Hermann Lietz (born April 28, 1868 in Dumgenevitz , Rügen district ; † June 12, 1919 in Haubinda in Thuringia ) was a German reform pedagogue and founder of the rural education homes (DLEH) in Germany.
Hermann Lietz was the child of a farmer . Dealing with animals and nature has had a lasting impact on him. He went to school in grammar schools in the Hanseatic cities of Greifswald and Stralsund . In 1911 he married Jutta von Petersenn, the daughter of the director of one of his rural education centers.
In 1888 Lietz began studying theology , philosophy , history and German at the University of Halle-Wittenberg , and in 1891 he completed his doctorate with Rudolf Eucken with a thesis on the subject: “The problems in the concept of society with Auguste Comte in the overall context of his system “At the end to then complete his theological exam and the state examination for the higher teaching post in philosophy, German, religion and Hebrew in 1892. He combined Eucken's philosophy with currents of liberal and socially committed Protestantism to create his own form of practical pedagogy . During his studies a. a. He also dealt with the anti-Semite Paul de Lagarde in the pedagogical university seminar of Wilhelm Rein and lessons at his practice school as well as a licentiate examination in theology .
Teacher and founder
He has worked as a teacher at Rein in Jena since 1892, and found his first job in 1895 at Krieger's Progymnasium in Kötzschenbroda . Lietz increasingly dealt with the idea of reform pedagogy, which matured through a stay with Cecil Reddie in Abbotsholme / England in 1896/97. The anagram “Emlohstobba” became the title of one of his fundamental works in 1897. This resulted in the founding of the Pulvermühle Landerziehungsheime in Ilsenburg (Harz) in 1898 with Gustav Wyneken as director , and the Landerziehungsheim for girls in Stolpe am Wannsee in 1900 (moved to Gaienhofen on Lake Constance in 1904 ) under the direction of his future mother-in-law Bertha von Petersenn , 1901 the Hermann-Lietz-Schule Haubinda in Thuringia, directed by Paul Geheeb , and in Langenbieber in Hesse 1904 the Hermann-Lietz-Schule Schloss Bieberstein , from 1906 directed by Ludwig Wunder . In addition to the management of the individual schools, Lietz reserved the management of all homes. Alfred Andreesen took over the management after his death, according to Lietz's request.
Lietz saw his school founding as a contribution to social reform and social balance. Children of non-privileged origins should be given the opportunity to develop their own personality. He did not see this goal as possible in the city. Only in the country, in natural and healthy surroundings, did he see the implementation of his educational ideas come true. Due to the composition of the student body in the first few years, the goal was not sufficiently achieved. In 1914, he therefore decided to found a country orphanage Grovesmühle (LWH) in Veckenstedt under the direction of Theo Zollmann . Further DLEH schools were founded by his successors in Ettersburg Castle (1923), Buchenau Castle (1924), on Spiekeroog ( Hermann Lietz School Spiekeroog ) in the North Sea (1928) and in Hohenwehrda ( Hermann Lietz School Hohenwehrda Castle ) ( 1941) erected.
Since 1911 Lietz also pursued the goal of transferring his homes to a foundation . However, this project could only be realized in 1920 after his death. Today the foundation supports three (Haubinda, Bieberstein, Hohenwehrda) of the four existing Lietz homes. The home on Spiekeroog occupies an independent position. The schools today are reform schools with holistic education , in which the mixture of different social origins intended by Lietz is realized. Lietz was an advocate of separate-sex education, but the homes he founded as state-recognized substitute schools later became co-educational .
Shaped by his religious Protestantism, Hermann Lietz was - in the contemporary sense - an imperial nationalist and strong supporter of the First World War . As early as October 1914, he volunteered for an infantry regiment in Meiningen and asked the upper school students in Bieberstein to follow him. Bieberstein was therefore closed and the remaining unfit for military service relocated to Haubinda. He viewed real social developments critically . He had a split relationship with the Social Democrats . After Rosa Luxemburg's death in 1919, for example, he had the flags flown on his homes. Speeches on the interpretation of the First World War have also come down to us, which document a positive enthusiasm for the events of the war. His relationship with Jews is still controversial today. Lietz distinguished between idealistic and materialistic currents in Judaism (as in social democracy). He felt connected to the "idealistic direction" that he saw represented in the Old Testament prophets. He formulated massive demarcations against the “materialistic direction”, which today provide the basis for the anti-Semitism accusation . With a view to the materialistic orientation, he warned of a “Jewish danger”. After initially Lietz children of Jewish descent had taken in his homes, he led after the secession of Theodor Lessing , Paul Geheeb and Martin Luserke in Haubinda (Haubindaer Jews Barney) 1903 a category of "German-Germanic" as the recording criterion. His pupils also included Johanna Haarer , who later became a functionary of Black Education under National Socialism and author of educational guides for the early Federal Republic of Germany, who explicitly referred to her school days in the Lietz homes.
