Calendar overview 1196
|1196 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||644/645 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1739/40 (southern Buddhism); 1738/39 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||64th (65th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||558/559 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||592/593 (turn of the year 23/24 November)|
|Jewish calendar||4956/57 (August 25-26)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1506/07 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1507/08 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1252/53 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Holy Roman Empire
- March / April: Emperor Heinrich VI. announces his inheritance plan . With this plan Heinrich tries to abolish the royal suffrage of the imperial princes and to introduce a hereditary monarchy based on the example of France. According to the chroniclers, Heinrich wins the majority of the German princes for his plan at the Reichstag in Würzburg at the end of March / beginning of April - but only with a compensation deal: In return for renouncing the right to vote, the emperor promises the secular princes the inheritance of their imperial fiefs in male like granting female line. In the event that their main line should die out, they are also given the right to name a successor. He promises the clergy princes the renunciation of the spoilage right , i.e. the right of the crown to be able to dispose of the corresponding income from the respective property after the death of a prelate during the vacancy of the clergy.
- Christmas: Friedrich II. , The two-year-old son of Emperor Heinrich VI. , is elected Roman-German King in Frankfurt on the initiative of his father . With this election, Heinrich wants to have his succession settled before he embarks on his crusade . At this time Friedrich was at the court of Foligno in the Duchy of Spoleto , where he spent the first years of his life. In order for the imperial princes to agree to this succession plan, Heinrich renounces his inheritance plan.
- A punitive expedition by the Archbishop of Salzburg , Adalbert III. , because of not paid tithes leads to the almost complete destruction of the rebellious city of Reichenhall , from which only the monastery of St. Zeno is spared.
- April 8th : King Canute I of Sweden dies. In his will he named his son Erik as his successor. However, since he is still a minor, Sverker II is installed as king in his place with the support of Jarl Birger Brosa .
- April 24th : After the death of Bélas III. from the family of the Arpaden his son Emmerich becomes King of Hungary , Croatia , Dalmatia and Rama .
- The Serbian grandzupan Stefan Nemanja abdicates in favor of his son Stefan Nemanjić and retires to the monastery as a monk Simeon . There is a conflict between Stefan Nemanjić and his older brother Vukan, who had been left behind.
- Iwanko , an extended relative of the Assen family , heads a boyar conspiracy and murders the Bulgarian tsar Iwan Assen . He then allows himself to be appointed tsar. During the conspiracy, the tsar's sons, Ivan Assen II and Alexander, flee to the Cumans . In the same year, however, Iwanko was overthrown from the throne by the intervention of Ivan Assen I's older brother, Peter IV , who ruled as Mitzar. He fled to the Byzantine Empire , where he met Theodora Angelina, a granddaughter of the local emperor Alexios III. Angelos , marries and becomes administrator ( strategos ) of a region in Thrace . Peter IV makes his younger brother Kalojan co-ruler.
- April 25 : King Alfonso II of Aragón from the House of Barcelona dies. His son Peter II inherits him in the lands of the Aragon Crown , in the Kingdom of Aragón and the counties of Barcelona , Girona , Osona , Besalú , Cerdanya and Roussillon .
First documentary mentions
- Fleckeby , Gifhorn , Heidelberg , Mörigen , Nidau , Rothenfluh , Wierstorf and Wintersingen are mentioned in a document for the first time.
science and technology
- In Palermo, Petrus de Ebulo wrote the illustrated chronicle Liber ad honorem Augusti sive de rebus Siculis , which reproduces the Staufer conquest of Sicily. The first work of Petrus de Ebulo is called Panegyrikus on Emperor Heinrich VI. and as a diatribe against Heinrich's opponents, especially against Tankred of Lecce . It is a verse epic , which, however, differs from the ancient models shown on the frontispiece ( Virgil , Lucan , Ovid ) and is written in distiches . Apart from the Bayeux Tapestry , this book is the only surviving medieval series of images illustrating events in contemporary history. It is a valuable source for the clothing culture of southern Italy in the Hohenstaufen era.
- The poet Schota Rustaveli begins the epic The Warrior in a Tiger Skin , commissioned by the Georgian Queen Tamar , which is today's Georgian national epic .
- After Otto's death on March 7, the previous Provost Hartwig von Grögling-Dollnstein becomes the new Prince-Bishop of Eichstätt .
- May 1st : The holy skirt is mentioned for the first time in a document.
- August 7th : Provost Timo succeeds Otto VI , who died on May 2nd . elected bishop of Bamberg by Andechs .
- After the death of Ralf II, Peter of Angoulême becomes Latin Patriarch of Antioch .
- The Florensian Order founded by Joachim von Fiore is given by Pope Celestine III. approved.
- Alice of Champagne , regent of the Kingdom of Jerusalem († 1246 )
- Walter Marshal , English nobleman († 1245 )
- Svyatoslav III. , Grand Duke of Vladimir († 1252 )
Date of death secured
- March 7th : Otto , Prince-Bishop of Eichstätt
- April 6 : William Fitz Osbert , English legal scholar and revolutionary
- April 8th : Canute I , King of Sweden
- April 24th : Béla III. , King of Hungary, King of Croatia, Dalmatia and Rama (* around 1148 )
- April 25 : Alfonso II , King of Aragon (* 1157 )
- April 30th : Baldwin II , Bishop of Utrecht
- May 2 : Otto VI. , Bishop of Bamberg
- August 14 : Henry IV , Count of Luxembourg (* 1112 )
- August 15 : Konrad II , Duke of Rothenburg, Duke of Swabia, Lord of Weißenburg and Eger (* 1172 )
- September 11th : Maurice de Sully , Bishop of Paris (* 1110 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Ivan Assen I , Bulgarian Tsar
- Meinhard von Segeberg , first bishop of Livonia in Uexküll (* around 1135 )
- Ralf II , Latin Patriarch of Antioch
- Richard of Acerra , Count of Acerra
- Wartislaw Swantiboricz , castellan of Szczecin