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Heads of State · Nekrolog

Philip of Swabia;  Miniature from a Weißenau manuscript around 1200
In the double election of 1198 , both Philipp von Schwaben and Otto von Braunschweig were elected Roman-German king.
Innocent III, fresco in the Sacro Speco monastery, around 1219
Innocent III. becomes Pope.
Duke Leopold VI.  (the glorious).  Excerpt from the Babenberger family tree, Klosterneuburg Abbey.
Leopold VI. becomes
Duke of Austria .
The Battle of Gisors in the annals of Saint-Denis, 14th century
In the Battle of Gisors , Richard the Lionheart defeats the army of knights led by King Philip II of France .
1198 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 646/647 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1190/91
Buddhist calendar 1741/42 (southern Buddhism); 1740/41 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 64th (65th) cycle

Year of the Earth-Horse戊午 ( at the beginning of the year Fire-Snake 丁巳)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 560/561 (turn of the year April)
Iranian calendar 576/577
Islamic calendar 594/595 (turn of the year 2nd / 3rd November)
Jewish calendar 4958/59 (September 2/3)
Coptic calendar 914/915
Malayalam calendar 373/374
Seleucid era Babylon: 1508/09 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1509/10 (New Year October)

Spanish era 1236
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1254/55 (turn of the year April)


Politics and world events

German controversy for the throne

Depiction of Philip of Swabia in the Cologne royal chronicle (13th century)

Philipp von Schwaben has since the death of his brother Emperor Heinrich VI. led the regency for his son Friedrich II, who was crowned king in 1196 . When he realizes at the beginning of the year that his nephew's four-year-old nephew's claims to rule cannot be enforced, he tries to secure the crown of the empire for himself. Meanwhile, the English King Richard I proposed his nephew Otto von Braunschweig , the Duke of Aquitaine , as a candidate. The Saxon princes perceive this candidacy as a threat because they owe a large part of their possessions to the overthrow of Otto's father Heinrich the Lion and fear retributions if the Guelph is elected . The Saxon Duke Bernhard III. then withdraws his own promising candidacy and announces his support for the Staufer Philipp.

On March 8 is Philip of Swabia elected by the Hohenstaufen minded prince Roman-German king. However, he failed to quickly catch up with the coronation and to assert his kingship by issuing certificates. Favored by this , the anti-Staufer princes elect Otto von Braunschweig as the opposing king on June 9th .

  • Pope Innocent III behaves in a wait-and-see manner on the question of the choice of a king, although he claims the right to make a decision. There are, however, differences of opinion with the Staufers, as Philip of Swabia rejects the pope's feudal sovereignty over the Staufer kingdom of Sicily .

Kingdom of Sicily

Sarcophagus of Constanze in the Cathedral of Palermo
  • November 27 : Constanze of Sicily dies surprisingly at the age of 44. Pope Innocent takes over the guardianship of her son Friedrich. Walter von Pagliara is reinstated as Chancellor. A time of anarchy breaks out in the empire, in which the German followers of Henry VI who have moved into the country. vie for power with the native Norman nobility.

Other events in the Holy Roman Empire


France / England

  • The construction of the Château Gaillard , built by Richard the Lionheart, is completed.

Crusades / Holy Land



First documentary mentions




Church hierarchy
Religious orders
Monasteries and church buildings
The Bellapais Abbey Church
Church of St. Marien zu Schildau


Date of birth saved

Exact date of birth unknown


Date of death secured

The corpse of the crusader Friedrich I is transported back to Austria. ( Babenberger family tree , around 1490, Klosterneuburg Abbey)

Exact date of death unknown

Died around 1198

Web links

Commons : 1198  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files