|coat of arms||Germany map|
Coordinates: 47 ° 52 ' N , 12 ° 1' E
|Administrative region :||Upper Bavaria|
|Height :||492 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||41.39 km 2|
|Residents:||19,056 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||460 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||83043|
|Area code :||08061|
|License plate :||RO , AIB , WS|
|Community key :||09 1 87 117|
|City structure:||29 districts|
City administration address :
83043 Bad Aibling
|First Mayor :||Stephan Schlier ( CSU )|
|Location of the city of Bad Aibling in the Rosenheim district|
Bad Aibling ( Bavarian Oabling ) is a town in the Upper Bavarian district of Rosenheim with mud baths .
The town in the Mangfall Valley is Bavaria's oldest mud spa and since the opening of the Bad Aibling thermal baths on September 17, 2007, it has also been Bavaria's youngest thermal bath . For its water from a depth of almost 2,300 meters, the city has received state recognition as a healing spring by the Bavarian State Ministry for the Environment, Health and Consumer Protection. The Desiderius - source , named after the founder of the mud spa, Desiderius Beck , in 1845 as a royal Bavarian court doctor opened the first Bavarian brine and moor mud baths in Bad Aibling to that healing water in rheumatology , orthopedics and neurology use.
The city is located in the Upper Bavarian Alpine foothills , in the basin of the former Rosenheimer See . In the urban area, the Glonn flows into the Mangfall . The densely built-up city center lies at the foot of a moraine hill, the Klafferer, which ends at the north-western end with the Hofberg . On the southern edge of the city center is the spa park with the Irlachweiher.
The city is located around 50 km south-east of the state capital Munich , 23 km south of Grafing near Munich , 33 km south-west of Wasserburg am Inn , 10 km west of Rosenheim , 40 km north of Kufstein and 22 km north-east of Miesbach . In terms of transport, the city has a connection point to the federal motorway 8 and two train stations at the Mangfall Valley Railway, Holzkirchen – Rosenheim.
There are 29 officially named districts:
Until the 19th century
The place was settled by the Celts since around 500 BC . In the year 15 BC BC the settlement was occupied by the Romans .
The occupation by the Bavarians followed around 470 AD . A farm was created on the Hofberg ( Agilolfinger ). In 788 Bad Aibling was the royal court ( Palatinate ) of the Carolingians . In 804 it was first mentioned as Epininga . The court chapel as the own church of the Salzburg archbishops was attested in 927.
Between 1000 and 1200 AD, the place was the administrative seat of the Upper Bavarian lands of the Bamberg diocese ( Vogtei Aibling ). In 1180 the Counts of Falkenstein-Neuburg acquired the Aiblinger Vogteirechte. The certification as a market was awarded in 1244. About six years later, in 1250, Aibling fell from the Falkenstein family to the Wittelsbach family . Fifty years later, which was Pflegamt char set. Aibling has been known as a city since the 14th century .
In 1321 the citizens received Munich city rights , d. This means that Aibling was able to “get” his rights “due to a ducal privilege” from the royal seat of Munich, i.e. derived from it. 1481 followed the granting of market freedom. At the end of the Thirty Years' War , on June 13, 1648, Swedish troops occupied Aibling after almost all defenders had been killed in bitter fighting.
Aibling was occupied by Austrian troops during the Spanish and Austrian War of Succession in 1704, 1705 and 1741–1745. During the Second Coalition War in 1800, three French divisions under Jean-Victor Moreau advanced into Aibling. In 1845 a brine and mud bath was opened by Desiderius Beck . On October 31, 1857, the Mangfall Valley Railway opened . The Bad Aibling power station was founded in 1894, and the water supply in Bad Aibling was expanded in 1898. Just a few years later, the Bad Aibling public utilities emerged. The place was recognized as a spa on May 17, 1895 by Prince Luitpold . On May 27, 1897, the Bad Aibling – Feilnbach local railway, the second electrically operated railway line in Bavaria, was opened.
On February 23, 1919, a revolutionary workers' council was set up. The Soviet Republic was proclaimed on April 7th, followed by the invasion of the Munich Red Guards eight days later. On May 4th the white guard of the Freikorps Chiemgau marched in after the overthrow of the council government.
