Louis Althusser [ altyˡseʁ ] (born October 16, 1918 in Bir Mourad Raïs in the Département d'Alger , French North Africa (now Algeria ); † October 22, 1990 in La Verrière in the Yvelines department ) was a French philosopher . In the 1960s and 1970s in particular, he had a major influence on the further development of Marxism . Althusser was u. a. Teacher of Alain Badiou , Michel Foucault , Jacques Derrida , Maurice Godelier , Nicos Poulantzas , Jacques Rancière , Étienne Balibar , Régis Debray and Bernard-Henri Lévy . His intellectual biography took a tragic turn with the murder of his wife in 1980.
Childhood and youth
Louis Althusser was born in Algeria on October 16, 1918. His ancestors came from Alsace and had emigrated to French Algeria after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/71. In his autobiographical writings The Future Has Time ( L'avenir dure longtemps ) and The Facts ( Les faits ) Althusser describes how he grew up in the north of what was then French Algeria. He depicts the mountainous landscape and the political situation of the country (rebel tribes). His father, Charles Althusser, was a banker , and the son describes him as authoritarian, strictly Catholic and indifferent to upbringing; his mother appears frustrated and possessive. Before the First World War she wanted to marry his father's brother (Louis Althusser), but he died at the front near Verdun. Althusser accused his mother of having taken him as a surrogate partner for her late husband. He describes them as bourgeois - Catholic .
For professional reasons, the family moved to Lyon in 1930 , where Althusser went to the conservative Lycée du Parc. There he moved in a Catholic, monarchist and anti-Semitic milieu. During this time he made his first attempts at political engagement, but still on the conservative Catholic side. Althusser said that he wanted to compensate for his physical weakness and lack of assertiveness. From 1936 onwards he prepared intensively for studies and in 1937 founded a section of the organization of Catholic students at the Lycée de Paris in Lyon. The first severe depression occurred during these years. In 1939 he became a student at the Parisian elite university École normal supérieure .
After the French defeat, Althusser was taken prisoner of war in 1940, was unable to continue his studies and was a prisoner of war in Stalag XA near Schleswig until the end of the war in 1945 . It was here that he had an impressive experience with politically active communist workers. During his imprisonment, there were further phases of depressions that were harmful to health.
Study and politicization
After the war he resumed his studies and, against his father's wishes, studied philosophy at the École normal supérieure . In 1946, Louis Althusser met his wife Hélène Rytmann (Légotien). After a lengthy period of political orientation, he opted for communism and joined the French Communist Party (PCF) in 1948 - possibly also through the influence of his wife. Professionally, Althusser decided to pursue a university career.
In the 1950s he worked as a Stalinist and fought reformist aspirations in the PCF. Its first major publication came out in 1959 and was about Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu . In other publications he was primarily concerned with answering the question of what the character of scientific Marxism and the philosophy corresponding to it consisted of. He was looking for a “third way” beyond the Stalinist dogmatism officially condemned in the communist parties. In his first two Marxist publications Pour - Für Marx, (published 1965, in German 1968) and Lire le Capital - Read Capital , (published 1965) he presents the outline of his very "idiosyncratic and rigorous interpretation of Marx". In the course of the 1968 movement and the Paris May , he hoped for the revolution , the failure of which kept him busy for a long time. He thought an overthrow against Charles de Gaulle and the state was within reach. One of his most important companions was Étienne Balibar , other students were Michel Foucault , Nicos Poulantzas and Bernard-Henri Lévy . Althusser assumed that there was an “ epistemological break” in Marx's works between the early and the more mature Karl Marx . However, this thesis was supported by many critics, e. B. Raymond Aron , doubted. At the same time he subjected Marx to a philosophical, structural consideration, but one can only partially assign the findings of Althusser to the structuralists of the time .
In the 1970s, Althusser increasingly distanced himself from the Parti communiste français (PCF). This process of change was probably also influenced (again) by his wife, who left the PCF herself. Approaches to this can be found in his publications "What is revolutionary Marxism?" (published 1973) and in the 1974 essay "Elements of Self-Criticism" (published in German 1975).
