Calendar overview 1449
|Archduke Siegmund of Tyrol marries Eleanor of Scotland .|
|Ulug Beg's observatory in Samarkand is destroyed.|
|1449 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||897/898 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||8th flint - Chicuei Tecpatl (until the end of January / beginning of February: 7th pipes - Chicome Acatl )|
|Buddhist calendar||1992/93 (southern Buddhism); 1991/92 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||69th (70th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||811/812 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||852/53 (turn of the year 23/24 February)|
|Jewish calendar||5209/10 (September 17/18)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1759/60 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1760/61 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1505/06 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- May 20 : Alfonso V of Portugal defeats his uncle Peter of Coimbra in the Battle of Alfarrobeira and begins to rule independently.
- Hundred Years' War : Charles VII recaptures the cities of Rouen , Verneuil and Château Gaillard for France .
- In Toledo there is a pogrom against Jews who have converted to Christianity ( marranos ).
Holy Roman Empire
- February 12th : Siegmund , Archduke of Austria and Regent of Tyrol and Upper Austria , marries his first wife Eleanor of Scotland .
- July 6th : In the Battle of Castione , the Ambrosian Republic , which emerged from the Duchy of Milan , triumphs over the federal town of Uri during the Ennetbirgischen campaigns .
- September 1 : The Battle of Waldstetten in the Upper German towns war is an array of the imperial city of Schwabisch Gmund , located on the way home from Waldstetten , where the computational bergische destroyed castle on the calibration Hölzle, from one of Göppingen have hastened Army Department of Count Ulrich V surprised by Württemberg . Over half of the roughly 600-strong contingent were killed or captured, and almost all of the valuable military equipment fell into the hands of the enemy.
- January 6th : Constantine XI. is to succeed his deceased brother in the previous year . John VIII to the Byzantine crowned emperor. Before his own emperorship, Constantine was the despot of the Byzantine province of Morea on the Peloponnese peninsula . The coronation takes place before his departure for Constantinople in the capital Mistra there, in order to forestall any objections of the Ottoman Empire under Sultan Mehmed II , which at that time had already occupied almost all of Asia Minor .
- July: The Oirat Mongol leader Esen Taiji starts a large-scale invasion of China in three parallel advances . He himself leads a force that will advance to Datong in northern Shanxi in August . When news of the advance of the Mongols at the court of the Ming Emperor came, the most powerful official, the eunuch Wang Zhen , encouraged the 22-year-old Emperor Zhengtong to lead his army against the Mongols . The Chinese armed forces are then hastily assembled. The command consists of 20 experienced generals and a large group of high-ranking civil servants who are subordinate to Commander-in-Chief Wang Zhen.
- August 3rd : Esen's army destroys a poorly equipped Chinese force at Yanghe within the Great Wall of China . On the same day, the emperor appoints his half-brother Zhu Qiyu as his deputy and leaves Beijing the next day in the direction of the Juyongguan pass fortress . The aim of the mission is a short, sharp march west across the Xuanfu garrison to Datong , from there an advance into the steppe, and finally return to Beijing via a southern route via Yuzhou .
- August 20 : The army sets out on its way back after continuing the expedition was judged to be too dangerous, not on the planned southern route, but on a northern route.
- August 30th : The rearguard of the army is attacked and destroyed by a troop of Mongols.
- September 1st : Esen Taiji defeats the Ming at the Battle of Tumu and takes the Chinese Emperor Zhengtong prisoner. The Mongols, unprepared for such a victory and the capture of the emperor, are first trying to extort ransom for Zhengtong.
- Zhengtong's younger brother Jingtai takes power in the Ming Dynasty .
science and technology
- After unrest and uprisings in Samarkand , the observatory of long-time governor and viceroy Ulugh Beg is destroyed.
- The last historical antipope , Felix V , resigns at the age of 66, although his resignation is made easier by the granting of several privileges. Pope Nicholas V is recognized by the Council in Lausanne , which Felix elected ten years ago. The council dissolves and marks the end of the council period.
- In Toledo the limpieza de sangre was first written down as a statute. According to this, converted Jews and Muslims could never become “real” Christians because “True Faith” would be inherited biologically.
- Court Monastery is founded in Ireland .
Date of birth saved
- January 1 : Lorenzo il Magnifico , Italian politician and city lord of Florence († 1492 )
- January 6th : Christoph the Strong , Wittelsbach nobleman, brother of Duke Albrecht the Wise of Bavaria († 1493 )
- January 15 : Katherina von Baden , Countess von Werdenberg-Sargans († 1484 )
- February 7th : Adriana von Nassau-Dillenburg , Countess of Hanau-Münzenberg († 1477 )
- September 20 : Philipp I, the younger , Count von Hanau-Münzenberger († 1500 )
- September 25 : Niccolò Machiavelli , Florentine politician and cousin of the author of the same name († 1516 )
- October 21 : George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence , English nobleman († 1478 )
- November 11 : Catherine of Podebrady , Queen of Hungary († 1464 )
- November 14 : Sidonie of Bohemia , Duchess of Saxony and Margravine of Meissen († 1510 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Magnus Hundt , German philosopher, anatomist and theologian († 1519 )
- Johann IV. , Count of Holstein-Pinneberg († 1527 )
- Conrad III. , Count of Tübingen, Lord of Lichteneck († 1506 )
- Aldus Manutius , Venetian printer and publisher († 1515 )
- Margaret of Saxony , Electress of Brandenburg († 1501 )
- Aleidis Raiscop , German Benedictine and writer († 1507 )
- Bernardo Rucellai , Florentine scholar († 1514 )
- January 3 : Anne Beauchamp, 15th Countess of Warwick , English noblewoman (* 1444 )
- January 4th : Cäcilie von Brandenburg , Duchess of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (* around 1405 )
- April 23 : Jean Cadard , French court master, court doctor and royal adviser (* 1374 )
- May 8 : Alexander MacDonald, 10th Earl of Ross , Scottish nobleman (* around 1390 )
- May 20 : Peter of Portugal , Prince of Portugal and first Duke of Coimbra, ruled Portugal as Prince Regent (* 1392 )
- July 19 : Kaspar Schlick , first civil chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire (* around 1396 )
- August 13 : Ludwig IV , Count Palatine and Elector Palatinate (* 1424 )
- October 27 : Ulugh Beg , Timurid prince in Samarkand, known as an astronomer and as the founder of the Ulugbek Madrasa (* 1394 )
- October 31 : Elisabeth of Brandenburg , Duchess of Liegnitz and Teschen (* 1403 )