The survey of the city on April 1, 1933. In the years 1936 and 1937, the airfield became the air base of the Air Force expanded. The city's historic town hall was destroyed by fire in 1940. In 1941 the Stuka pre-school 1 was set up at the air base . After the end of the Second World War in 1945, Bad Aibling belonged to the American zone of occupation . Immediately after the arrival of the American troops, the largest prisoner-of-war camp in southern Germany was set up on the site of the air base, sometimes up to 100,000 people were interned here at the same time. Until the camp is closed, the total number of prisoners of war is given as around 750,000.
At the end of 1946, the American military administration set up a DP camp on the site to accommodate so-called displaced persons . The camp was initially looked after by UNRRA and from mid-1947 by the IRO and housed former Yugoslav prisoners of war who had DP status as a result of the dissolution of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia . Between 1948 and 1951 there was the IRO Children's Village Bad Aibling in the former barracks - also under the sponsorship of the IRO - where a total of over 2,300 foreign children and young people with DP status were cared for and looked after. In 1952 the area of the air base was taken over by the US Army and expanded into the Bad Aibling station used by the secret service.
In 1971 the Mangfall Valley Railway was electrified. One year later, with the district reform, the Bad Aibling district was dissolved ; Bad Aibling and most of the Mangfall valley became part of the Rosenheim district . In 1973 the Bad Aibling – Feilnbach local railway was shut down.
In 2000 a bypass road was opened.
In 2002, a drilling for thermal water was undertaken (deep drilling Bad Aibling Thermal 1 ) with a lowering to a final depth of 2,299.7 m. Bad Aibling celebrated its 1200th anniversary in 2004. In the same year the city game was premiered in 1648 and the Bad Aibling station of the Echelon system was closed. A year later, construction work began on the Bad Aibling thermal baths. In 2006 Bad Aibling established a town partnership with Cavaion Veronese in northern Italy . In 2007 the historic spa hotel Ludwigsbad burned down after an arson; the thermal bath was opened.
The zero-energy city of Mietraching has been built on the site of the former Bad Aibling station since 2005 .
The Prantseck indoor pool had existed for 35 years; it was particularly popular with swimmers, schools and kindergartens. In autumn 2013 the pool had to be closed due to poor building structure.
The serious railway accident in Bad Aibling occurred on February 9, 2016 at around 7 a.m. near the municipal sewage works on the Holzkirchen-Rosenheim railway line . Two trains collided head-on on a single-track line with 12 dead and over 17 seriously injured and 63 slightly injured.
In 1936, on the orders of the Nazi government, a larger area was reclassified from Mietraching to Bad Aibling in order to establish the air base , a military training flight base. On January 1, 1973, the previously independent community of Ellmosen was incorporated. Territories of the dissolved communities Mietraching and Willing were added on May 1, 1978.
Between 1988 and 2018 the city grew from 13,155 to 19,100 by 5,945 inhabitants or 45.2%.
The population figures apply to the municipality within the current limits.
The share of the under 18-year-olds is 19.6%, that of the over 65-year-olds 17.1%. In the Bavarian census in 1987, the proportion of foreigners was 5.6%.
24 voluntary city councilors together with the full-time mayor make up the city council of Bad Aibling.
|Term of office||1st Mayor||2nd Mayor||3. Mayor|
|1947-1948||Wunnibald Sedlmeier (CSU)||Michael Scherer (CSU)||-|
|1948-1952||Josef Matheis (CSU)||-|
|1952-1956||Josef Matheis (CSU)||Michael Scherer (CSU)||-|
|1956-1960||Max Falter (SPD)||Dr. Wolfgang Kessler (CSU)||-|
|1960-1966||Ferdinand Arnold (CSU)||-|
|1966-1968||Michael Scherer (CSU)||-|
|1968||Michael Scherer (CSU)||-||-|
|1968-1974||Hans Falter (SPD)||Michael Scherer (CSU)||-|
|1974-1984||Josef Riedl (CSU)||Konrad Gartmeier (CSU)||-|
|1984-1985||Anton Müller (CSU)||-|
|1985-1986||Felix Schwaller (CSU)||-|
|1986-1990||Werner Keitz (SPD)||Felix Schwaller (CSU)||-|
|1990-2002||Meinrad Egger (ÜWG)|
|2002-2008||Felix Schwaller (CSU)||Roland Fortner (CSU)||Rudi Gebhart (ÜWG)|
|2008-2014||Heidi Benda (Greens)||Otto Steffl (CSU)|
|2014-2016||Otto Steffl (CSU)||Kristin Sauter (SPD)|
|2016-2017||Erwin Kühnel (CSU)||Kristin Sauter (SPD)|
|2017-2020||Erwin Kühnel (CSU)||Kirsten Hieble-Fritz (ÜWG)|
|2020–||Stephan Schlier (CSU)||Kirsten Hieble-Fritz (ÜWG)||Markus Stigloher (CSU)|
The debt of the city administration including the municipal utilities amounted to a total of € 37,394,262 on December 31, 2018. This corresponds to a per capita debt of € 1,891.94. As of December 31, 2018, Stadtwerke's debt totaled € 14,762,693. The city's debt level was € 22,631,569. The debts of Stadtwerke Bad Aibling result from the construction of the Bad Aibling thermal baths.
