|double election of 1198 , both Philipp von Schwaben and Otto von Braunschweig were elected Roman-German king.||Innocent III. becomes Pope.|
Leopold VI. becomes
Duke of Austria .
|Battle of Gisors , Richard the Lionheart defeats the army of knights led by King Philip II of France .|
|1198 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||646/647 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1741/42 (southern Buddhism); 1740/41 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||64th (65th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||560/561 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||594/595 (turn of the year 2nd / 3rd November)|
|Jewish calendar||4958/59 (September 2/3)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1508/09 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1509/10 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1254/55 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
German controversy for the throne
Philipp von Schwaben has since the death of his brother Emperor Heinrich VI. led the regency for his son Friedrich II, who was crowned king in 1196 . When he realizes at the beginning of the year that his nephew's four-year-old nephew's claims to rule cannot be enforced, he tries to secure the crown of the empire for himself. Meanwhile, the English King Richard I proposed his nephew Otto von Braunschweig , the Duke of Aquitaine , as a candidate. The Saxon princes perceive this candidacy as a threat because they owe a large part of their possessions to the overthrow of Otto's father Heinrich the Lion and fear retributions if the Guelph is elected . The Saxon Duke Bernhard III. then withdraws his own promising candidacy and announces his support for the Staufer Philipp.
On March 8 is Philip of Swabia elected by the Hohenstaufen minded prince Roman-German king. However, he failed to quickly catch up with the coronation and to assert his kingship by issuing certificates. Favored by this , the anti-Staufer princes elect Otto von Braunschweig as the opposing king on June 9th .
- June 29th : Philip of Swabia forms an alliance with Philip II of France.
- July 12 : The Guelph . Otto IV of Brunswick is in Aachen from Cologne Archbishop Adolf of Altena to Roman-German king crowned - at the right place, but with the wrong insignia.
- September 8 : The Staufer Philipp von Schwaben is crowned German king in Mainz - in the wrong place, but with real imperial regalia . Archbishop Konrad I von Wittelsbach is on a crusade in the Holy Land at this time, which is why the Burgundian Archbishop Aimo von Tarentaise takes on the task.
- September 8 : For his support, Philip makes the Bohemian Duke Ottokar I Přemysl King of Bohemia .
- Pope Innocent III behaves in a wait-and-see manner on the question of the choice of a king, although he claims the right to make a decision. There are, however, differences of opinion with the Staufers, as Philip of Swabia rejects the pope's feudal sovereignty over the Staufer kingdom of Sicily .
Kingdom of Sicily
- May 17 : Constance of Sicily leaves her not four year old son Frederick II. In Palermo for King of Sicily crown and places it under the protection of Pope Innocent III. At the same time, she renounces the German crown in his name and breaks the bond that her husband had made between the empire and Sicily . In order to strengthen her position, she banned Heinrich's unpopular alien partisans such as Chancellor Walter von Pagliara , Markward von Annweiler and Konrad von Urslingen .
- November 27 : Constanze of Sicily dies surprisingly at the age of 44. Pope Innocent takes over the guardianship of her son Friedrich. Walter von Pagliara is reinstated as Chancellor. A time of anarchy breaks out in the empire, in which the German followers of Henry VI who have moved into the country. vie for power with the native Norman nobility.
Other events in the Holy Roman Empire
- February 1 : After the death of Walram I , his son Heinrich II becomes Count of Nassau at the age of eight .
- April 16 : Duke Friedrich I of Austria of the Babenberg family dies on his way back from the Holy Land. Since he has no children, his inheritance falls to his younger brother Leopold VI. , which means that the Duchy of Austria is reunited with the Duchy of Styria in one hand.
France / England
- September 28 : In his attempt to smash the Angevin Empire of the English Plantagenet dynasty in the middle of France , the French King Philip II meets the English King Richard the Lionheart near Gisors . In the battle of Gisors the English defeat the French army of knights. With papal mediation, both parties then resume peace talks.
- The construction of the Château Gaillard , built by Richard the Lionheart, is completed.
Crusades / Holy Land
- January 6th : The Archbishop of Mainz Konrad von Wittelsbach crowns Prince Leo II in Tarsus in the presence of the Armenian Catholicos as King of Lesser Armenia .
- On the news of the death of Emperor Heinrich VI. Most of the crusaders set out for their homeland to secure their fief rights in the empire.
- July: The crusade of Henry VI ends with a five-year truce between King Amalrich II of Jerusalem and the Ayyubid Sultan Al-Adil I. Al-Adil I confirms the Crusaders, namely the Kingdom of Jerusalem , their conquests. King Amalrich II of Jerusalem gives the conquered lands to local nobles: The rule of Beirut goes to John I of Ibelin as a fief . The county of Sidon goes to its old owner, Rainald Garnier . The rule of Gibelet , as part of the County of Tripoli , is given to Guido I. Embriaco .
- November 4th : Pope Innocent III. granted to Count Raimund VI, banned since 1195 . of Toulouse absolution against the promise of a crusade to the Holy Land, which Raimund never takes on.