At the same time, Althusser took up a new topic. In his work "Ideologie und Ideologische Staatsapparate" (ISA) - published in 1977 - he examined how people's consciousness is ideologically formed in families, schools and churches . He saw this ISA as a necessary addition to the Repressive State Apparatus (RSA) such as the police, the military and the secret services. The ISA are not only located in the ideological superstructure , but are also anchored in the material base. Althusser caused a sensation in 1977 at an international conference in Venice on dissidence in Eastern Europe, where he put his lecture under the heading "Finally the crisis of Marxism has dawned". He continued these debates in his work "The Crisis of Marxism" (published 1978) and at the same time sharply criticized the political course of the Parti communiste français (PCF) under Georges Marchais (1920–1997).
In 1977, like around sixty other intellectuals, he signed an appeal for the decriminalization of pedophilia , which appeared in the Liberation and Le Monde newspapers. The appeal was initiated by the pedophile writer Gabriel Matzneff .
Mental health problems and killing of his wife
On November 16, 1980, Althusser strangled his wife Hélène Rytman. The exact circumstances of her death remained unclear. Althusser claimed that he could not remember the event. He didn't go to court. The investigation for murder against him was closed in 1981, he was housed in the closed psychiatric institution of the Sainte Anne Hospital until 1983 .
For ten years he lived in psychiatric institutions, which Althusser was only allowed to leave for a short time, during which the doctors drew some hope. In one of these phases of supposed improvement, in the spring of 1985, he was working on a manuscript of more than 300 pages in which he tried to describe his life, his development and the psychosis that accompanied him for most of his life up to the murder of his wife . In parts this manuscript reads not only like a cross-section through the development of the French bourgeoisie in the 20th century , but also through the development of psychiatry and psychotropic drugs . Althusser describes here how he developed mental disorders , beginning with family conflicts and increasingly since his captivity in Germany. He had regular treatment for bouts of depression , and was given medication and electric shocks . Work interruptions and manic work attacks alternated again and again.
Louis Althusser died on October 22nd, 1990. His last book was published posthumously in April 1992 under the title "Die Zukunft hat Zeit" (L´avenir dure longtemps). It contains two texts from his estate: a short sketch from 1976, which he made for a magazine project of his pupil Régis Debray , and the large manuscript from 1985, which Althusser originally named "A Brief History of a Murderer" would have. The latter should expressly not be an "autobiography", but rather, as he writes, a "dream biography": "In these memory associations I want to stick exclusively to facts". He describes episodes of his own life, the failure of his parents' home, the framework conditions of his intellectual development, his hopes and the desire to participate in the solution of world problems, but also the time of internment. The focus of this text, however, is Helene Althusser and Althusser's (love) relationship with her.
Other essays belong to the late work, for example on "aleatoric materialism". Antonio Negri took up this topic later. Althusser examines the importance of chance for material processes and goes back in his investigation to Rousseau , Hobbes , Spinoza and Machiavelli , with whom he already dealt at the beginning of his philosophical career.
In his later works he also evaluates the Soviet Union : The policy of the Soviet Union was largely understandable, and he is convinced that Mikhail Gorbachev's reform policy could overcome system weaknesses.
Althusser, who was influenced by Jacques Lacan's psychoanalysis , Antonio Gramsci's political theory , Spinoza's philosophy and Gaston Bachelard's epistémology , subjected Karl Marx's work to a structuralist analysis.
Althusser played an important role in the Marxist discussions in France, Italy and Latin America, but Althusser was largely denied recognition in the GDR and FRG. Even if he seems to be forgotten again and again, Althusser's thinking influences important debates. In recent years, for example, Judith Butler and Slavoj Žižek have integrated Althusser's term “invocation” (“interpellation”) into their subject, ideology and social theory. The post-Marxist theorists Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe also take up his use of the psychoanalytic term of overdetermination . Elements are overdetermined if they cannot be traced back to a simple cause or have a clear meaning, but rather are fed by several sources and influence one another.
For Althusser, dialectical as well as historical materialism is based on the principle of the primacy of the types of practice understood as work . All levels of social existence are different practices. Practice means the transformation of a (political, symbolic, economic, 'natural') starting material by certain actors who produce certain (political, symbolic, economic, ...) products in a specific context. It is always the determining moment in the production process . Althusser differentiates between several types of practice: theoretical-scientific, political, ideological and economic. The configuration of all forms of practice forms the respective social formation . The actors are the people who are situated and organized in classes , who act in the context of historically specific production conditions as well as political and ideological conditions, as Althusser reads in Das Kapital . Sciences try to transform theoretical ideologies into (scientific) knowledge .
