebastián Gaboto and Gervasio Artigas) a quiet green oasis. Here is the home of General Bernadino Caballero , a war hero of the Triple Alliance conflict. On the edge of the park, towards the river bank, you can get an impression of how the people in the Ricardo Brugada district, also known as Chacarita, live. This is a favela-like poor district. The Chacarita is constantly threatened by flooding by the Paraguay, this characterizes the appearance of the district, which mainly consists of makeshift housing.
- Cerro Lambaré : Asunción's highest point is on the city limits between Asunción and Lambaré, 12 kilometers as the crow flies from the city center. From here you have a sweeping view of the city. There is a stele at the top of the Cerro Lambarés. The Cacique Lambaré and President Alfredo Stroessner were immortalized larger than life around this stele . In 1989, with Stroessner's fall, his statue was also removed. The Cerro Lambaré is easy to hike, but only via the access road.
- Defensores del Chaco Stadium : the largest stadium in Paraguay, owned by the Asociación Paraguaya de Fútbol . With space for 36,000 people and the special feature that there is no standing room. Built in 1917, it is located in the Barrio Sajonia , outside the city center.
- Estadio Roberto Bettega in Barrio Jara (2002)
The city has advocated the construction of shopping centers in the past. These emerged almost exclusively on the arterial roads, which, due to the chronic traffic problems in the city center, which is located in the river bend, has led to a partial relocation of the retail trade. Due to the price gap caused by the extremely high import tariffs in Brazil, Asunción, Ciudad del Este and Pedro Juan Caballero are popular shopping destinations with Brazilian tourists. However, as a result of the reduction in allowances and stricter controls by Brazilian customs, shopping tourism is on the decline.
- Mall Excelsior
- Shopping Mariscal López
- Shopping Multiplaza
- Shopping del Sol
- Shopping Villa Morra
Asunción has a literacy rate of 95% (as of 2002). The city has the country's strongest infrastructure of schools and further education institutes.
There are several universities including the public ones:
- Universidad Nacional de Asunción , whose campus partly in the neighboring town of San Lorenzo is located
- Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes (School of Fine Arts)
and private ones, such as:
- Universidad Católica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción
- Universidad Autónoma de Asunción
- Universidad del Norte
A German-Paraguayan university has also been in operation since 2014:
- Universidad Paraguayo Alemana (UPA)
Asunción has several hospitals and clinics. The state hospitals have a somewhat simpler infrastructure than the private hospitals, which often have churches as providers. In the individual districts there are Centros de Salud for first aid.
- Hospital General de Barrio Obrero
- Hospital Militar
- Hospital de Clínicas (National University of Asunción Training Hospital)
- Hospital Nacional
- Instituto de Previsión Social (IPS - National Health Insurance Hospital)
- Policlinico Policial (Police Hospital)
- Instituto de Medicina Tropical (Tropical Institute)
- Hospital del Cáncer y del Quemado (Hospital for Cancer Diseases and Burn Medicine)
- Maternidad Nacional (National Maternity Ward)
- Hospital Neurosiquiatrico (Neuropsychiatric Clinics)
- Sanatorio Español
- Centro Médico Bautista
- Santa Clara SA
- Sanatorio AMSA
- Instituto Privado del Niño
- Hospital Universitario Nuestra Señora de la Asunción
- Sanatorio Italiano - Sociedad Italiana Socorros Mutuos
- Hospital privado San Lúcas
- Sanatorio Migone Battilana
- Sanatorio Santa Bárbara
- Clínica del Sol
- Sanatorio Adventista
- Sanatorio Americano
- Sanatorio Médicis de San Roque SA
- Sanatorio Prof. Eustacio Rojas del Puerto
- Sanatorio San Marcos
- Sanatorio San Martín
- Sanatorio San Roque SRL
Asunción has three municipal cemeteries and a number of private resting places. Since the burial in panteones ( family tombs ) takes place above ground, the cemeteries are architecturally worth seeing.
- Cementerio de la Recoleta
- Cementerio del Sur
- Cementerio del Este
The prisons are located in Asunción in the middle of urban development. The women's penal institution "Del Buen Pastor" is located on one of the main arteries of Asunción, the Avenida Mariscal López, in the immediate vicinity of the Recoleta cemetery. The outside of the building is quite inconspicuous.
The prison "Tacumbú" is located in a former suburb of Asunción. Today, however, the area is completely populated.
Economy and Transport
Around 90% of Paraguay's entire industry is located in Asunción. The Ministry of Industry and Commerce estimates a total of 5,000 industrial trades in Paraguay, of which around 3,500 are not registered. Most of the industry is made up of manufacturers with fewer than 50 employees.
The main branches are:
- Food industry: processing of dairy products , fruit products , meat products
- Leather factory
- Pharmaceuticals and cosmetics
- Oil refineries
- Soft drinks
- Beer and schnapps
- Service industry
Another big employer is the state. All ministries are based in the Paraguayan capital Asunción.
The third factor is trade. Paraguay is a transshipment point for all kinds of products from the surrounding countries. The spectrum ranges from electrical appliances to automobiles. Smuggling is (still) a minor offense on the part of the population, but has been prosecuted and sanctioned by the authorities for several years.
The main banks in the country are headquartered in Asunción, including:
- Banco Nacional de Fomento
- Banco Nacional
In a ranking of cities according to their quality of life, Asunción ranked 115th out of 231 cities worldwide in 2018. In comparison with other Latin American capitals, it was behind Montevideo (77th place), Buenos Aires (91st place), Santiago de Chile (92nd place), Brasília (108th place) but still ahead of Lima (124th place), Mexico City (129th place ) and Caracas (19th place).
From the district of Itá Enramada, passenger and car ferries run to the Argentine banks of the Paraguay River to the Puerto Pilcomayo pier.
