Calendar overview 1099
besieged and conquered
the city of Jerusalem .
Godfrey of Bouillon
becomes the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem .
|battle of Askalon the crusaders defeat the Fatimids under al-Afdal Shahanshah .|
|1099 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||547/548 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1642/43 (southern Buddhism); 1641/42 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||63rd (64th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||461/462 (turn of the year April)|
|Iranian calendar||477/478 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||492/493 (November 16-17)|
|Jewish calendar||4859/60 (September 18-19)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1409/10 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1410/11 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1155/56 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- January: The army under Raymond IV moves on to Jerusalem . Bohemond of Taranto remains as lord of the new principality of Antioch . This second crusader state stretches from the Mediterranean in the west to near Aleppo in the east. In the north it borders on the county of Edessa , in the south it extends to the central Syrian highlands.
- February to May: Raimund's crusaders besieged (unsuccessfully) the fortress Arqa near Tripoli . Meanwhile, the Egyptian caliph in Cairo , al-Musta'li , allows them to go to Jerusalem as peaceful pilgrims. The young ruler has not yet understood that the Christians want to conquer the city.
- May: The First Crusade army conquers Jaffa .
- June 7th : The siege of Jerusalem by the army of the First Crusade begins.
- July 15 : The First Crusade conquers Jerusalem. This is followed by a massacre of the city's Muslim and Jewish population. The exact number of victims is controversial and is between 3,000 and 30,000.
- 16 July : Godfrey of Bouillon is as advocate Sancti sepulchri ( "protector of the Holy Sepulcher") for the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem , but rejected the kingship off because he "did not want to wear a crown in the city where Jesus Christ the I wore a crown of thorns ”.
- August 12 : The crusaders under Godfrey of Bouillon win the battle of Askalon over a Fatimid army under al-Afdal Shahanshah , who is fleeing back to Egypt. The city of Askalon remains under Fatimid rule and becomes the base of operations for attacks on Jerusalem.
- Foundation of the Order of the Hospital of St. John in Jerusalem (Johanniter or Hospitaller)
- January 6th : Henry V becomes co-king in the Holy Roman Empire.
- The Almoravids under Ali ibn al-Hajj continue to besiege Valencia . On July 10 dies El Cid in Valencia.
- May 29th : Cáenchomrac Ua Baigill is consecrated Bishop of Armagh .
- July 29th : Election of the Pope 1099 : After the death of Urban II , Paschal II is elected Pope and crowned on August 14th . In the investiture dispute , he followed the policy of his predecessor. Antipope Clement III. continues to maintain his claim to the throne of Peter.
- Gottfried I , Count of Ziegenhain († 1168 )
- Olaf Magnusson , King of Norway († 1115 )
- Raimund of Poitiers , Prince of Antioch († 1149 )
- William X the Saint , Duke of Aquitaine and Count of Poitou († 1137 )
- 20 / 24 February : Ulrich of Passau , Viscount of Passau
- April 8 : Walter von Pontoise , Benedictine monk and saint (* around 1030 )
- April 13th : Konrad , Bishop of Utrecht
- April 14th : Rapoto V of Bavaria , Count Palatine of Bavaria
- April 20 : Peter Bartholomew , French monk and mystic, participant in the first crusade
- July 10 : Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (" El Cid "), Castilian knight and mercenary leader; Spanish national hero (* around 1043 )
- July 29th : Urban II , Pope (* around 1035 )
- August 21 : Erhard III. , Lord of Le Puiset and Vice-Count of Chartres, participant in the First Crusade
- October 2 : Theodoros Gabras , Byzantine military commander
- November 17th : Udalrich I , Bishop of Eichstätt
- November 21 : Hermann III. von Hochstaden , Archbishop of Cologne (* around 1055 )
- November: Elvira von Toro , Spanish Infanta
- December 3 : Osmund von Sées , Bishop of Salisbury and Catholic Blessed
- Donald III , King of Scotland (* 1033 )
- Fujiwara no Moromichi , regent at the Japanese imperial court (* 1062 )