Ideas about education
Based on his own biography and encouraged to change pedagogy by other theorists and practitioners of reform pedagogy before him and during his time, Hermann Lietz dedicates himself to the reform of contemporary pedagogy. The cramming school and the drill-like education in gray cities with their harmful seductions are at the center of his criticism. He wants a combination of good teaching by capable and enthusiastic and enthusiastic teachers and an education of his pupils to be good people in a natural and healthy environment. He sees this realized in a unit school in the country, in his country education homes. Every single child should be developed and encouraged in their possibilities and abilities. He was not an advocate of co-education . Hermann Lietz is essentially against any kind of formal authorization system, i. H. formalistic grading in the classroom , as this contradicts the individual path, goal and result of the child. According to his upbringing principles, every child, regardless of the situation at home, should experience a moral and religious character formation. To what extent Lietz implemented his own ideas, at least Erich von Mendelssohn doubts from his own experience.
One of Lietz's most important projects was the establishment of an orphanage, realized in the Grovesmühle rural orphanage in Veckenstedt in 1914.
The guideline for all of his thinking and work was pedagogical practice and a religiously tinged idealism, which set the ideal of education as follows: The rural education centers are fundamentally based on Protestant - Christian and German - Germanic soil.
Lietz is the founder of the German rural education home movement; further homes were later founded by Gustav Wyneken , Paul Geheeb , Bertha von Petersenn (food retail for girls) and Kurt Hahn . The starting point of the rural education centers is the criticism of the theoretical, urban and formal upbringing of children in civil society.
Head of DLEH
In the history of the Hermann Lietz Schools , following the founder and owner Hermann Lietz from 1919 to 1984, there were a number of senior managers of the "Foundation of the Hermann Lietz Schools". The first head manager had been appointed as his successor by HL. The following senior managers were appointed according to the provisions of the statutes and performed their tasks accordingly.
- 1898–1919: Hermann Lietz
- 1919–1944: Alfred Andreesen
- 1944/1945: Franz Windweh
- 1945–1951: Friedrich Christiansen-Less
- 1951–1954: Wolfgang Paeckelmann
- 1954–1958: Heinz Dücker
- 1958/1959: Harald Nehrkorn
- 1959–1973: Ernst Schaede
- 1973–1976: Meertinus Meijering
- 1976/1977: Raimund Becker
- 1977/1978: Meertinus Meijering
- 1978–1980: Johannes Wilhelms
- 1981: Peter Breuer
- 1981–1984: Otto Herz
After 1984 the board of the foundation decided to change the management of the homes. After HLS Spiekeroog left the foundation for good, the heads of HLS Bieberstein, Hohenwehrda Castle and Buchenau (Eiterfeld) formed a management committee with the economic manager. After reunification , this was expanded to include the head of the re-established HLS Haubinda. The necessary amendment to the articles of association was approved by the foundation supervisory authority in 2007.
- Reform of the school through reform schools . Small fonts. Edited by R. Koerrenz. Jena 2005 (Pedagogical Reform in Sources Vol. 1)
- Protestantism as idealistic pedagogy . Small writings on religion and religious instruction. Edited by R. Koerrenz. Jena 2011 (Pedagogical Reform in Quellen Vol. 14).
- The fatherland's need and hope . Veckenstedt 1919
- Life memories . Weimar 1935
- Freseni. Veckenstedt (Harz) undated
- Emlohstobba. Novel or reality? Pictures from German school life in the past, present or future? Berlin 1897 ( digitized version )
- The yearbook DLEH and the Lietz newspaper Leben und Arbeit have been kept by Hermann Lietz since 1898 and contain reports from the rural education centers by himself and other authors who have been appointed by Lietz. Lietz publishes himself up to the 16th yearbook. "Leben und Arbeit" (LuA) has existed parallel to the DLEH yearbook since 1909 and is continued after 1919 by the association "Old Citizens and Friends of the Hermann Lietz Schools". All yearbooks and LuA can be viewed in the original, sorted by year in the archive HLS Schloss Bieberstein.
- Elisabeth Badry: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 14, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1985, ISBN 3-428-00195-8 , pp. 542-544 ( version ). In:
- Elisabeth Badry: Pedagogical genius in an upbringing for non-conformity and for commitment - studies on the founders of the early German rural education home movement - Hermann Lietz and Gustav Wyneken, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, Bonn 1976.
- Herbert Bauer: On the theory and practice of the first German state educational institutions - experiences in boarding and all-day education from the Hermann Lietz schools, contributions to discussions on questions of pedagogy, vol. 28, Berlin 1961.
