Calendar overview 1095
Urban II. Invokes the
Council of Clermont
to the first crusade on.
King of Hungary .
|1095 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||543/544 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1638/39 (southern Buddhism); 1637/38 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||63rd (64th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||457/458 (turn of the year April)|
|Iranian calendar||473/474 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||487/ 488 (January 10-11. // 30-31 December.) / 489|
|Jewish calendar||4855/56 (2/3 September)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1405/06 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1406/07 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1151/52 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Papal synods and the idea of the crusade
- March 1 to 5 : Around 4,000 clergy, including around 200 bishops, and 30,000 lay people take part in the Synod of Piacenza convened by Pope Urban II . With the large gathering in front of numerous ecclesiastical and secular dignitaries, Urban wants to underline his authority after the end of the investiture dispute , in particular towards the antipope Clement III, who supported Emperor Heinrich IV . and his followers. In retrospect, the most significant event of the Synod of Piacenza is the appearance of an envoy from the Byzantine emperor Alexios I , who signals that Rome is drawing closer to Byzantium. In Piacenza , the Byzantines tell of the threat to their empire from the Seljuks , remind them that Jerusalem is occupied by the Muslims and ask for help from the Latin world.
- November 18th to 28th : The Synod of Clermont addresses the shattering of the Church and thus also of the political system in Europe as a result of the schism and the investiture dispute . In the course of the synod, Urban promulgated a series of reform laws intended to restrict the rights of secular rulers within the church. He forbids the lay investiture and the feudal oath of clergy against secular powers. In addition, Urban tightened the ordinances on celibacy , reaffirmed the ban on simony and the carrying of arms by priests, and promulgated provisions on fasting times . In addition, the ban against the adulterous King Philip I of France is confirmed.
- November 27th : In a dramatic speech in Clermont , France , Pope Urban II calls for an " armed pilgrimage for the liberation of the Holy Places in the Holy Land ". Allegedly, the later motto of the Crusades - Deus lo vult ! ( God wants it! ) - coined. He does not speak of a " crusade " - this term only appears in the late 12th century. In a previously discussed appearance, Adhemar de Monteil , Bishop of Le Puy , who was later appointed leader of the procession, kneels in front of Urban immediately after the end of the speech and is the first to ask permission to move. Urban’s call for a crusade and for the unification of the Christian world is also a declaration of war on the antipope Clement III, who is at the imperial court . which will lose a lot of support in the next few years.
- King Alfonso VI of Castile , Portugal hands over to his son-in-law Henry of Burgundy as a county .
- The Almoravids conquer Santarém .
- With the execution of Umar al-Mutawakkil and his sons, the Andalusian Berber family of the Aftasids died out.
- Koloman , after the death of his uncle I. Ladislaus King of Hungary .
- The Croatian king Álmos becomes the last prince of the principality of Neutra .
First documentary mentions
- The noble family of Hohenlohe is mentioned for the first time.
- Achern , Haigerloch , Kuppenheim , Neresheim , Scuol and Wilflingen are first mentioned in a document.
- The Antoniter Order is founded.
Date of birth saved
- July 4th : Usama Ibn Munqidh , Syrian writer, poet, politician and diplomat; important contemporary chronicler of the Crusades on the Arab side († 1188 )
- July 21 : Kakuban , Buddhist monk of the Japanese Shingon school († 1143 )
- December 22nd : Roger II , Count / King of Sicily († 1154 )
Exact date of birth unknown
Born around 1095
- Adolf II , Count von Berg († 1160 )
- Baldwin de Redvers , English nobleman who was the first to rebel against King Stephen († 1155 )
- Heloisa , wife of the philosopher and theologian Peter Abelard and abbess of the women's convent Le Paraclet († around 1164 )
- William III. Talvas , Count of Ponthieu, Lord of Montgommery, Count of Alençon († 1172 )
Date of death secured
- June 18 : Sophia of Hungary , Margravine of Istria and Carniola and Duchess of Saxony (* around 1050 )
- July 29 : Ladislaus I , King of Hungary and Catholic saint (* 1048 )
- August 18 : Olaf I , King of Denmark (* 1050 )
- October 12 : Leopold II , Margrave of Austria from the Babenberg family (* 1050 )
- 23 October : Heinrich II. , First Count Palatine near the Rhine (* around 1050 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Guido I. , Lord of Montlhéry and Bray-sur-Seine
- Shen Gua , Chinese natural scientist, mathematician, geologist, general, diplomat, inventor of the compass for navigation (* 1031 )
- Nizār ibn al-Mustansir , Nicarite Imam (* 1045 )
- Ruben , first prince of Lesser Armenia (* 1025 )
- Tutusch I , Seljuk ruler of Damascus
- Al-Mutamid , ruler of the Taifa Empire of Seville until 1091 (* 1040 )