Ideology and Ideological State Apparatus (ISA)
In his programmatic essay Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses , which is received far more often than his main works ( Für Marx and Das Kapital Read ), Althusser takes up the question of how capitalist production relations are reproduced in the subjects' (everyday) ideologies. In his text he develops the thesis that under capitalism the restoration of labor must also be done ideologically. However, this does not happen simply through a “false class consciousness ” implanted by the superstructure , rather ideology has its own material existence beyond the dichotomy of base / superstructure.
As a basis for his considerations, Althusser makes a differentiating conceptual distinction between the traditional Marxist base / superstructure scheme. In a first step, Althusser distinguishes between the two instances of state power and the state apparatus. Marx called the state apparatus the legal and political institutions of the state. According to Althusser, state power and the state apparatus are to be thought of as relatively autonomous from one another. H. possession of state power does not include, or necessarily, possession and direct control of the state apparatus. In a further step, he differentiates between repressive and ideological state apparatus (RSA and ISA). The RSA encompasses all institutions that “function through violence” in one way or another - by which is meant physical violence (including a parking ticket). The RSA consists only of state or public institutions such as the police, justice, prison authorities etc. The ISA (e.g. family , school , church , mass media ), on the other hand, as the name suggests, primarily work through ideology, but can possibly be Secondly, refer back to it on a repressive basis. This distinction is to be understood as an ideal type, since there are no pure "apparatuses", but i. d. Typically a dominant mode of operation can be found - for example, the military works through both physical violence and ideology. With this differentiation, an interdependence between RSA and ISA can be assumed. Another peculiarity concerns the structure of the apparatuses: The repressive state apparatus can only be found in the public sector, whereas the ideological state apparatus are organized both publicly and privately-economically (e.g. private and public-law mass media) - which, according to Althusser is obsolete, since only the functionality of an apparatus counts.
The aim of the ISA is to anchor the compulsory ideology of the ruling class in the people and to shape their worldview according to the ideology. What is important here is Althusser's definition of the concept of ideology, he is based on three basic hypotheses:
- The ideology has a material existence
- Ideology represents the imaginary relationship between individuals and their real conditions of existence
- The ideology calls on the individuals as subjects
The power of the ideological state apparatus works through imposed rituals and through the invocation of subjects through institutions of the Great Other ( Jacques Lacan ), for example party, nation and God. Ideology is not just repressive , but gives individuals the opportunity to constitute themselves as subjects within a society. According to Althusser, ideology is not just “manipulation”, but constitutes subjects in the first place - and these are understood to be free despite or because of their submission .
Althusser's pupil Michel Foucault was able to develop his theory of discourse (see discourse analysis ) and his own theory of power, which, similar to Althusser's ideology, also developed material, i.e. H. physical and institutional effects.
Slavoj Žižek once called him a “vanishing mediator” between the Marxist tradition and the new social movements fighting for “de-subjugation” and their theoretical counterpart, for which the term “ post-structuralism ” is common. Althusser argued that "Marxism is finally beginning to recognize itself as it is and will change". In the upcoming transformation of Marxism in future class struggles , Althusser himself will presumably be something of an “absent cause”, present in the effects of the formation of a new revolutionary theory and practice that will remove the legacy of Marx and Lenin from the épistéme of the nineteenth century in order to tie it into a frame of reference that grasps at the roots the entirety of the subjugations, imprisonments and disciplines that constitute labor power as a commodity.
Henning Böke writes: "Althusser's consistent performance as a Marxist philosopher who is revolutionary Marxism always as a kind of conceptual counter-Marxism 'that he, probably without knowing it themselves, first systematically within Marxism those paradigm shift has taken place that as a linguistic turn designate has naturalized by the inherited from classical philosophy subject-object paradigm through a discourse analytical replaced. "
One of Althusser's harshest critics is the British historian Tony Judt , who described the philosopher as "on the verge of madness, sexually obsessive, megalomaniac" and - especially with regard to his historical knowledge - "astonishingly ignorant". Not only Althusser's uncritical and selective reception of Marx, but his complete oblivion of history, also as far as Marxism itself is concerned, is evident. Althusser does not judge Marxism in the light of historical development, which in itself is downright un-Marxist. Then there is the question of what distinguishes knowledge from belief or conviction; In Althusser's epistemology, problems with this distinction are excluded for a priori reasons, which ultimately ends in a tautology. Judt describes this as a basic problem of every Marxist philosophy: "Marxism historicizes all knowledge except that which it itself offers as truth."