Bad Aibling has been twinning with Cavaion Veronese in Italy since 2006 .
coat of arms
The coat of arms shows Saint George , depicted as an armored knight riding heraldically to the right, killing the dragon with a spear.
Economy and Infrastructure
There are large spa and rehabilitation facilities in Bad Aibling, which rely in particular on bath peat as a traditional remedy. Among other things, there are several rheumatoid clinics and a neurological clinic with a stroke unit .
Companies from the pharmaceutical industry , textile production , electrical industry , plastics , dairy processing , mechanical engineering and tannery are based in the village .
Other nationally known companies are:
- Aenova (production site with around 330 employees)
- B&O housing industry
- DFI Football Internat GmbH
- Bergader Wendelstein cheese factory
- RCS Audio-Systems GmbH
- Schwaiger building
- Wieland publishing house
- Schunk mechanical engineering and plain bearings
- C-Matrixx Carbontechnik GmbH
- Folgner GmbH
- Town hall (citizens' office) at Marienplatz 1
- City administration, Am Klafferer 4
- Recycling center, Thürhamer Straße 21a
- Building yard, Gerberstrasse 9
- Stadtwerke Bad Aibling (electricity and water supply), Lindenstrasse 30
- Therme (branch of the Bad Aibling public utility), Lindenstrasse 32
- Ice rink, Lindenstrasse 32
- Veterinary office of the district of Rosenheim, Am Klafferer 3
- Vehicle registration office of the district of Rosenheim, Krankenhausstrasse 5
- Rosenheim District Court , Bad Aibling branch, Am Hofberg 5
On the western outskirts there is a school center with:
- Bad Aibling high school
- Wilhelm Leibl Secondary School
- Business School Alpenland
The following schools are also located in Bad Aibling:
- Luitpold School (primary school)
- St. George School (elementary and middle school)
- Bad Aibling state vocational school
- German football boarding school & DFI private school Bad Aibling
- Rupert Egenberger School (support center)
- Raphael School (Waldorf School for Curative Education)
- Adult Education Center Bad Aibling
- Educational house of the Diakonisches Werk
- German private sports school with DSP university campus (sports business campus)
Clinics and Institutes
According to the city administration, the following clinics are located:
- RoMed-Klinik Bad Aibling (formerly Bad Aibling District Hospital or Triamed District Clinic Bad Aibling, academic teaching hospital of the Technical University of Munich )
- Harthausen Clinic of the Schön Kliniken clinic group
- Neurological clinic of the clinic group Schön Kliniken , cooperative clinic of the medical faculties of the LMU Munich and the University of Tübingen
- Wendelstein Rehabilitation Clinic of the DRV Bund
- Rheumatism Clinic Bad Aibling of the DRV Nordbayern
- St. Georg Clinic
- Alpenland specialist clinic
- Hermann Buhl - training and research center
The cure means of the spa are Badetorf and the thermal water the Desideriusquelle , a sodium - chloride - bicarbonate - sulfur - thermal bath with high levels of fluoride and iodide being fed at a temperature of 39.1 ° C.
There are numerous sports and leisure facilities that are also known regionally.
