Philipp Hurepel (French: Philippe Hurepel ; * approx. 1200; † January 1234 ) was a prince of the French royal dynasty of the Capetians as the younger son of King Philip II August from his third bigamistic marriage with Agnes of Merania . His nickname means something like "bristle skin" or "the bristle one", probably because of the bristle hair on the head.
Philipp was the second child of his parents and was probably born around 1199/1200; his mother died on July 29, 1201 giving birth to a third child. The parents' marriage in 1196 was invalid under canon law, as King Philip II was already living in a legally valid marriage with Ingeborg of Denmark at that time . Consequently Philipp and his older full sister Maria were of illegitimate birth. But after her father had formally resumed his marriage to Ingeborg after the death of Agnes, her legal status was fully legitimized by a papal bull dated November 2, 1201.
In August 1201, the first year about Philip was in Compiegne by his father with the only slightly older Mathilde were engaged († 1259), the heiress Count Renaud I of Dammartin and Boulogne , which incidentally is his oldest written reference. The engagement was renewed in Saint-Germain-en-Laye in May 1210 and also endured the following felony of Rainald von Dammartin to the king, which culminated in his capture at the Battle of Bouvines on July 27, 1214. It is unclear when the marriage was legally formalized, but this should have happened by 1218 at the latest, when Mathilde was first named in a royal document with the title “Countess von Dammartin” . Philip himself was entrusted by his father with the counties of Clermont and parts of the counties of Mortain and Aumale as his own appanages by 1220 at the latest . On May 17, 1222, he was knighted by the Count of Champagne and shortly afterwards in September of the same year he was given an inheritance in his father's will. After the death of his father in August 1223 he was first mentioned in a document from his stepmother Ingeborg with the title "Count of Boulogne" , which he held only from his wife's inheritance law ( iure uxoris ) , but from then on preferred in all his documents Has. His half-brother Ludwig VIII confirmed it in Melun in February 1224 in his own as well as in his wife's possessions.
Philipp has remained a loyal follower to his half-brother. In 1224 he accompanied him on the campaign in the Poitou against the Plantagenêts and in 1226 on the Albigensian Crusade . In November 1226 he was on his brother's deathbed in Montpensier . As the oldest living Capetian, Philipp now had claims to the reign for his underage nephew King Ludwig IX. but initially did not oppose their being taken over by his sister-in-law Blanka of Castile , probably also because she continued to keep his father-in-law in captivity. But only shortly after his death in 1227, Philip joined the uprising of the barons around his cousin Peter Mauclerc in the autumn of the same year . However, when he quickly recognized his inferiority to Count Theobald von Champagne and Ferdinand von Flanders , allied with the regent , he submitted to the regent and was pardoned for it. From then on he played no further role in politics.
Philip's last document issued is dated May 1233 and he wrote his will towards the end of that year. Most chroniclers also place his death in this year, but since the necrology of the Abbey of Vauluisant, among other things, records January 19 as the date of his death, he will be in the year 1234. Also Alberic of Trois-Fontaines calls this year of death and noted the funeral of Philip in the abbey of Saint-Denis . That Philip died on July 13, 1234 in Nijmegen as a result of an accident in a jost with Count Florens IV of Holland , lacks any historiographical basis; no narrative chronicle and no certificate connect him with this tournament or lead to the conclusion that he would have been alive beyond January 1234.
The daughter Johanna († January 1252) emerged from her marriage to Mathilde von Dammartin , who inherited Clermont and who was betrothed to Walter von Châtillon († 1250), heir to Nevers, Auxerre and Tonnerre, in 1236 . Contrary to all later claims, Philipp and Mathilde did not have a son named Alberich (Aubry), who renounced the parental inheritance in favor of a life in England and married a son to a daughter of "King Simon of England" there. This rather legendary and unproven information comes from the unreliable works of Jean-François Dreux du Radier from the 18th century. But there is no mention of a son in Philip's will or in any other document of him and his wife.
coat of arms
Philipp Hurepel was the first younger prince from the Capetian dynasty to include the royal lilies in his coat of arms. In a representation of a stained glass window of Chartres Cathedral preserved as a drawing , he wears a gold fleur de lys on a blue coat and a red tournament collar, which from then on became the attribute of every second-born prince. For his seal he used a fleur de lys and the letter P (Une fleur de lys, accompagnée des lettres P.). All other younger princes followed this example, underscoring their ascendancy to the royal dynasty for themselves and their descendants. From this, among other things, the descendants of kings developed in the further course of the Middle Ages a self- image of being princes of the blood .
