Calendar overview 1405
|Chinese explorer Zheng He sets off on his first voyage.||Jean de Béthencourt conquers the Canary Island of El Hierro .|
|1405 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||853/854 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||3. Feuerstein - Jei Tecpatl (until the end of January / beginning of February: 2nd pipes - Ome Acatl )|
|Buddhist calendar||1948/49 (southern Buddhism); 1947/48 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||68th (69th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||767/768 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||807/808 (turn of the year June 28/29)|
|Jewish calendar||5165/66 (August 24/25)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1715/16 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1716/17 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1461/62 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- 16 / June 17 : During the Appenzell Wars it comes to the battle of Rotmonten between with Appenzell allied city of St. Gallen and the House of Habsburg . After a few minor skirmishes, Duke Friedrich IV of Tyrol withdrew to turn to the Appenzell people who were threatening the Rhine Valley .
- June 17 : In the Battle of the Stoss , the state of Appenzell wins over Duke Friedrich IV of Tyrol and Prince Abbot Kuno von Stoffeln of St. Gallen . A little later, the Appenzell cross the Rhine.
- September 15 : Under the leadership of St. Gallen and Appenzell , the federation above the lake is founded. The city of Altstätten as well as the farmers in Walgau and Montafon , Bludenz , Rankweil , Lustenau and Feldkirch join the federal government. Sargans resisting will be destroyed. In the south the Appenzell people will move over the Toggenburg into the Lint plain , in the west to the Thurgau and in the east over the Arlberg to Tyrol .
Other events in the Holy Roman Empire
- March 11 : The city of Frankfurt buys the two buildings Haus zum Römer and Haus zum Goldenen Schwan and makes them the city's official residence .
- September 14 : Archbishop and Elector Johann II of Mainz , Count Eberhard III, unite in the Marbacher Bund . von Württemberg , Margrave Bernhard I of Baden and 17 Swabian cities to meet the territorial claims of the Roman-German King Ruprecht of the Palatinate .
- September 24th : Prokop of Moravia dies without leaving any descendants. His brother Jobst , with whom he has been in constant conflict in recent years, succeeds him as Margrave of Moravia .
- December: King Sigismund of Hungary from the House of Luxembourg marries Barbara von Cilli , daughter of Hermann II from the Cillier family .
Wales / England
- March: The battle of Grosmont between a Welsh army under Owain Glyndŵr and an English army under the command of Prince Harry of Monmouth during the siege of Grosmont Castle ends in a heavy defeat for the Welsh besiegers .
- May 5 : The Welsh suffer another crushing defeat in the Battle of Pwll Melyn . Owain Glyndŵr's brother Tudur falls in battle while his son Gruffydd and brother-in-law John Hanmer are captured and taken to the Tower of London . The two battles, together with the failed Welsh advance into England in August, mark the turning point in the Owain Glyndŵr rebellion .
- June 8 : Richard le Scrope , Archbishop of York , is executed after the Percy family's noble rebellion , in which he played an obscure role.
- The Mongolian conqueror Timur Lang dies on a campaign of conquest against the Chinese Empire of the Ming dynasty in Otrar near Tschimkent . His empire begins to fall apart under his successors.
Discovery and conquest journeys
- The Canary Island El Hierro is by the Norman adventurer Jean de Béthencourt on behalf of Enrique III. conquered by Castile .
- The Chinese Admiral Zheng He is setting out on his first voyage with a fleet of 62 ships and a crew of 27,800, which will take him to Vietnam, Java, Malacca, Sri Lanka and the southeast coast of India.
- Saxon coin history # Groschenzeit : In the Margraviate of Meißen and the Landgraviate of Thuringia , the first good- value helmet groschen were minted under Margrave Friedrich the Arguable and Landgrave Balthasar , after the fine silver content in the groschen was secretly reduced in recent years. The new groschen are minted in the Margraviate of Meißen in the Freiberg mint and in the Landgraviate of Thuringia in the Sangerhausen mint .
- The Zum Blauen Löwen brewery restaurant in Bamberg is first mentioned in a document.
Culture and society
- The French noblewoman Christine de Pizan wrote the book Le Livre de la Cité des Dames , one of the first feminist works in literature.
- An unknown writer, presumably from ecclesiastical circles, begins to write the Journal d'un bourgeois de Paris .
- April 28 : In a city fire , 52 houses in Junkerngasse in Bern are destroyed. On May 14th there is another conflagration in which a large part of the old town of Bern is destroyed. Around 600 houses burn down, more than a hundred people are killed.
Date of birth saved
- March 6 : John II , King of Castile and León († 1454 )
- May 6 : Skanderbeg , Albanian prince and national hero († 1468 )
- October 18 : Enea Silvio Piccolomini, under the name of Pius II Pope († 1464 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Günther von Bartensleben , lord of the castle on Wolfsburg († 1453 )
- Georges Chastellain , Flemish poet and chronicler of the Central French language († 1475 )
- Sophie Holszańska , Lithuanian princess of Ruthenian origin († 1461 )
- Gilles de Rais , French nobleman and serial killer, role model for Knight Bluebeard († 1440 )
- Robertus Valturius , Italian writer († 1475 )
- Komparu Zenchiku , Japanese writer and no-actor († around 1470 )
Born around 1405
- Bernhard von Büderich , German friar and rector († 1457 )
- Cäcilie von Brandenburg , Duchess of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel († 1449 )
- Thomas Malory , English author or editor of Le Morte d'Arthur († 1471 )
- William Neville, 1st Earl of Kent , English nobleman and politician († 1463 )
- Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers , English nobleman († 1469 )
Date of death secured
- January 10 : Eleanor Maltravers, 2nd Baroness Maltravers , English noblewoman (* around 1346 )
- February 19 : Timur Lenk , Mongolian conqueror (* 1336 )
- March 16 : Margaret III. , Countess of Flanders, Artois, Nevers, Rethel and the Free County of Burgundy, Duchess of Burgundy (* 1350 )
- March 26 : Antonia Visconti , Countess of Württemberg (* after 1350)
- April 28 : Johann Brand , Bremen councilor and mayor (* around 1340 )
- May 2 : Philippe de Mézières , French soldier, diplomat and writer (* around 1327 )
- May 14 : Eckard von Dersch , Bishop of Worms (* around 1324 )
- June 8th : Thomas Mowbray, 2nd Earl of Nottingham , English magnate (* 1385 )
- June 8 : Richard le Scrope , English prince of the church (* 1350 )
- July 21 : Antonio Arcioni , Italian Bishop and Cardinal
- September 22nd : Barnim VI. , Duke of Wolgast-Demmin and Greifswald (* around 1365 )
- September 24th : Prokop , Margrave of Moravia
- November 11th : Milica Hrebeljanović , regent of Serbia (* around 1335 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Jefimija , Serbian nun and poet (* 1349 )
- Berthold Kerkring , Lübeck councilor
- Marie de Coucy , French nobleman (* 1366 )
- Ala ad-Din at-Tabrizi , chess player from the Middle East (* 1369 )