Calendar overview 1245
|Sancho II of Portugal is deposed by Pope Innocent IV .||
is made administrator of
|1245 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||693/694 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1788/89 (southern Buddhism); 1787/88 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||607/608 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||642/643 (turn of the year 28/29 May)|
|Jewish calendar||5005/06 (September 22/23)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1555/56 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1556/57 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1301/02 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
The journey of Johannes de Plano Carpini
- April 16 : The Franciscan Johannes de Plano Carpini sets out from Lyon on behalf of Pope Innocent IV on a trip to the Mongol-occupied Ukraine to visit the Mongolian Great Khan as head of an embassy . He moved through Bohemia and today's Silesia to Kiev and from there to the Don . Here it goes on to the Volga , through the newly created empire of the Golden Horde to the Ural River , over the Silk Road to the Djungarian Lakes and from there to the center of the Mongol Empire .
- Earlier this year: In the English-Welsh war defeat British troops one led by Dafydd ap Llywelyn of Gwynedd united Welsh forces at Montgomery Castle .
- March 28th : The Welsh conquer Mold Castle .
- June: King Heinrich III. of England calls his feudal army to Chester , from where in August he sets out on another campaign to Wales. English troops advance along the North Wales coast to the Conwy estuary , which they reach on August 26th . There the advance stops and the English begin to rebuild Deganwy Castle .
- For the next two months the English army encamped on the Conwy. Welsh raids at night and supply shortages demoralize soldiers, leading to the sacking of Aberconwy Abbey and other rioting. The Welsh responded with further robberies and executions of prisoners. An English force arriving from Ireland sacked the island of Anglesey , but at the end of October the main English army withdrew to Chester in view of the approaching winter. The King appoints John Gray as the new Justiciar of Chester and imposes a trade blockade on Wales.
- March: Pope Innocent IV accuses King Sancho II of Portugal of the worst offenses in the Bull Inter alia desiderabilia . On July 24th, in Grandi non immerito , he declares him an “unfit ruler” ( rex inutilis ) and his brother Alfons III. to the "administrator and defender" of the kingdom. Sancho II, however, is not prepared to accept this dismissal without a fight; civil war breaks out in Portugal .
Holy Roman Empire
- The previous confidante Heinrich Raspe renounces the papal banished and deposed Emperor Friedrich II .
- Diether V. von Katzenelnbogen built Rheinfels Castle .
Caucasus / Mongol Empire
- By the death of his mother Rusudan , David VI. sole ruler of Georgia . At this time he is in Karakorum at the court of the Great Khan of the Mongols in order to obtain his formal recognition.
City rights and first documentary mentions
- Regensburg becomes a Free Imperial City .
- Altenberg near Linz , Brüden and Rottmannsberg , Deutwang , Elfingen , Fessenbach , Graltshausen , Iffezheim , Langau , Mundelsheim , Rechberghausen , Rudersberg and Steinfurt are mentioned in documents for the first time.
- Backnang is named as a city.
- Blankenberg receives town charter .
science and technology
- In China, the handbook Junpu by Chen Renyu is published , which explains eleven types of edible mushrooms , including shiitake and matsutake , in detail.
Religion and culture
First Council of Lyon
- June 28 : Pope Innocent IV opens the Council of Lyon , which deals with the deposition of Emperor Frederick II . In its duration it honors Alexander von Hales as magnus doctor theologiae . Pope Innocent IV
- extends the rights of the inquisitors
- Incorporates numerous (also German) women's monasteries in the Dominican Order ( July 4th ) (between 1245 and 1251 there are around 32 partly former beguines - convents )
- declares Emperor Friedrich II banned and deposed on the last day of the council ( July 17 )
- Pentecost: The general chapter of the Dominicans meets for the first time in the convent in Cologne (this repeals the previous rule that the general chapters take place alternately in Bologna and Paris ).
- October 27 : Heinrich II, Count von Leiningen , becomes Bishop of Speyer . He succeeds Konrad von Eberstein , who died on June 25th . However, the new bishop has a hard time asserting himself in his diocese. He received neither confirmation nor consecration and was even expelled from Speyer at times.
- The English King Henry III. orders the construction of today's Westminster Abbey in the style of French high Gothic .
- The Venetian Doge Jacopo Tiepolo donated a piece of land to the Dominican order to build a church, a long way from the Frari Church , the Franciscan order of mendicants competing with the Dominicans . This is where the Church of San Zanipolo was built , which became the preferred burial place for the Venetian Doges.