Furthermore, the capital of Paraguay has an international airport (Aeropuerto Internacional Silvio Pettirossi) in the border area to the city of Luque (5 km from Asunción).
The airline LATAM Brasil regularly connects Asunción with the metropolises of South America. The airport is also served by the airlines Gol , Aerolíneas Argentinas , Avianca Perú , Alas Uruguay , Amaszonas and Copa Airlines (as of August 2016). The only direct flight connection to another continent is operated by Air Europa , which connects Asunción with Madrid two to four times a week (as of August 2016).
Asunción has a very dense bus network. The buses, which are mostly in poor technical condition, run without a timetable, there is no route network plan. A metro bus system with five lines is currently being built. It should work more reliably and faster. The role model here is u. a. the bus rapid transit system of Bogotá / Colombia.
From the central bus station there are long-distance connections to the neighboring countries Argentina ( Clorinda , Posadas , Corrientes , Buenos Aires ), Brazil ( Foz do Iguaçu , Curitiba , Rio de Janeiro , São Paulo ), Bolivia ( Santa Cruz de la Sierra ), Chile ( Santiago de Chile ) and Uruguay ( Montevideo ). Intercity buses to Filadelfia, Mariscal Estigarribia, Loma Plata, Encarnación, Ciudad del Este, Villarrica, Caaguazú, Hernandarias and Presidente Franco also start here.
Car rental is available from international (CarConcept, Alamo, Avis, Hertz, National, Europcar) and local providers.
There are numerous taxis.
A rail link ran from Asunción's Botanical Garden station to Aregua . Tourist trains hauled by steam locomotives occasionally ran here.
The following toll roads (Rutas) start from Asunción inland:
- Ruta 1 Mariscal López (373 km): Asunción - Encarnación
- Ruta 2 Mariscal Estigarribia (135 km): Asunción - Coronel Oviedo
The Ruta 1 and Ruta 2 run together to the neighboring town of San Lorenzo.
- Route 3 General Elizardo Aquino (475 km): Asunción - Yby Yaú
- Route 9 Presidente Carlos Antonio López "Transchaco" (821 km): Asunción - Mariscal Estigarribia
Like the main roads in Asunción, these roads are usually paved, although they are often in poor condition. The passability is heavily dependent on the weather in some sections (flooding after rainfall). Side streets are mostly paved or constructed as earth roads. In 2013, the “Avenida Costanera” was completed, which, together with the Ňu Guazu motorway, which is still under construction, forms a ring around the city in order to improve access to the center.
The largest newspapers are: Diario ABC Color , Diario Popular , Diario La Nación , Diario Última Hora and Diario Crónica in Spanish.
National television channels
The national television channels are: SNT Cerro Corá , Red Guaraní , Telefuturo , Paravisión , Canal 13 , La Tele and TV Pública (Paraguay) .
sons and daughters of the town
- Hernando Arias de Saavedra (1561–1634), first Criollo governor of a European colony on the American continent
- José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia (1766–1840), dictator of Paraguay (1814–40)
- Silvio Pettirossi (1887–1916), pilot and aviation pioneer
- Manuel Fleitas Solich (1900–1984), football player and coach
- José Asunción Flores (1904–1972), composer
- Augusto Roa Bastos (1917-2005), writer
- Jorge Adolfo Carlos Livieres Banks (1929–2018), Catholic clergyman, Bishop of Encarnación
- Ángel Berni (1931–2017), football player
- Cayetano Ré (1938–2013), football player and coach
- Juan Carlos Wasmosy (* 1938), President of Paraguay (1993–98)
- Raúl Cubas Grau (* 1943), President of Paraguay (1998–99)
- Carlos Schvartzman (* 1947), jazz guitarist and composer
- Luis Ángel González Macchi (* 1947), President of Paraguay (1999–2003)
- Adalberto Martínez Flores (* 1951), Roman Catholic clergyman, Bishop of Villarrica del Espíritu Santo
- Ricardo Jorge Valenzuela Ríos (* 1954), Roman Catholic clergyman, Bishop of Caacupé
- Víctor Pecci (born 1955), tennis player
- Kiko Pedrozo (* 1955), harpist
- Osvaldo Pangrazio (born 1957), football player
- Federico Franco (* 1962), politician, doctor and former president
- Carlos Franco (* 1965), professional golfer
- Francisco Javier Pistilli Scorzara (* 1965), Bishop of Encarnación
- Gabriel Narciso Escobar Ayala SDB (* 1971), Vicar Apostolic of Chaco Paraguayo
- Mario Abdo Benítez (* 1971), politician and President of Paraguay since 2018
- Carlos Humberto Paredes (* 1976), football player
- Estefania Küster (* 1979), model
- Roque Santa Cruz (born 1981), football player
- Leryn Franco (* 1982), athlete and model
- Tomás Guzmán (* 1982), football player
- Marizza Faría (* 1983), handball player
- Julio dos Santos (born 1983), football player
- Víctor Cáceres (born 1985), football player
- Carlos Javier Acuña Caballero (* 1988), football player
- David Clay Diaz (* 1989), film director and screenwriter
- Mosè Giacomo Bertoni (born June 15, 1857 in Lottigna , † September 19, 1929 in Foz do Iguaçu ), anarchist , botanist, founded the National Agricultural School in Asunción
- Buenos Aires , Argentina
- Resistencia (Chaco) Argentina
- São Paulo ( São Paulo ) , Brazil
- Campinas ( São Paulo ) , Brazil
- Curitiba ( Paraná ) , Brazil
- Madrid , Spain
- Miami-Dade County , ( Fla. ) , USA
- Chiba ( Chiba Prefecture ) , Japan
- Taipei , Taiwan
- Lisbon , Portugal
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