Bad Aibling thermal baths
In 2002, drilling for thermal water began and was ultimately successful. In September 2007 the new Bad Aibling thermal baths , with thermal and sauna area, which had been designed by the Stuttgart architects Behnisch Architekten , opened. In the summer of 2008, the Aiblinger Desiderius spring was finally recognized as a healing spring by the Bavarian state government . The Bad Aibling thermal baths use ultrafiltration technology to treat the circulating water . A special feature of the thermal baths in Bad Aibling is above all the extraordinary architecture in the form of domes. In the thermal baths, the main focus is on rest and relaxation, through "strolling and lingering". There are eight saunas, from eucalyptus and kelo to log cabin saunas, a new attraction is the houseboat sauna on the Triftbach, which was completed in September 2017. At the beginning of October 2015 there was a chlorine gas accident in the thermal bath with ten injured people. The chlorine overdose was caused by a failed automatic system. In December 2015 the sauna area was expanded with a rest house. The thermal baths have around 300,000 visitors a year and are an important economic factor for the region.
In spring 2008, the new outdoor pool opened right next to the thermal bath. It is open from May to September when the weather is nice. The outdoor pool has three pools, a swimmer, an adventure and a children's pool with a water playground.
Harthausen outdoor pool
In the Harthausen district of Bad Aibling there is a swimming pool with a large swimmer pool and a children's pool.
Swimming pool of the Hermann Buhl training and research center
The swimming pool of the Hermann Buhl Training and Research Center in Ghersburgstrasse is also used by clubs and schools.
From October to March it is possible in Bad Aibling to skate, play ice hockey or watch the local ice art and ice hockey clubs run and play. The local ice hockey club, EHC Bad Aibling , currently plays in the Landesliga Süd / West.
Motorhome parking space at the thermal bath
In addition to the thermal baths at Heubergstraße 1, there is a motorhome parking space with 31 spaces that is open around the clock. The parking space is on the Triftbach and is surrounded by a small forest.
The best known clubs are the ice hockey club EHC Bad Aibling and the TuS Bad Aibling . The women's basketball department of TuS Bad Aibling was promoted to the 1st women's basketball league and played there in the 2014/2015 season under the name TuS Bad Aibling Fireballs. After a season, the fireballs were relegated to the second division. In the 2015/2016 season, he was promoted to the first division without defeat.
- A 8 , exit Bad Aibling
- Staatsstrasse 2078 Munich - Rosenheim
In 2000, an elaborate southern bypass, partly in a tunnel, was opened in order to reduce the enormous load on the city center from through traffic on the state road. However, even this construction measure did not fully lead to the hoped-for traffic calming. In addition, the city is trying to keep traffic out of the city center by means of traffic-calming elements, bicycle lanes and extensive 30 km / h zones, and thus to make it more attractive for shopping and spa guests. Since 2005 there has been a new traffic routing in the city center, which is, however, controversial as the through traffic that was displaced by a one-way street is now diverted through residential areas. In autumn 2012, the renovation of the city center around Marienplatz was completed. The redesign was based on the shared space model, but does not correspond to this; for example, priority rules for cars still apply. The city is examining the construction of another bypass road ( relief road north ) in order to divert the traffic flowing northwards, towards Großkarolinenfeld and Tuntenhausen , around the city area.
- Railway line ( Munich ) - Holzkirchen (Upper Bavaria) - Rosenheim ( Mangfall Valley Railway )
The city of Bad Aibling has two access points at the Mangfall Valley Railway, one in the center, the “Bad Aibling” train station with a kiosk and a train station restaurant ( train station category 5) and the second, the “Bad Aibling Kurpark” stop (category 6) at the end of the spa park the Rosenheimer Strasse. The stop at the Kurpark was opened in September 2009.
A railway accident occurred in 1945 on the route between Bad Aibling and Kolbermoor , in which five people died. The serious railway accident on February 9, 2016 on the same section of the route left 12 dead and 84 injured.
The regular service of the Moorexpress , which connects the north of the city with many hospitals and hotels, the center and also the south with the Bad Aibling thermal baths, exists as an inner-city local transport offer or public transport . There are also bus connections to Kolbermoor , Rosenheim , Großkarolinenfeld , Bruckmühl , Feldkirchen and Aying as well as to Tuntenhausen , Hohenthann, Grafing and Bad Feilnbach .
