Calendar overview 1209
|Albigensian Crusade begins in southern France.|
|1209 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||657/658 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1752/53 (southern Buddhism); 1751/52 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||571/572 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||605/606 (turn of the year July 5th / 6th)|
|Jewish calendar||4969/70 (August 31 / September 1)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1519/20 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1520/21 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1265/66 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
The Albigensian Crusade
- On the occasion of the assassination of the legate Pierre de Castelnau , Pope Innocent III. called last year to crusade against the Albigensians . The participating crusaders were promised the forgiveness of the penalties for sin (indulgence). The conquered areas are to be re-assigned as fiefs by the Pope to aristocratic participants in the crusade. 10,000 crusaders from France and the Holy Roman Empire gather in the spring under the leadership of Arnaud Amaury , Odo III. of Burgundy , Hervé of Nevers and Walter of Saint-Pol in Lyon . A large part of the Occitan nobility and, closely intertwined with them, the Catholic Church, whose members, however, are forbidden to take up arms, stand on the side of the opponents .
- June 18 : Count Raimund VI , excommunicated two years ago . von Toulouse submits to the Holy See in a ceremony of penance and reconciliation.
- July 22nd : In the course of the Albigensian Crusade, the city of Béziers is conquered and razed to the ground. In the massacre that followed, almost the entire population, around 20,000 people, was murdered.
- August 1st : The crusaders reach Carcassonne , which surrenders after a two-week siege. The majority of the population has fled through underground passages into the surrounding forests. Those left behind are burned, hanged or driven naked from the city. The Vice Count of Béziers-Carcassonne, Raimund-Roger Trencavel , was locked in a dungeon as a supporter of the heresy and, in accordance with the applicable expropriation principle, declared his titles and domains forfeited.
- August 15 : After the fall of Carcassonne, Simon de Montfort is elected by the Crusaders as Viscount of Béziers and Carcassonne and as military leader of the Crusade.
- Albi , Castelnaudary , Castres , Fanjeaux , Limoux , Lombers and Montréal surrender after the fall of Carcassonnes.
- End of August: Most crusaders leave the crusader army after the required minimum time of 40 days.
- September: Simon of Montford begins to siege the domains of Count Raimund Roger of Foix , with which he commits a clear violation of the law.
- November 10 : Raymond II Trencavel succeeds his father, who died in prison, in his rights.
- Winter: About 40 conquered towns rise and drive out their crusader garrisons. The local knighthood also comes together to resist.
- November: In the dispute over the appointment of bishops , Pope Innocent III excommunicated . the English King Johann Ohneland , whereupon several bishops leave the country. For once in a dispute with the church, the barons stand united behind their king.
Holy Roman Empire / Italy
- March 7 : The under imperial ban standing . Otto VIII of Wittelsbach , murderers of the German king Philipp of Swabia is of Reichsmarschall Henry of Kalden placed in Oberndorf near Kelheim and killed in combat. The dead man's head is thrown into the Danube, and the corpse is kept in a barrel for years.
- March 22nd : German controversy for the throne : In the Treaty of Speyer, King Otto IV renews the Neuss oath of 1201 and recognizes the papal claims to territory in central and southern Italy. In June he leaves Augsburg on an Italian train .
- October 4th : Pope Innocent III. crowns Otto IV. in Rome as Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire . On the same day Otto promises to go on a crusade . Contrary to papal expectations, Otto remains in Italy and expresses his claim to rule in the areas that he promised the Pope as restitution.
- October: Otto falls out with Albrecht I von Käfernburg , the Archbishop of Magdeburg , one of his closest allies.
- January 9th : The Latin Emperor Heinrich crowns Demetrius of Montferrat as King of Thessaloniki and has the leader of the rebellious Lombards Oberto II von Biandrate imprisoned.
- May 1st : At an imperial assembly, Heinrich subordinates the Duchy of Athens and the Principality of Achaia , previously vassals of Thessaloniki, directly to the imperial crown. The Lombard knights demonstratively stay away from the meeting. By the end of May, Heinrich put down the Lombards' uprising for good. Ravano dalle Carceri , Lord of Negroponte in Euboea , is one of the last to give up.
City rights and first documentary mentions
- Salzgitter-Hohenrode , Kniestedt (former district of Salzgitter-Bad ), and Söderhof (district of Haverlah ) are listed in a document from Pope Innocent III. from June 6 first mentioned. In this document, the Ringelheim Monastery is placed under the protection of the Pope and his possessions in a total of 61 surrounding villages are listed.
- Stade receives city rights .
- Köpenick (under the name Copanic), Bergün / Bravuogn , Dornstadt , Neftenbach , Greiz , Le Landeron and Weida are first mentioned in a document.
- First documentary mention of the noble family von Werthern with Heroldus de Wirthere .
science and technology
- The University of Cambridge is of Oxford set out.
- The University of Vicenza is dissolved again after only five years.
Religion and culture
- Bruno II. Von Porstendorf succeeds Dietrich II. Von Kittlitz, who died the previous year, as Bishop of Meissen .
- Beginning of the new construction of the Magdeburg Cathedral (considered to be the first German Gothic church)
- First mention of the Riga Petrikirche
- February 20 : King Otto IV gives the Teutonic Order an imperial court in front of Nuremberg with the already existing Jakobskapelle. Here the order immediately erects a commander .
- The Arabona Monastery is founded.
Date of birth saved
Exact date of birth unknown
- Möngke Khan , Great Khan of the Mongols († 1259 )
- Waldemar , Duke of Schleswig and King of Denmark (co-regent), († 1231 )
Born around 1209
Date of death secured
- February 2 : Alfonso II , Count of Provence (* 1180 )
- March 7th : Otto VIII von Wittelsbach , Count Palatine of Bavaria
- March 12th : Nezāmi , Persian poet (* around 1141 )
- June 2 : Heinrich von Tunna , Grand Master of the Teutonic Order
- September 21 : Gerhard von Steterburg , chronicler and provost
- October 16 : Ermengol VIII. , Count of Urgell (* 1158 )
- November 9th : Reinher della Torre , Bishop of Chur
- November 10 : Raimund-Roger Trencavel , Vice Count of Carcassonne (* 1185 )
- November 12th : Philippe du Plessiez , Grand Master of the Templar Order (* around 1165 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Fachr ad-Dīn ar-Rāzī , Persian Sunni Muslim theologian and philosopher (* 1149 )
- Margrete Eriksdotter , Queen of Norway (* around 1155 )
- Moritz I. , Count of Oldenburg (* around 1145 )
- Petrus Riga , French clergyman, poet and canon (* around 1140 )
- Wilhelm I of Champlitte , Prince of Achaia