Althusser's former student Jacques Rancière also became a harsh critic of his former mentor. Rancière had previously still in 1965 published the first edition to Althusser read Capital participated , he later distanced himself clearly from his teacher. In his extensive review of La Leçon d`Althusser , Rancière Althusser accuses him of pursuing a form of "scientism" through his ideas of a strong intellectual avant-garde. Ultimately, Althusser was only interested in defending the privileges of intellectuals and not in realizing equality for all. For Rancière, the uprisings of May 1968 in France had sufficiently proven that students and workers were capable of organizing and articulating their protest without the guidance of Marxist intellectuals.
Louis Althusser is at the center of Lukas B. Suter's play Althusser or Not (1994).
- For Marx. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 1968 (Original: Pour Marx 1965); New edition 2011.
- [et al.] Read the capital . Rowohlt, Hamburg 1972 (Original: Lire le Capital. 1965); complete new edition Westfälisches Dampfboot, Münster 2015, ISBN 978-3-89691-952-6 .
- Lenin and Philosophy. Rowohlt, Hamburg 1973.
- Elements of self-criticism. VSA, Berlin 1975.
- Ideology and ideological state apparatus. Essays on Marxist Theory. VSA, Hamburg / Berlin 1977. Therein a. a. the essay Ideology and Ideological State Apparatus . (1970), also as a pdf ( Memento from May 10, 2007 in the Internet Archive ); New edition 2010.
- The crisis of Marxism. VSA, Hamburg / Berlin 1978, ISBN 3-87975-156-0 .
- Philosophy and spontaneous philosophy of scientists. (Writings Volume 4), Argument, Hamburg 1985.
- Machiavelli . Montesquieu . Rousseau . (Writings Volume 2) Argument, Hamburg 1987.
- Écrits philosophiques et politiques. Vol. I and II. Floor, Paris 1994 and 1995.
- The future has time. Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. (Original: L´avenir dure longtemps. Written 1985, published 1992)
- Philosophy of the encounter: later writings, 1978–1987. Verso, London 2006.
- Materialism of the encounter. Diaphanes, Zurich-Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-03734-112-4 .
- Introduction to philosophy for non-philosophers. Passagen, Vienna 2018 ISBN 978-3-70920-282-1 .
- As a Marxist in philosophy. Passagen, Vienna 2018 ISBN 978-3-7092-0320-0 .
- Philosophy and marxism. A conversation with Fernanda Navarro. Passagen, Vienna 2019, ISBN 978-3-7092-0355-2 .
- What to do? Turia + Kant, Vienna / Berlin 2020, ISBN 978-3-85132-957-5 . (Original: Que faire? PUF / Humensis, Paris 2018)
A publication of Louis Althusser's collected writings in eight volumes is planned under the direction of Frieder Otto Wolf (this does not yet include Althusser's autobiography). The works have been published since winter 2010, initially by VSA Verlag and Suhrkamp. In December 2010, the first part of the series was published with a new edition of Ideology and Ideological State Apparatus . In May 2011 a full translation of Für Marx was published for the first time . In December 2014, the complete translation of Reading Capital at the Westphalian Steamboat followed, where all other volumes are also to appear.
- Ideology and ideological state apparatus , 1st half volume: Michel Verrest article about the student May; Ideology and ideological state apparatus; Note on the ISA, ed. by Frieder Otto Wolf, Hamburg 2010.
- On reproduction , ideology and ideological state apparatus, 2nd half volume: Five theses on the crisis of the Catholic Church; On the reproduction of the relations of production, ed. by Frieder Otto Wolf, Hamburg 2012.
- Étienne Balibar : Ecrits pour Althusser. Editions la Découverte, Paris 1991, ISBN 2-7071-2021-9 .
- Tobias Bevc: Louis Althusser. In: Gisela Riescher (Ed.): Political Theory of the Present in Individual Representations. From Adorno to Young (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 343). Kröner, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-520-34301-0 , pp. 8-11.
- Henning Böke, Jens Christian Müller, Sebastian Reinfeldt (eds.): Thinking processes according to Althusser (= argument. Special volume NF 228). Argument-Verlag, Hamburg 1994, ISBN 3-88619-228-8 .
- Jan Bruckschwaiger: Althusser, Lacan and the ideology. The lived relationship to the world. Löcker, Vienna 2014, ISBN 978-3-85409-700-6 .