- November 29 : After the death of Al-Aziz Uthman , he is followed by his nine-year-old son Al-Malik al-Mansur Nasir ad-Din Muhammad as Sultan of the Ayyubids in Egypt .
- Kamakura period : The 18-year-old Japanese Tennō Go-Toba is deposed by Shōgun Minamoto no Yoritomo and replaced by his two-year-old son Tsuchimikado .
First documentary mentions
- Hōnen founds the controversial Jōdo School ( School of the Pure Land ) of Japanese Buddhism , which can be assigned to Amida Buddhism .
- January 8th : Pope Celestine III. dies in Rome after seven years of pontificate . On the same day, the 37-year-old Lotario dei Conti di Segni was elected as his successor in the second ballot .
- February 22nd : Count Lotario di Segni is named Pope Innocent III. enthroned . He uses the German controversy for the throne to expand the power of the papacy and the papal state. On August 15, he called for a fourth crusade with the bull Post miserabile Ierusolimitane (for no specific reason) . In addition, in the same year he imposed the interdict on Philip II of France because of his double marriage.
- At the beginning of the year Konrad von Querfurt was elected Bishop of Würzburg during his stay in the Holy Land as the successor to Gottfried II, who died the previous year . Since the Arch Chancellor is already Bishop of Hildesheim at this point in time , the Pope accuses him of accumulating offices and, under threat of excommunication, calls on him to resign from his new office, a request that Konrad does not comply with by the end of the year.
- August 5th : John X. Kamateros becomes Patriarch of Constantinople as the successor of George II Xiphilinos , who died on July 7th . He begins an exchange of letters with Pope Innocent III. on questions of the papal primacy and the filioque .
- Yaroslav of Opole is elected to succeed Siroslaus II as Bishop of Wroclaw . In the same year he consecrated the Church of St. James in Neisse .
- March 5 : The Teutonic Order , founded as a field hospital during the Third Crusade , is promoted to the status of a knightly order during the German Crusade at the instigation of Wolfger von Erla and Konrad von Querfurt, following the example of the Templars and Johanniter .
- The hospital fraternity of the Hospitallers of the Holy Spirit receives papal confirmation.
- Johannes von Matha and Felix von Valois found the Trinitarian Order in Cerfroid near Paris .
- In Montpellier, the hospital order is founded by the Holy Spirit .
Monasteries and church buildings
- Cyprus is of Augustinian canons , the abbey Bellapais founded.
- The Cleeve Abbey in England, the Cymer Abbey in Wales and the Kilshane Abbey in Ireland are founded.
- Sava of Serbia and his father Stefan Nemanja found the Hilandar Monastery on Mount Athos .
Date of birth saved
- August 24 : Alexander II , King of Scotland († 1249 )
- September 11 : Hōjō Shigetoki , Japanese politician († 1261 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Beatrix of Swabia , Roman-German Empress († 1212 )
- Ertuğrul , türkmenischer / oghusischer clan leader († 1281 / 1282 )
- Fujiwara no Tameie , Japanese poet († 1275 )
- Johann von Braine , Count of Vienne and Mâcon († 1239 )
- Sibylle of Lusignan , Cypriot princess and queen of Armenia († around 1230 )
- Walter Stewart , Scottish nobleman and High Stewart of Scotland († 1246 )
Date of death secured
- January 8 : Celestine III. , Pope (* around 1106 )
- January 21 : Gerhard Unmaze , Cologne merchant and banker
- February 1 : Walram I , Count of Nassau, participant in the Third Crusade and co-founder of the Teutonic Order (* around 1146 )
- March 11 : Marie de Champagne , Countess of Champagne (* 1145 )
- March 27 : Hugh de Nonant , Bishop of Coventry
- April 16 : Friedrich I , Duke of Austria (* around 1175 )
- May 5th : Sophia of Minsk , Queen of Denmark (* around 1140 )
- July 7th : George II Xiphilinos , Patriarch of Constantinople
- July 17th : Nerses of Lambron , Archbishop of Tarsus (* 1153 )
- July 24th : Berthold , Bishop in Livonia
- September 1 : Dulce of Barcelona , Aragonese princess and queen of Portugal (* 1160 )
- September 15 : Friedrich II. , Count Palatine in Bavaria (* around 1120 )
- September 25 : John de Coutances , Bishop of Worcester
- November 27 : Constance of Sicily , Roman-German Empress, Queen of Sicily and Queen of Naples (* 1154 )
- November 29 : Al-Aziz , Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt (* 1171 )
- December 10th : Averroes , Andalusian-Arabic philosopher, doctor and mystic (* 1126 )
- December 24th : William de Vere , Lord Chancellor and keeper of the seals of England, Bishop of Hereford (* around 1120 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Abraham ben David von Posquières , French Talmud scholar (* 1125 )
- Barompa Dharma Wangchug , person of Tibetan Buddhism (* 1127 )
- Bernhard II , Count of Ratzeburg
- Ruaidhrí Ua Conchobair , the last high king of Ireland of Irish descent
- Siroslaus II , Bishop of Wroclaw
- Wortwin , German canon and protonotary of Frederick I (* around 1135 )