Assumption of the Virgin Mary
Assumption of the Virgin Mary ( Latin Assumptio Beatae Mariae Virginis , Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary ), also Assumption of the Virgin Mary or Latin Dormition , Dormition , is the feast of the physical Assumption of Mary into Heaven on August 15 , which is held by several Christian denominations is celebrated and is also a public holiday in some states . It has been celebrated since at least the 5th century. Other names are "Consummation of Mary" or "Passage of Mary". At the center of the festival is the belief that Mary, the mother of Jesus , takes part in the resurrection form of Christ as the "first redeemed" because of her unique connection with the act of redemption of Jesus Christ , and that with her the future of the whole person with body and soul in an eternal life with God already promised by God is anticipated.
In the Eastern Churches the festival is called “Solemnity of the Dormition of the All Holy Theotokos”, in the Syrian Orthodox Church it is also called “Dormition of Our Most Holy Master, the Theotokos”. The Eastern Churches celebrate the feast on August 15th of the Greek Orthodox and Gregorian calendars or, like the Russian Orthodox Church and the so-called Altkalendarier , on August 15th of the Julian calendar (which in the 21st century was August 28th of the Gregorian calendar is equivalent to). The Armenian Apostolic Church celebrates it on the Sunday closest to August 15th. In the general calendar of the Roman Catholic Church it has the status of a solemn festival .
The feast of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary was introduced in the 5th century by Bishop Cyril of Alexandria . In the course of Christianization, he put it on August 15, the important Roman festival feriae Augusti , the holidays of Augustus : In the middle of August, the Roman emperor Augustus celebrated his victories over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at Actium and Alexandria with a three-day triumph . The anniversaries, and later only August 15, were from then on public holidays throughout the Roman Empire .
The New Testament reports nothing of a bodily acceptance of Mary into heaven. Some scriptures are interpreted as references to this (compare e.g. Rev 12 : 1 EU and the Coronation of Mary ). Belief in the bodily acceptance of Mary into heaven has been attested since the 6th century and was established in 1950 by Pope Pius XII. proclaimed as dogma in the apostolic constitution Munificentissimus Deus . The invocation “Queen, taken into heaven” has been inserted into the Lauretanian litany . That of Pope Pius XII. The feast of Mary Queen , introduced in 1954, was moved to August 22nd, the octave day of the Feast of the Assumption of Mary , in 1969 .
The Apocryphal Gospels contain detailed accounts of Mary's dormition: the apostles were raptured from their places of mission through the air to Mary's deathbed; different traditions call Jerusalem or Ephesus . They would have buried Mary after her death - the funeral procession with punitive and healing miracles to Jewish spectators is also described - and the grave was closed with a large stone; but immediately Christ appeared with the angels, rolled away the stone and Christ called out Mary. This writing, which can probably be traced back to the lost writing Transitus Mariae (“Transition of Mary”, written around 400), became particularly important for the liturgical texts of the Byzantine churches .
Even if the expression “Assumption of Mary” is used colloquially in German, the festive secret of the Assumption of Mary into heaven is to be distinguished from that of the Ascension of Christ . In many languages two different terms are used, for example in Latin: Ascensio Domini , "Ascension of the Lord", and Assumptio Mariae , "Admission of Mary". The Romance languages derive their fixed designation from this. However, the Greeks who do not speak of “Assumption of Mary” (see below) use the term ἡ Ἀνάληψις τοῦ Κυρίου for “Ascension of Christ” , which means Assumptio Domini in Latin .
The festival also bears the previously attested name Dormitio Mariae (Latin), Koimesis (Greek) or “Dormition of the Virgin”. In the Orthodox Church, which has never dogmatized the bodily acceptance of Mary into heaven, this term is used exclusively. On the festival icon, Christ receives the soul of Mary (depicted as a baby). In the contact of the festival it says: "The indefatigable in intercessions the Theotokos [...] did not overcome grave and death, because as the mother of life he brought her over to life."
With the after-celebration of this festival, the church year ends in the Eastern Churches, which begins on September 1st with the pre-celebration of the birth of the Theotokos (September 8th).
The day has the liturgical status of a solemn festival , which takes precedence over a Sunday , so that the liturgical texts of the Marian festival are used at Holy Mass and in the prayer of the hours if the festival falls on a Sunday (as in 2021). In old calendars the festival can be found as Requies Mariae, Pausatio Mariae, our frawn day of divorce , our vrowen day of divorce, our woman's day of divorce, us women's day of divorce, our dear frawn day of divorce, our dear women day Divorce, holy day of divorce through Gots dear vnd the junckfrawen Maria, or in transcriptions as our women's day of divorce or our dear women's day of divorce . In Bavaria it is called the “big women's day” (in contrast to the “little women's day” on September 8th, the feast of the birth of the Virgin Mary).