- Horst Brühmann: "The concept of the dog does not bark". The object of the history of science in Bachelard and Althusser. Heymann, Wiesbaden 1980, ISBN 3-88055-310-6 (At the same time: Frankfurt am Main, University, dissertation, 1978: The object of the history of science in Bachelard and Althusser "The concept of the dog does not bark". ).
- Alex Callinicos : Althusser's Marxism. Pluto Press, London 1976, ISBN 0-904383-02-4 .
- Isolde Charim : The Althusser Effect. Draft of an ideology theory. Passagen-Verlag, Vienna 2002, ISBN 3-85165-475-7 (also: Vienna, University, dissertation, 1994).
- Alex Demirović : Philosophy and State. Althusser's philosophical strategy and the hegemonic status of philosophy. In: The argument . , No. 152, 1985, online
- think about the limits. louis althusser on his 70th birthday (= kultuRRevolution. 20, ). Contributions by Balibar, Bogdal, Elliott, Macherey and many others Klartext-Verlag, Essen 1988.
- Katja Diefenbach, Sara R. Farris, Gal Kirn, Peter D. Thomas (Eds.): Encountering Althusser. Politics and Materialism in Contemporary Radical Thought. Bloomsbury, London a. a. 2013, ISBN 978-1-4411-5213-8 .
- Timm Ebner, Jörg Nowak: Structure as a break. Alternatives to the authoritarian post-Althusserianism in Badiou and Žižek. In: The argument. No. 288, 2010, pp. 91-102.
- Gregory Elliott: Althusser. The detour of theory (= Historical Materialism Book Series. 13). Haymarket Books, Chicago IL 2009, ISBN 978-1-60846-027-4 .
- Ekrem Ekici, Jörg Nowak, Frieder Otto Wolf (eds.): Althusser - The reproduction of materialism. Westfälisches Dampfboot Verlag, Münster 2016, ISBN 978-3-89691-718-8 .
- Luke Ferretter: Louis Althusser. Taylor & Francis, London a. a. 2005, ISBN 0-415-32732-6 .
- Daniel Hackbarth: think along politics. On the concept of materialism in Max Horkheimer and Louis Althusser . Westphalian steam boat, Münster 2015, ISBN 978-3-89691-727-0 .
- Saül Karsz: Theory and Politics. Louis Althusser (= Ullstein books. No. 3218). With four texts by Louis Althusser. Ullstein, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 1976, ISBN 3-548-03218-4 .
- Ingo Kramer: Symptomal reading. Louis Althusser's contribution to a theory of discourse. Passagen-Verlag, Vienna 2014, ISBN 978-3-7092-0119-0 .
- Mikko Lahtinen: Politics and Philosophy. Niccolò Machiavelli and Louis Althusser's Aleatory Materialism (= Historical Materialism Book Series. 23). Brill Academic Publications, Leiden 2009, ISBN 978-90-04-17650-8 .
- Jens Christian Müller, Sebastian Reinfeldt, Richard Schwarz, Manon Tuckfeld: The state in people's heads. Connections to Louis Althusser and Nicos Poulantzas (= Edition Bronski. Vol. 1). Decaton-Verlag, Mainz 1994, ISBN 3-929455-16-1 .
- Aliocha Wald Lasowski: Althusser and us. Passagen Verlag, Vienna 2018, ISBN 978-3-7092-03194 .
- Thomas Lemke: Contours of a “non-philosophy”. On the new appropriation of the Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser. In: The argument. No. 223, 1997, pp. 864-866, ( online ).
- William S. Lewis: Louis Althusser and the traditions of French Marxism. Lexington Books, Lenham MD et al. a. 2005, ISBN 0-7391-0983-9 .
- David McInerney (Ed.): Althusser & Us (= borderlands e-journal. Vol. 4, No. 2). University of Adelaide, Adelaide 2005, online .
- Warren Monday: Louis Althusser. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke et al. a. 2003, ISBN 0-333-91898-3 .
- Warren Monday: Althusser and his Contemporaries. Philosophys Perpetual War. Duke University Press, Durham et al. a. 2013, ISBN 978-0-8223-5386-7 .
- Robert Pfaller : Althusser - the silence in the text. Epistemology, Psychoanalysis and Nominalism in Louis Althusser's Theory of Reading. Fink, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-7705-3115-9 .
- Jacques Rancière : The lesson of Althusser (= Laika theory. 40). Laika-Verlag, Hamburg 2014, ISBN 978-3-944233-02-4 .
