Philip of Swabia
is murdered by Count Palatine Otto VIII von Wittelsbach .
|Otto IV is unanimously elected Roman-German king .||
Battle of Lena
, Erik Knutsson wins
over Sweden's King Sverker II.
|1208 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||656/657 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1751/52 (southern Buddhism); 1750/51 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||570/571 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||604/605 (turn of the year July 15th / 16th)|
|Jewish calendar||4968/69 (September 12-13)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1518/19 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1519/20 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1264/65 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Holy Roman Empire
Philip of Swabia is increasingly gaining the upper hand in the German throne contest , while more and more imperial princes turn away from his adversary Otto von Braunschweig . Pope Innocent III, too . sees himself forced to an agreement with the Staufer and enters into negotiations with Philipp. In May Philipp plans another decisive campaign against the Guelph Otto and his remaining followers.
- June 21 : Philip interrupts the preparations for war in order to attend the wedding of his niece Beatrix of Burgundy and Duke Otto VII of Meranien in Bamberg . After the wedding by Bishop Ekbert von Andechs-Meranien , Philipp retires to his private chambers in the old court . There he is murdered by the Bavarian Count Palatine Otto VIII von Wittelsbach , probably in retaliation for breaking the engagement with Philip's daughter Kunigunde von Staufen .
- Philip's widow, the pregnant Queen Irene , fled to Hohenstaufen Castle and suffered a miscarriage, which resulted in her dying on August 27th . She leaves four daughters aged three to ten years. With Philip's nephew Friedrich , who is in the Kingdom of Sicily , there is only one male Staufer.
- For Otto von Braunschweig, who probably has nothing to do with the attack, the way to rule in the Holy Roman Empire is free. Previous opponents of the Guelph, such as Bishop Konrad from Halberstadt or Archbishop Albrecht II from Magdeburg , will join Otto in July.
- September 22nd : The princes of Saxony and Thuringia, so far staunch supporters of Philip, are unanimous in favor of Otto IV.
- November 11th : Otto IV is unanimously elected king in Frankfurt. As a symbol of reconciliation with the Staufer party, Philip's ten-year-old daughter Beatrix von Schwaben is engaged to Otto. The new king pronounces the imperial ban on Otto von Wittelsbach and has the assassin persecuted mercilessly. Bamberg's Bishop Ekbert and Margrave Heinrich IV of Istria , who are suspected of co-conspiracy, lose their offices, fiefs and income.
- November 15 : King Otto confirms his fiefdom to Ludwig Wittelsbach as Duke of Bavaria and also enfeoffs him with several of the fiefdoms that have become free. By the end of the year Otto was recognized by practically all imperial princes with the help of similar favors.
Kingdom of Sicily / Crown of Aragón
- Pope Innocent III arranges a marriage between King Frederick II of Sicily and Constance of Aragón , daughter of King Alfonso II of Aragon . The marriage is concluded in October by proxy.
- December 26th : The Pope's guardianship of King Friedrich II ends on his 14th birthday.
- The papal legate Pierre de Castelnau , who is in charge of the suppression of the Albigensian movement in southern France , is supported by a follower of Count Raimund VI. killed by Toulouse . Pope Innocent III delivers this . the welcome occasion for the Albigensian Crusade, which began the following year .
- March: In the dispute over the appointment of bishops with King Johann Ohneland , Pope Innocent III. the interdict over the Kingdom of England . In return, Johann confiscated other church property in England.
- January 31 : In the Battle of Lena , Erik Knutsson with Norwegian support defeats Sweden's King Sverker II , who then fled to Denmark. The battle is part of longstanding power struggles between the Erik and Sverker families for the Swedish throne.
- On Kvitsøy , through the mediation of Bishops Tore Gudmundsson and Nikolas Arnason, a peace treaty is concluded between Baglers and Birkebeiners in the Norwegian civil war . Bagler Philipp Simonsson receives Oppland and a large part of the Oslofjord, Birkebeiner Inge II and Håkon Galen share power on the border north of Dovre west of Langfjell. Despite minor incidents, there followed a ten-year period of rest in the history of Norway .
First documentary mentions
- Andeer , Cologny , Krauchthal , Meikirch , Schüpfen , Vrin and Žilina are first mentioned in a document.
- The castle Altweilnau is first mentioned.
- Bruno IV. Von Sayn , Archbishop of Cologne , is released from Staufer custody after the murder of Philip of Swabia and goes to Cologne, where he is met by Pope Innocent III. the rightful Archbishop of Cologne is determined and the removal of Adolf von Altena is confirmed. On September 11th, Bruno triumphantly returned to Cologne, where Adolf von Altena and his supporters now submit. On November 2 Bruno dies at Castle Blankenberg. For the time being there will be no election of a bishop, since the prior college does not agree on the rights of the former bishop Adolf I.
- December 22nd : At the urging of King Otto VI. is Dietrich I of Hengebach unanimously to Archbishop of Cologne elected.
- Heinrich von Tunna starts a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. In Palestine he joined the Teutonic Order and was elected Grand Master in the same year as the successor to the resigned Otto von Kerpen .
- From now on Francis of Assisi only wears a robe made of coarse material and a rope, no shoes, no bag and avoids any possessions, in a true fulfillment of the Gospel.
- The Croatian monastery Topusko is founded.
Date of birth saved
- February 2 : James I , King of Aragón, Count of Barcelona and Lord of Montpellier († 1276 )
- April 20 : Gamal ad-Din Muhammad ibn Wasil , Arab politician, diplomat and historian († 1298 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Henry the Cruel , Duke of Austria († 1227 / 1228 )
- Smbat Sparapet , Armenian chronicler and constable of Lesser Armenia († 1276 )
- Simon de Montfort , English nobleman and leader of the first revolution on English soil († 1265 )
Born around 1208
- Knut Håkonsson , Swedish-Norwegian rival king († 1261 )
- Sambor II , Duke of Pomeranian in Liebschau and Dirschau († 1278 )
Date of death secured
- January 15 : Pierre de Castelnau , Cistercian and papal legate
- January 31 : Knut Birgersson , Jarl of Sweden
- January 31 : Magnus Minnesköld , Swedish nobleman and district judge (* around 1175 )
- April 22nd : Philip of Poitou , English prelate
- June 21 : Philip of Swabia (murdered), Roman-German King (* 1179 )
- July: Peter of Angoulême , Latin Patriarch of Antioch
- August 27th : Irene von Schwaben , Roman-German queen and wife of Philip of Swabia
- August 29th : Dietrich II von Kittlitz , Bishop of Meissen
- October 6 : Geoffrey de Muschamp , Bishop of Coventry
- November 2nd : Bruno IV. Von Sayn , Archbishop of Cologne (* around 1165 )
- November 9th : Sancha of Castile , Queen of Aragon (* 1155 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Matthew III. , Count of Beaumont-sur-Oise and Valois
- Ranieri Dandolo , vice duke and naval commander of the Republic of Venice
- Leon Sgouros , autonomous Byzantine ruler in Greece, Archon of Nauplia