On this day, herbs are also widely blessed in the Catholic Church ("consecration of herb bushes"), regionally also called Würzbüschel , Weihbüschel, Marienwisch, Würzwisch, Würzbürde or Sangen. Already in documents from the 14th century it says "Our Lady Root consecration". On the Assumption of Mary, the woman in her thirties, which is considered particularly suitable for collecting medicinal plants, begins .
Especially in southern Germany and in Tyrol, solemn pontifical offices with subsequent processions take place in the evenings . One of the most important is the Fatima ship procession in Lindau on Lake Constance with seven ships and around 4,000 visitors. By far the largest pontifical mass with a light procession is celebrated in the Bavarian-Swabian pilgrimage site of Maria Vesperbild . In the summer of 2009 alone, 18,000 believers came.
Since 1640 pilgrimages have been taking place for the miraculous images in St. Marien and St. Laurentius in Warendorf in the Münsterland . The festival is celebrated on the weekend after the festival with a large city procession. In the East Westphalian town of Ostenland near Delbrück, the Feast of the Assumption of Mary has been celebrated with a large procession of lights on the following Sunday since 2010.
In the Orthodox churches, before the feast of the Dormition of Mary, the two-week Marian fast takes place, in which meat, fish, dairy products and, as a rule, wine and oil are to be avoided. On the festival day it is customary in some places to pick a bouquet of flowers when going to church for Vespers and to decorate the festival icon with them.
Armenian Apostolic Church
In the Armenian Apostolic Church , the grape harvest is blessed immediately after the festival, which takes place on Sunday between August 12th and 18th. Only then do you start processing the grapes. The origin of the blessing lies in the worship of the ancient Armenian mother goddess Anahit, who developed from the Iranian Anahita . For the Urartian kings in the 1st millennium BC As a sign of their abundance of power, it was imperative that they found a vineyard when they took office. For the following Armenians, viticulture developed into a symbol of national identity, which is why it was linked to a Christian tradition.
At the Mainz Synod of 813 , under the direction of Archbishop Richulf, the feast of the Assumption of Mary was added to the Roman general calendar despite a previous standardization of the holidays . Assumption Day is a public holiday in Austria ( Rest of Work Act ), the state holiday in Liechtenstein (Labor Act Art. 18 Para. 2), a public holiday in eight cantons of Switzerland (according to Art. 20a Para. 1 ArG ) and in seven other cantons one, at least in some communities, non-working day , in two countries, Germany is at least partially a public holiday; in Saarland according to § 2 SFG and in Bavaria according to Article 1 Paragraph 1 of the Law on the Protection of Sundays and Holidays (FTG) in communities with a “predominantly Catholic population”. According to Art. 1 Para. 3 FTG, “predominantly” is not defined by the absolute or relative majority of the population, but only by comparing the number of members of the Roman Catholic and Evangelical Lutheran Church in the respective community. Therefore, the day is a public holiday in Munich, for example, although the Catholic population in Munich is just under a third. According to the population statistics, Assumption Day is currently a public holiday in 1704 out of 2056 (~ 83%) Bavarian municipalities.
The Assumption of Mary is also a public holiday in a number of other predominantly Catholic countries, such as Belgium , France , Italy , Croatia , Lithuania , Luxembourg , Malta , Poland , Portugal , Slovenia and Spain , as well as in the predominantly Orthodox countries of Greece , Georgia and Romania and Cyprus .
The Mother of God taken into heaven appears, among other things, in the coat of arms of the parish of Santa Maria in Calanca .
Mass compositions with the title Assumpta est Maria are written for this festival; they refer to the alleluia of the feast “Assumpta est Maria in caelum, gaudet exercitus angelorum” “ The Virgin Mary is taken up into heaven. The company of angels rejoices. ' . Such are z. B.
- Palestrina : Missa 'Assumpta est Maria' .
- Marc-Antoine Charpentier : Assumpta est Maria .
- Heinz Martin Lonquich : Deutsche Messe on the texts of Mariae Himmelfahrt (2003).
- "Mary is taken to her son Jesus Christ." (In the praise of God recorded Catholic hymn for this feast)
Marian commemoration day of Protestant churches
August 15th is also associated with Mary by some Protestant churches. Since the idea of a bodily acceptance of Mary into heaven is not compatible with Protestant theology, the day is simply the day of death and thus the day of Mary's remembrance, which is officially included in the saints calendars of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod as well as the Anglican Churches . Before the introduction of the Protestant name calendar , this date was also found in regional Protestant calendars in German-speaking countries under names such as “Mariä Verscheiden”.
- Assumption Churches
- Dormition ("Dormition" or Mary's death: image type with the death of Mary among the apostles)
- Ascension of Christ
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