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Heads of State · Nekrolog

Sigismund of Tyrol
Eleanor of Scotland
Archduke Siegmund of Tyrol marries Eleanor of Scotland .
Ulugh Beg Observatory
Ulug Beg's observatory in Samarkand is destroyed.
1449 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 897/898 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1441/42
Aztec calendar 8th flint - Chicuei Tecpatl (until the end of January / beginning of February: 7th pipes - Chicome Acatl )
Buddhist calendar 1992/93 (southern Buddhism); 1991/92 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 69th (70th) cycle

Year of the Earth-Snake己巳 ( at the beginning of the year Earth-Dragon 戊辰)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 811/812 (turn of the year April)
Iranian calendar 827/828
Islamic calendar 852/53 (turn of the year 23/24 February)
Jewish calendar 5209/10 (September 17/18)
Coptic calendar 1165/66
Malayalam calendar 624/625
Seleucid era Babylon: 1759/60 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1760/61 (turn of the year October)

Spanish era 1487
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1505/06 (turn of the year April)


Politics and world events

Western Europe

Siege of Château Gaillard

Holy Roman Empire

Byzantine Empire

Statue of the emperor in Mitropoleos square in Athens


  • July: The Oirat Mongol leader Esen Taiji starts a large-scale invasion of China in three parallel advances . He himself leads a force that will advance to Datong in northern Shanxi in August . When news of the advance of the Mongols at the court of the Ming Emperor came, the most powerful official, the eunuch Wang Zhen , encouraged the 22-year-old Emperor Zhengtong to lead his army against the Mongols . The Chinese armed forces are then hastily assembled. The command consists of 20 experienced generals and a large group of high-ranking civil servants who are subordinate to Commander-in-Chief Wang Zhen.
  • August 3rd : Esen's army destroys a poorly equipped Chinese force at Yanghe within the Great Wall of China . On the same day, the emperor appoints his half-brother Zhu Qiyu as his deputy and leaves Beijing the next day in the direction of the Juyongguan pass fortress . The aim of the mission is a short, sharp march west across the Xuanfu garrison to Datong , from there an advance into the steppe, and finally return to Beijing via a southern route via Yuzhou .
  • August 20 : The army sets out on its way back after continuing the expedition was judged to be too dangerous, not on the planned southern route, but on a northern route.
  • August 30th : The rearguard of the army is attacked and destroyed by a troop of Mongols.
  • September 1st : Esen Taiji defeats the Ming at the Battle of Tumu and takes the Chinese Emperor Zhengtong prisoner. The Mongols, unprepared for such a victory and the capture of the emperor, are first trying to extort ransom for Zhengtong.
  • Zhengtong's younger brother Jingtai takes power in the Ming Dynasty .

science and technology


Amadeus VIII of Savoy as antipope Felix V (woodcut from Schedelsche Weltchronik , 1493)
  • The last historical antipope , Felix V , resigns at the age of 66, although his resignation is made easier by the granting of several privileges. Pope Nicholas V is recognized by the Council in Lausanne , which Felix elected ten years ago. The council dissolves and marks the end of the council period.
  • In Toledo the limpieza de sangre was first written down as a statute. According to this, converted Jews and Muslims could never become “real” Christians because “True Faith” would be inherited biologically.
  • Court Monastery is founded in Ireland .


Date of birth saved

Exact date of birth unknown


Peter of Portugal

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