- Dietrich Benner; Herwart Kemper : Theory and History of Reform Education. The educational movement from the turn of the century to the end of the Weimar Republic, theory and history of reform pedagogy. Volume 28, Weinheim; Basel 2003, ISBN 978-3-407-32107-7 .
- Ralf Koerrenz : Hermann Lietz: Border crosser between theology and pedagogy . Frankfurt am Main 1989. ISBN 978-3-631-42355-4
- Ralf Koerrenz: Hermann Lietz . Lüneburg 1994 (Ed. Experiential education). ISBN 978-3-89569-002-0
- Ralf Koerrenz: Hermann Lietz . Introduction with central texts. Paderborn 2011, ISBN 978-3-506-77204-6
- Ralf Koerrenz (Ed.): Hermann Lietz . Protestantism as idealistic pedagogy. Jena 2011, ISBN 978-3-941854-62-8
- Kurt Meyer: Life is not elsewhere, Biebersteiner years and Hermann Lietz. A re-encounter. Kassel 2016, ISBN 978-3-95978-043-8
- Jürgen Oelkers : What remains of reform pedagogy? FAZ.NET March 16, 2010
- Minna Specht : Hermann Lietz . Commemorative speech given on October 10, 1919 at the first Bundestag of the International Youth Association. Leipzig 1920
- Frank Wild : Asceticism and ascetic upbringing as an educational problem. On the theory and practice of the early education home movement between 1898 and 1933 . Frankfurt 1997
- Elisabeth Kutzer (ed.): Hermann Lietz - testimonies of his contemporaries . Ernst Klett Verlag, Stuttgart, 1st edition, 1968 (Series: From the German Landerziehungsheimen, Vol. 6)
- Literature by and about Hermann Lietz in the catalog of the German National Library
- Hermann Lietz schools
- Hermann Lietz School Spiekeroog
- Old citizens, parents and friends. - Old citizens and friends of the Hermann Lietz schools
- Wolfgang Keim: The narrow view of the post-war period. Frankfurter Rundschau January 20, 2000, reproduced by hasi.s.bw.schule.de
- June 12, 1919: The anniversary of the death of pedagogue Hermann Lietz ( page no longer available , search in web archives )
- Koerrenz, Ralf .: Hermann Lietz: Introduction with central texts . Schöningh, Paderborn 2011, ISBN 978-3-506-77204-6 , pp. 207 f .
- Theodor Fritzsch: Hermann Lietz as a private school teacher in Kötzschenbroda. In: Journal of the History of Education and Teaching. 27.1937, pp. 234-245. accessed on January 11, 2015
- see also on the secession: Archived copy ( memento of the original from March 3, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Alex Zollmann: 800 years of Bieberstein. In: Hofbieber 1093-2003. From the story of a village. Working group 'Chronik' Hofbieber, Nüsttal-Hofaschenbach 2003
- See Koerrenz 2011, 203 ff.
- See Koerrenz 2011, 196 ff.
- For the sources cf. Koerrenz 2011, 177ff.
- see: https://www.ecole.ch/geheeb/GA_Korrespondenz_l-m.htm : Lietz, Hermann, friends with Geheeb from May 1892, "Chef" von Geheeb from spring 1902 to June 1906, 10 envelopes, 1892 to 1931/75. Numerous handwritten letters from Lietz about his relationship with Geheeb, about his own life, thinking and work, about his parents' property, the publication of Emlostobba, about the Berlin period in 1897, Ilsenburg, etc. Only a few copies of letters from Geheeb from June 1906. One from Lietz unaccepted letter of reconciliation by Geheeb from 1912, numerous other documents (reports, letters, transcripts of letters in connection with Lessing 1903, "Haubindaer Judenkrach", official correspondence because of Haubinda, conflict 1906)
- From the "Haubinder Judenkrach" about the Odenwald school. In: FAZ.net . September 1, 2010, accessed October 13, 2018 .
- Lietz comments on “Conflicts in Haubinda” twice: 1903 and 1919 to be found in Koerrenz, R., Hermann Lietz, Introduction with central texts, 2011, p. 186ff
- Own research archive HLS Schloss Bieberstein
- "The third year in the DLEH to Haubinda in Thuringia - From Easter 1903 to Easter 1904 in the Haubinda State Education Center." Page 4/5. From: The sixth year in German Landerziehungsheimen, ed. by Hermann Lietz, Schloss Bieberstein and Haubinda 1904
- edited by Klaus Gabrian, archive HLS Schloss Bieberstein November 2011
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German reform pedagogue|
|DATE OF BIRTH||April 28, 1868|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Dumgenevitz , Rügen district|
|DATE OF DEATH||June 12, 1919|
|Place of death||Haubinda , Thuringia|