New Julian calendar
Neojulian calendar (also Meletian calendar or Milanković calendar ) is the name for a calendar with a year length of 365.242222 days. It was developed by the Serbian geophysicist Milutin Milanković and introduced in some Orthodox churches in 1923 . It was supposed to compensate for the difference of 13 days between the Julian calendar used in the Orthodox churches and the modern Gregorian calendar .
The calendar corresponds to the solar year about ten times more precisely than the Gregorian calendar with 365.2425 days. This is achieved by not leaving out three leap days in 400 years, as in the Gregorian calendar , but seven in 900 years. The New Julian calendar will not differ from the Gregorian calendar until the beginning of the year 2800. It was not until the year 2800 that a leap day, which is provided for in the Gregorian calendar, is no longer used for him.
Leap year regulation
The rules for leap years in the New Julian or Orthodox calendar are:
- If the year is divisible by 4 without a remainder, the year is a leap year (as in the Julian calendar ).
- If the year number is divisible by 100 without a remainder, the year, in deviation from sentence 1, is not a leap year (as in the Gregorian calendar).
- If the year number divided by 900 results in a remainder of 200 or 600, the year deviating from sentence 2 is a leap year (unlike in the Gregorian calendar, where the criterion is divisibility by 400 without a remainder).
This calendar has 7 fewer leap years in 900 years compared to the Julian calendar. With the Gregorian calendar, there are 3 leap years less in 400 years, resulting in the average calendar year length of 365.2425 days. In the New Julian calendar, with 365.242222 days, the approximation to the solar year with 365.242190 days is about ten times better than in the Gregorian calendar. The deviation is only one day after 31,250 years (Gregorian: after around 3,225 years). Striving for higher accuracy would make little sense because of the small, unpredictable changes in the rotational speed of the earth, such as those caused by magma flows in the earth's interior or by winds and ocean currents.
The 900-year calendar period of the New Julian calendar resulting from the switching contains 682 common years of 365 days and 218 leap years of 366 days and comprises a total of 328,718 days. The corresponding 400-year calendar period of the Gregorian calendar contains 303 common and 97 leap years, or 146,097 days. The weekday assignment is repeated in 400 Gregorian years, because 146,097 is divisible by 7 without a remainder (result: 20,871 weeks). In the New Julian calendar, the weekday assignment is only repeated in seven 900-year calendar periods.
Takeover and introduction
Most Orthodox churches use the Julian calendar to this day, dating from 45 BC. Was introduced by Julius Caesar . This was 1582 at the time of Pope Gregory XIII. reformed and gradually introduced into the Western Church . For example, the time difference for celebrating Christian festivals is 13 days in the two churches with different calendars at the moment (until 2099).
At the all-Orthodox congress in Constantinople in 1923 all participants decided to jump from March 9, 1924 to March 23, 1924 to introduce the new calendar with the above-mentioned switching rules.
The exception was initially the Russian Orthodox Church , which was unable to attend the congress due to the political turmoil after the October Revolution and therefore stayed with the old Julian calendar. As a result, some Orthodox churches (e.g. the Patriarchate of Jerusalem or the Serbian Orthodox Church ) revised their decision to wait for the time when the Russian and other Orthodox churches under the communist governments of the time could also participate in the decisions. Other Orthodox churches felt that reform was necessary, e.g. B. the Patriarchate of Constantinople with the Greek Orthodox Church or the Bulgarian Orthodox Church . They introduced the new calendar, which means that today some of the Orthodox churches continue to use the Julian calendar, while the other part uses the new calendar.
On the Easter date, however, these regional churches also decided a few years later that the commonality of the date in all Orthodox churches was more important than insisting on astronomical accuracy. Therefore, the calculation of the Easter date and thus also all dependent movable feast days are based on the Julian calendar. Nevertheless, the split-off of some old calendar splinter groups from the Orthodox Church as a whole persisted in protest against the calendar change . All other festive dates (for example Christmas) are identical in the New Calendars up to 2799 with those in the Gregorian calendar.
The introduction of the New Julian calendar was and is controversial in Orthodoxy, both in terms of content and in terms of the way in which it was introduced, as described by opponents as "tricky". Only about half of the Orthodox churches have actually implemented the calendar.
It is used in the following churches:
- Church of Constantinople
- Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and All of Africa
- Patriarchate of Antioch
- Romanian Orthodox Church
- Bulgarian Orthodox Church
- Church of Cyprus
- Church of Greece
- Orthodox Church in America
- Romanian Greek Catholic Church
The Orthodox Church of Finland switched its calendar completely to the Gregorian calendar as early as 1921. It also celebrates Easter on the same date as the western churches.
Difference between the Gregorian and New Julian calendars
Due to its lower number of leap days, the New Julian calendar will run ahead of the Gregorian calendar more and more in the future. Until the beginning of the year 2800, both calendars are still identical. From February 29, 2800 of the Gregorian calendar, which then corresponds to March 1, 2800 of the New Julian calendar, the New Julian calendar is one day ahead in some centuries, or temporarily coincides with the Gregorian calendar for other centuries. From the year 5600 onwards, the 1-day lead is no longer undercut.
The day of the week of a date can be specified using the Sunday letter. The latter is determined in the same way in the New Julian calendar as in the Gregorian calendar, although the assignment between the Sunday letter and the calendar year changes due to the different switching rhythm (other secular years without leap day).
Table of Sunday letters:
There are two Sunday letters for leap years, the left one for January and February, the right one for the remaining months.
|New Julian calendar||The first digits of the year|
|* these secular years||35||36||37||38 *|
|are leap years||39||40||41||42 *|
|New Julian calendar||59||60 *||61||62|
|after 6300 years:||67||68||69 *||70|
|8200 is like 1900||75||76||77||78 *|
table : In the column with the Sunday letter of the year taken from the table above, the weekday series valid for this letter is shown. If you go to the right in the line for a certain day of the week, you will find the data for all corresponding days of the year. If you go to the left from a date, you will find the corresponding day of the week in the column under the Sunday letter.
- Lumma Liborius: From Caesar to Meletios or: Why Christmas is on January 7th. A very quick overview of the Julian, Gregorian and Meletian calendars September 14, 2010 ( online version )
- ↑ Dates of the festivals. (No longer available online.) Diocese of the Armenian Church in Germany, archived from the original on February 12, 2015 ; accessed on February 10, 2015 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ a b c Lumma Liborius: From Caesar to Meletios or: Why Christmas is on January 7th. A very brief overview of the Julian, Gregorian and Meletian calendars September 14, 2010 ( online version , accessed February 10, 2015)