Johann Michael Fischer (master builder)
Fischer was the son of a respected city mason. After 1712 he spent his apprenticeship years in Bohemia , Moravia and Austria . His training in Bohemia introduced him to the possibilities of curved architecture, which he repeatedly echoes in his work, but which have been brought into harmony with the specifically southern German-Bavarian tradition. These stylistic features can be observed especially in the early work. In addition to the Bohemian roots, the influence of Giovanni Antonio Viscardi can also be felt in the late baroque central rooms of Johann Michael Fischer.
In 1718 he settled in Munich. He became the parlier of Johann Mayr, with whom he built, among other things, the large horse stables with servants' apartments at the Lichtenberg am Lech hunting lodge in 1721 . In 1723 he bought the master craftsman's license from the widow of a deceased master mason. By marrying Johann Mayr's daughter in 1725, he was finally able to establish himself as an immigrant within the guild . The first buildings in Schärding , Deggendorf and Niederalteich , to which the parish church of Kirchham came in 1725 , were enough references for the clergy in Munich to recommend Fischer to the Premonstratensian Abbot of Osterhofen for the new building of the collegiate church. From 1726 to 1729 Fischer built the church of St. Anna im Lehel and from 1732 to 1741 the new collegiate church of the Augustinian Canons' Monastery was built in Dießen am Ammersee .
Between 1735 and 1739 Fischer then built his three masterpieces of European sacred architecture, the Augustinian Church in Ingolstadt , the Aufhausen pilgrimage church and St. Michael in Berg am Laim . All three are central rooms on the floor plan of an unequal-sided octagon.
Fischer, who is now considered a church building specialist, later built the collegiate churches of Münster Zwiefalten and Ottobeuren , after which Benediktbeuern , Wiblingen , Schäftlarn and finally Rott am Inn and Altomünster are built . In the course of his career he was appointed Bavarian court architect and master builder from Cologne . His grave is on the south wall of the Frauenkirche in Munich.
- 1723–1727: Tower of the Heiliggrabkirche Deggendorf
- 1724–1727: Reconstruction of the choir and sacristy of the monastery church of Niederaltaich Monastery
- 1727/28: Altenmarkt monastery near Osterhofen Redesign of the church of
- 1727: Rinchnach monastery church Reconstruction of the
- 1727–1733: St. Anna im Lehel monastery church ; some art historians consider this church building to be the turn from late baroque to rococo
- 1731–1733: Monastery of Niederviehbach near Landshut
- 1730–1731: Parish church of Unering
- 1731–1733: Parish Church of St. Johann Baptist in Bergkirchen
- 1732–1739: New construction of the collegiate church of Marienmünster Dießen in Dießen am Ammersee
- 1736: Augustinian Church in Ingolstadt - was completely destroyed in an air raid on April 9, 1945 .
- 1736–1746: Maria Schnee Abbey and Pilgrimage Church in Aufhausen
- 1737–1751: Church of St. Michael in Berg am Laim
- 1740–1745: Monastery church of Fürstenzell Monastery
- 1741–1750: Zwiefalten Abbey Church
- 1748–1760: St. Alexander and Theodor , monastery church of Ottobeuren monastery . The monastery church of Ottobeuren represents a particular highlight in Fischer's work, although, as is often the case in his work, he was bound to a certain, quite conventional floor plan by already laid foundations.
- 1750–1758: Anastasia Chapel in the monastery church of Benediktbeuern Monastery
- 1751–1753: Kuratiekirche St. Georg in Bichl
- 1750–1752: presumably involved in the reconstruction of Neuhaus am Inn Castle
- 1752–1759: St. Rasso (Grafrath) in Grafrath
- 1755: Sigmertshausen near Dachau Parish church of St. Vitalis
- 1755–1756: Parish Church of the Assumption in Bad Aibling
- 1763–1766: Abbey church of Altomünster Abbey
- 1764–1766: St. Clemens parish church in Eschenlohe
- 1763–1767: Söllhuben parish church
- 1759–1763: Parish church, former monastery church of St. Marinus and Anianus in Rott am Inn
Furthermore, Fischer possibly supplied the plans for the church building in Wiblingen , which, however, have only been handed down in incorrect copies.
Parish Church of St. Johann Baptist in Bergkirchen
Defined building types, which he constantly reinterpreted and varied, were decisive in Fischer's work. For the central building , the arcade octagon, or octagon with unequal sides, should be mentioned first, for the longitudinal building the traditional wall pillar church of southern German design. The effects of the prospectus, which Fischer achieved partly by combining different, often very heterogeneous components, are particularly outstanding. A special characteristic of Fischer was the very tectonically oriented use of the column and pilaster order in contrast to many of his contemporaries, in particular Dominikus Zimmermann , who used the order in a much more ornamental way. Fischer's columns and pilasters really seem to carry something and give the building structure and strength. Fischer often connected the beginnings of the arches of niches, windows and portals with the entablature via continuous cornices.
Almost all of Fischer's buildings were created in collaboration with famous decorators ( Cosmas Damian and Egid Quirin Asam , Johann Joseph Christian , Johann Michael Feuchtmayer , Matthäus Günther , Ignaz Günther , Franz Joseph Spiegler , Johann Baptist Straub , Johann Baptist Zimmermann ).
The Johann-Michael-Fischer-Gymnasium in Burglengenfeld, which has existed since 1968, was named after him.
- Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz : Fischer, Johann Michael. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 2, Bautz, Hamm 1990, ISBN 3-88309-032-8 , Sp. 41.
- Franz Peter: St. Michael in Berg am Laim - 5 new aspects of the architecture of the church building by JMFischer. MünchenVerlag, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-937090-51-1 .
- Hans Reuther : In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 5, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1961, ISBN 3-428-00186-9 , p. 193 f. ( ).
- Max Gruber: Two churches by Johann Michael Fischer in the Dachau district In: Amperland , Volume 1, 1965, pp. 38–40.
- South German Baroque Johann Michael Fischer
- Proud of 40 years of Johann-Michael-Fischer-Gymnasium , on: Mittelbayerische.de of October 17, 2008, accessed on March 15, 2016
- Literature by and about Johann Michael Fischer in the catalog of the German National Library
- Calendar sheet of the Berg-am-Laim-Calendar 1998 with the topic Johann Michael Fischer ( Memento from June 23, 2006 in the Internet Archive )
|SURNAME||Fischer, Johann Michael|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German builder|
|DATE OF BIRTH||February 18, 1692|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Burglengenfeld , Upper Palatinate|
|DATE OF DEATH||May 6, 1766|
|Place of death||Munich|