From the 13th century until the early modern period, inquisitors headed inquisition commissions, which were set up on behalf of the Roman Catholic Church , especially in southern and central European areas, in order to proceed against so-called heretics on the basis of the inquisition proceedings To induce "purity of faith" to repent and repent or, if necessary, to punish. Inquisitors could summon suspects, interrogate them, excommunicate them, give them absolution, order imprisonment or torture and pass judgments. They also had the right to appoint helpers and deputies. Since the 1240s, the term "Inquisitores heretice pravitatis" (persecutors of heretical depravity) became commonplace for inquisitors . In the Middle Ages , the activity of an inquisitor was usually limited. that is, it could end once an inquisitorial investigation for an area was deemed complete. It is also known from many clergy that they held the title of inquisitor , but were not active in the fight against heretics ( titular inquisitors ). With the officialization of the Inquisition in the early modern period in some southern European countries, permanent general or grand inquisitorial posts were created for superordinate inquisition officers (see also: Grand Inquisitor ).
Group of people
According to canon law, an inquisitor could only be a clergyman who was at least 40 years old and also had legal knowledge and experience. Furthermore, he had to “devote himself to an exemplary life.” Inquisitorial powers were primarily given to bishops or religious from the Dominican or Franciscan order . In the modern Spanish Inquisition , secular jurists could also be appointed to the office of inquisitor.
Catholic bishops, especially in the 13th century, were able to act as inquisitors of their own accord. The legal basis for this formed the 1184 under Pope Lucius III. (1181–1185) issued Bull Ad Abolendam , which even provided for an inquisition obligation for bishops, which was, however, only poorly complied with. At the same time, based on the model of Pope Innocent III in 1206 . Since the 1230s, the Holy See has increasingly appointed its own inquisitors as papal legates , especially from the ranks of the above-mentioned orders, in accordance with the decretals Qualiter et quando . Because of this different ordering practice, a distinction can also be made between episcopal and papal inquisitors. Although inquisitors had previously sat in court over heretics, full jurisdiction was only officially granted to them with the decretal Ad Extirpanda issued in 1252 under Pope Innocent IV . The same document also allowed the inquisitors to order the use of torture to establish the truth during interrogation. In 1254, under Pope Alexander IV , they were authorized to supervise torture interrogations. In this context, inquisitors were allowed to give one another absolution for their actions. Due to disputes over competency between papal inquisitors and bishops, the Council of Vienne decided in 1311 that the presidency of an inquisition to be carried out was to be chaired equally by the diocesan bishop and the appointed inquisitor.
List of known inquisitors
The names of the senior inquisitors of many of the inquisitions that have been held are not known. The following list provides an (incomplete) overview of known inquisitors working there, sorted according to today's national territories. As far as known, the inquisitorial investigation areas and the corresponding periods are named after the names.
- Nicolas Jacquier in Tournai (1465)
- Konrad von Marburg in the Rhineland and Thuringia (1231–1233)
- Johann Schadland Inquisitor for Germany (1348–1364)
- Walter Kerlinger in Eisenach, Erfurt, Mühlhausen (from 1364)
- Petrus Zwicker in Erfurt and Stettin (1392-1394)
- Jakob von Soest in the Cologne Church Province (from 1409)
- Heinrich Kramer in Ravensburg (1480s)
- Jakob van Hoogstraten in Cologne, Mainz and Trier (from 1508)
- Robert le Bougre et al. a. in Franche-Comté and La Charité-sur-Loire (1232–1244)
- Petrus Seila in the Quercy area (1241-1242)
- Bernard de Caux in the area between Toulouse and Carcassonne (1245–1246)
- Jean de Saint-Paul in the area between Toulouse and Carcassonne (1245–1246)
- Bernard Gui et al. a. in Toulouse and Carcassonne (1307–1323)
- Jacques Fournier in the southern French county of Foix (1318-1326)
- Pierre Cauchon in Rouen: Trial of Joan of Arc (1431)
- John of Vicenza in Verona (1233)
- Ruggiero Calcagni in Florence (1240s)
- Peter of Verona in Florence (1240s)
- Rainer Sacconi (1240s)
- Peter of Verona in the area around Como and Milan (1251–1252)
- Salomone da Lucca in Florence (1280s)
- Giulio Antonio Santorio Grand Inquisitor for Italy (around 1590)
- Peter Titelmans in Flanders (1548–1566)
- Otto von Lonsdorf in the Austrian Danube Region (around 1260)
- Heinrich von Olmütz in the area around Steyr (approx. 1370)
- Petrus Zwicker in the area around Steyr, Enns, Hartberg (1391–1398)
- Heinrich Kramer in Innsbruck (1480s)
- Johannes Capistranus in Breslau (1453)
- Tomás de Torquemada Grand Inquisitor in Spain (from 1484)
- Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros Grand Inquisitor in Castile (from 1507)
- Hadrian VI. Grand Inquisitor in Spain (from 1516)
- Hartmann von Pilsen and Inquisitor Colda in Prague and Olomouc (from 1318)
- Gallus von Neuhaus in South Bohemia (1335–1355)
- Nicolas Jacquier in Bohemia (1466–1468)
- Petrus Zwicker in Sopron (1401)
- Johann Martinu: The Waldesier and the Hussite Reformation in Bohemia . Vienna (among others) 1910.
- Gerd Schwerhoff: The Inquisition: Persecution of Heretics in the Middle Ages and Modern Times. CH Beck, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-406-50840-5
- Gerd Schwerhoff: Beyond the black legend. In: Back then. Magazine for History and Culture 2/2001, pp. 10–21.
- Peter Segl: Establishment and mode of operation of the inquisitio haereticae pravitatis in medieval Europe . In: Segl, Peter (ed.): The beginnings of the Inquisition in the Middle Ages. With an outlook on the 20th century and a contribution on religious intolerance in the non-Christian area. Cologne (et al.) 1993, pp. 1-28.
- Schwerhoff: Beyond the black legend. P. 13.
- Martinu: Waldesier, p. 4 .; see. Schwerhoff: The Inquisition, p. 53.