- Jacques Rancière: Against academic Marxism (= International Marxist Discussion. 54), Merve, Berlin 1975, ISBN 3-920986-72-5 (text collection).
- Pierre Raymond (ed.): Althusser philosophe. Presses universitaires de France, Paris 1997, ISBN 2-13-048850-1 .
- Robert Paul Resch: Althusser and the Renewal of Marxist Social Theory. University of California Press, Berkeley CA et al. a. 1992, ISBN 0-520-06082-2 , online .
- Hans Jörg Sandkühler (Ed.): Re .: Althusser. Controversies about the “class struggle in theory” (= small library. 96). Pahl-Rugenstein, Cologne 1977, ISBN 3-7609-0295-2 .
- Leander Scholz : Louis Althusser and the matter of chance. In: Ralf Konersmann , Dirk Westerkamp (Hrsg.): Focus: Rhythm and Modernity (= Journal for Cultural Philosophy . Vol. 7, No. 1, 2013). Meiner, Hamburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-7873-2461-3 , pp. 171-184.
- Klaus Thieme: Althusser for the introduction (= SOAK introductions. 9). With contributions by Frieder Otto Wolf, Jutta Kolkenbrock-Netz and Peter Schöttler . SOAK, Hannover 1982, ISBN 3-88209-039-1 .
- Kaja Tulatz: Epistemology as a reflection of scientific practices. Epistemic spaces in the exit of Gaston Bachelard, Louis Althusser and Joseph Rouse . transcript, Bielefeld 2018 ISBN 978-3-8376-4212-4 .
- Frieder Otto Wolf: Althusser School. In: Wolfgang Fritz Haug (Ed.): Historical-critical dictionary of Marxism . Volume 1: Dismantling the state to the avant-garde. Argument-Verlag, Hamburg a. a. 1994, ISBN 3-88619-431-0 , Sp. 184-191.
- Literature by and about Louis Althusser in the catalog of the German National Library
- Louis Althusser Archive from marxists.org
- Althusser: The subterranean flow of the materialism of the encounter - also as rtf
- Decalages - multilingual journal for Althusser studies
- Technical terms of structural Marxism by Louis Althusser a. a. : Ben Brewster: Glossary for the English edition of the book by Althusser: Pour Marx; as well as Peter Schöttler : Glossary for the German translation of the essay by Etienne Balibar: Sur la Dialectique historique. ( pdf )
- William Lewis: Louis Althusser. In: Edward N. Zalta (Ed.): Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy .
- Antonio Negri : Notes on the Development of Thought in the Late Althusser
- Henning Böke: How does Althusser work. A Marx reception beyond 'orthodoxy' and 'revisionism'
- Le récit autofictionnel L'avenir dure longtemps de Louis Althusser. Manipuler pour mieux pouvoir (s') expliquer.
- Althusser, Lettre sur la connaissance de l'art. Réponse à André Daspre , from "La Nouvelle Critique", 175, April 1966 (in the Les ressources Socius project, Canada, Chaire de recherche du Canada en histoire de l'édition et sociologie du littéraire, headed by Anthony Glinoer)
- Louis Althusser: Journal de captivité: Stalag XA. 1940-1945. Stock, 1992. ISBN 978-2234024915
- Thomas Schäfer, biography Louis Althusser; in: Philosophical Lexicon . Springer Verlag 2015.
- Peter Schöttler, A living dead in: Die ZEIT No. 24, 1992
- Pascale Hugues : It was forbidden to forbid. In: Die Zeit from January 25, 2020, p. 53.
- Louis Althusser, The future has time, Fischer Verlag Frankfurt / Main 1992
- Louis Althusser: Ideology and ideological state apparatus. Essays on Marxist Theory. 1977, p. Xxx
- Tony Judt: The Paris Strangler. In: The New Republic , Vol. 210, No. 10, Mar. 7, 1994, pp. 33-37.
- Tony Judt: Marxism and the French Left: Studies on Labor and Politics in France, 1830–1981. New York University Press, New York 2011, ISBN 978-0-8147-4352-2 , p. 232.
- Oliver Davis: Jacques Rancière. An introduction. Translated from English by Brita Pohl. Turia and Kant, Vienna / Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-85132-737-3 .
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Althusser, Louis Pierre (full name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||French Marxist philosopher|
|DATE OF BIRTH||October 16, 1918|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Bir Mourad Raïs , Algeria|
|DATE OF DEATH||October 22, 1990|
|Place of death||La Verrière|