- On the initiative of Countess Irmengard at Rhein founding done Kloster Lichtenthal .
- Brenkhausen Monastery is founded.
Date of birth saved
- January 16 : Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster and 1st Earl of Leicester , English nobleman, military man and diplomat, Lord High Steward of England († 1296 )
- April 3 : Philip III. , King of France († 1285 )
- September 19 : William de Vescy, 1st Baron Vescy , English nobleman and Justiciar of Ireland († 1297 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Thomas de Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley , English nobleman († 1321 )
- Jean II. D'Harcourt , French knight and crusader, Lord of Harcourt, Baron of Elbeuf and Vice-Count of Châtellerault and Saint-Sauveur († 1302 )
- Ma Duanlin , Chinese historian and encyclopaedist († 1322 )
- John FitzAlan , English nobleman († 1272 )
- Markward von Hailfingen , Württemberg knight and servant of the Count Palatine of Tübingen († after 1284)
- Audun Hugleiksson , Norwegian baron, lawyer, stable master and royal treasurer († 1302 )
- Nichirō , Japanese Buddhist monk († 1320 )
Born around 1245
- 1240 /1245: Dietrich of Freiberg , German Dominican, philosopher, theology and scientists († after 1310)
- Antony Bek , Bishop of Durham and titular patriarch of Jerusalem († 1311 )
- Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk , English magnate and military († 1306 )
- Erich von Brandenburg , Archbishop of Magdeburg († 1295 )
- Gerlach von Breuberg , bailiff in the Wetterau and peace captain in Thuringia († 1306 )
- Heinrich von Friemar , German Augustinian hermit and philosophical-theological and ascetic writer († 1340 )
- Kunigunde von Eisenberg , Countess of Thuringia († 1286 )
- Kunigunde von Halitsch , Queen of Bohemia and Duchess of Austria, Styria, Carinthia and Carniola († 1285 )
- Payn de Chaworth , English nobleman and military man († 1279 )
- Giovanni Soranzo , Doge of Venice († 1328 )
- 1245/ 1248 : Siemomysł , Duke of Kujawien in Inowrocław († 1287 )
- 1245/ 1249 : Jacques Arnaud Dueze, under the name of John XXII. Pope in Avignon († 1334 )
First half of the year
- January 27 : Ralph of Maidstone , Bishop of Hereford
- January 28 : Giovanni Colonna , Italian cardinal (* around 1170 )
- February 3 : Isabel de Bolebec , English nobleman (* 1164 )
- February 15 : Baldwin de Redvers, 6th Earl of Devon , English nobleman and crusader, Lord of the Isle of Wight (* 1216 / 1217 )
- around the 24 March : Dietrich primogenitus , young Count of Kleve (* around 1214 / 1215 )
- April 11th : Goffredus de Trano , Italian lawyer and cardinal (* around 1200 )
- April 25 : Johannes Teutonicus Zemeke , Halberstädter Glossator
- June 25 : Konrad von Eberstein , Prince-Bishop of Speyer (* around 1185 )
Second half of the year
- August 19 : Ramon Berenguer V , Count of Provence and Forcalquier (* 1205 )
- August 21 : Alexander von Hales , English scholastic (* around 1185 )
- October 18 : Ibn Yaʿīsch , Arabic grammarian (* 1158 )
- before October 22 : Albrecht II , Count of Orlamünde, of Northern or Transalbingia, Holstein, Ratzeburg, Dassow, Lauenburg, Stormarn and Wagrien (* after 1182)
- November 24th : Walter Marshal, 5th Earl of Pembroke , English nobleman and Lord Marshal of England (* 1196 )
- December 4th : Christian von Prussia , first bishop of Prussia (* around 1180 )
- December 4th : Poppo von Andechs-Meranien , Bishop of Bamberg (* 1175 )
- December 23 : Anselm Marshal, 6th Earl of Pembroke , English nobleman and Lord Marshal of England
Exact date of death unknown
- Pierre Amiel , Archbishop of Narbonne
- Reginald de Vautort , English nobleman (* before 1206)
- Diether IV. , Count von Katzenelnbogen
- Beatrix von Este , Queen of Hungary (* 1215 )
- Rusudan , Queen of Georgia (* 1194 )