- Delisle, Léopold, Recherches sur les comtes de Dammartin au XIIIe siècle, in: Mémoires de la Société nationale des antiquaires de France, Vol. 31 (1869), pp. 191-226.
- Delisle, Léopold, Catalog des actes de Philippe-Auguste. Paris, 1856.
- Potthast, August, Regesta Pontificium Romanorum, 2 volumes. Berlin, 1874-1875.
- Teulet, Alexandre, Layettes du Trésor des Chartes, volumes 1 and 2. Paris, 1863–1909.
- The epithet was used in the rhyme chronicle of Philippe Mouskes ("Et li quiens Hurepiaus Felipres, ..."; RHGF , vol. 22, p. 50, line 28331) and in the chronicle of an anonymous from Reims ("conte Phelippe Hurepiel"; RHGF , Vol. 22, p. 304) is used.
- See Potthast, Vol. 1, No. 1499, 1500, p. 132; Rigord , Gesta Philippi Augusti, in: RHGF, Vol. 17, p. 54; Wilhelm Brito , Gesta Philippi Augusti, in: RHGF, Vol. 17, p. 75; Alberich von Trois-Fontaines , Chronica, in: MGH , SS 23, pp. 872, 878.
- See Teulet, Vol. 1, No. 613, pp. 226f.
- See Teulet, Vol. 1, No. 925, 926, p. 351.
- See Delisle (1856), No. 1826, p. 402.
- See Trois-Fontaines in: MGH, SS 23, p. 912; Wilhelm Brito, Gesta Philippi Augusti, in: RHGF, Vol. 17, p. 115; Teulet, Vol. 1, No. 1546, 1547, pp. 549ff.
- See RHGF, Vol. 19, No. XXV, p. 324; Wilhelm Brito, Gesta Philippi Augusti, in: RHGF, vol. 17, p. 87.
- See Teulet, Vol. 2, No. 1629, 1630, pp. 23f.
- See Trois-Fontaines in: MGH, SS 23, p. 913f.
- See Teulet, Vol. 2, No. 1811, p. 96f.
- See Jean de Joinville , Histoire de Saint Louis, in: RHGF, Vol. 20, p. 201; Guillaume de Nangis , Gesta Sancti Ludovici, in: RHGF, vol. 20, p. 312f.
- See Delisle (1869), p. 12; Martène, Edmond, Thesaurus novus anedcotorum, Vol. 1 (1717), Col. 988-991.
- See Obituaires de la province de Sens, Vol. 1/1 (1902), p. 53 . Various other death registers also mention January 17th and 18th as the date of death.
- Cf. Alberich von Trois-Fontaines, Chronica, in: MGH, SS 23, p. 934.
- A French treatise on the genealogy of the Counts of Holland from the 18th century brings, for implausible reasons, the death report of Philip from a chronicle of the Abbey of Andres ( RHGF, vol. 18, p. 583) with a description of the Nijmegen tournament from the Chronicle of Albert von Stade ( MGH, SS 16, p. 362) in line. See L'Art de verifier les dates des faits historiques, des chartes,… , Vol. 3 (1787), p. 204. Apparently this story is based on the historically unreliable rhyming chronicle of Melis Stoke , who wrote that the Countess von Clermont (Mathilde von Dammartin) fell in love with the Count of Holland and her husband thereupon in anger sought a fight with the rival at a tournament in Corbeil , in which both were killed. See Rijmkroniek van Melis Stoke, Third Book, lines 613–694, ed. by Willem Gerard Brill in: Werken van het historically genootschap gevestigt te Utrecht, nieuwe series, vol. 40 (1885), pp. 160–163.
- See Delisle (1869), pp. 207f.
- The chronicler Wilhelm von Andres also reports that Philipp Hurepel left his wife and only "one daughter" (unicam filiam) behind when he died. See Wilhelmi Chronica Andrensis, in: MGH, SS 24, p. 773.
- See Louis Douët d'Arcq, Collection de sceaux, Vol. 1 (1863), No. 1062, p. 435.
Count of Clermont
Count of Mortain
Count of Aumale
|Simon von Dammartin|
Count of Boulogne
Count of Dammartin
(iure uxoris with Mathilde)
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Hurepel, Philipp; Hurepel, Tristand; Hurepel, Philippe; Philipp; Tristan bristle skin|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Son of Philip II of France and Agnes of Andechs-Meranien|
|DATE OF BIRTH||around 1200|
|DATE OF DEATH||January 19, 1234|