Military and intelligence services
During the Second World War, an air base of the Luftwaffe was located in the Mietraching district . At the Stukavorschule 1 stationed there, training on American aircraft of the type NAA 64 took place in 1941 . After the war was on the grounds of the air base, a US - barracks with listening station that is part of the interception system Echelon called was Bad Aibling Station . This was dissolved on September 30, 2004. After examining contaminated sites , the zero-energy city of Mietraching was built on most of the site . This is where the eight-story wooden house H8 is located and research is being carried out into alternative energy systems, district heating networks and smart grids .
The Federal Intelligence Service took over a small part of the former Bad Aibling station as a BND branch , on which radomes and satellite dishes are still located today for the purpose of clearing up communications via satellites . Until 2014, the branch was legendary as the "Telecommunications Long-Distance Office of the Bundeswehr" ("FmWVStBw") . Data from the satellite reconnaissance taking place there will also be made available to the National Security Agency . The system is considered to be central to the monitoring of crisis countries such as Afghanistan , Syria , Iraq and Libya . In addition, the BND has been present in the former Mangfall barracks of the Bundeswehr since 2003 .
Culture and sights
The central square is Marienplatz. The Marian column was erected on the occasion of a plague epidemic . The square (in its current form since a redesign in 1979) is bounded in the west by the town hall, in the east is the row of churches with the Prantseck Castle and the Sebastianikirche. The row of churches is lined with numerous trees and lavishly restored town houses. It ends with the Hofberg , on the back of which is the parish church with its distinctive onion dome.
The spacious spa park is in the middle of the city. There are numerous smaller gardens such as B. a moor garden and the fragrance and touch garden. The “Irlachweiher” and a tennis facility are centrally located in the park. The Mühlbach flows back into the Glonn in the Kurpark. In summer there are numerous events such as the “Park Festival”, “Culture in the Park” and concerts. On the eastern edge there is a mini golf course, which is open from spring to autumn. In the south, the spa gardens border on the railway line, in the north on the city center.
The Historical Association in Bad Aibling has been running the local history museum since 1931 . There you can find out about the history of the city, you will also find numerous works of art, old farm furniture, handicraft collections and a fully reconstructed workshop of a cooper and shepherd. Another attraction is the Marbacher Stube , a room with Renaissance furnishings and a coffered ceiling. The Painters' Room of Wilhelm Leibl , who came through a gift by the then mayor of Cologne, Konrad Adenauer, back to Bad Aibling is exhibited in the museum.
Prantshausen Castle is a former castle in the city center on Marienplatz.
- Maxlrainer Hof
- City parish church of the Assumption
- historic spa hotel ruins Ludwigsbad , demolished in 2011
- Art Nouveau ensemble on Meggendorferstrasse
- Theresienmonument (monument in memory of the farewell of King Mother Therese von Sachsen-Hildburghausen to her son Otto I, King of Greece )
- Prantseck Castle
- The townscape of the Berbling district
There are, among others, the following associations:
- TuS Bad Aibling (soccer, judo and much more)
- FFC 07 Bad Aibling eV (women's football)
- Kreisfischereiverein Bad Aibling (fishing club)
- Royally privileged fire rifle association Bad Aibling (sports shooting club)
- Bad Aibling Art Association
- EHC "Aibdogs" Bad Aibling (ice hockey)
- Bad Aibling ski club
- Postage stamp exchange association Bad Aibling-Mangfalltal e. V.
The Theater Bad Aibling eV association . runs the Luli Theater on Wendelsteinstrasse in Bad Aibling. The association has numerous members who support and maintain operations. There are pieces for children and adults in the calendar of events. Plays are also performed in the Kurhaus Bad Aibling throughout the year.
Cultural and regular events
The Echelon Open Air & Indoor Festival is an electro and house festival that has been taking place since 2009.
The Nonfiktionale is an annual festival of documentary film that is of national importance.
The Pentecost Festival takes place annually on the Volksfestplatz on Krankenhausstrasse. The festival lasts 9 days in total. The folk festival offers a beer tent with a beer garden and an amusement park. The organizer of the festival is Fahrenschon GmbH & Co. KG, the bar is from the Auerbräu in Rosenheim. The festival begins on Pentecost.
The list of personalities of the city of Bad Aibling contains the names of the sons and daughters of the city as well as other people who are connected with the city.
- Klaus G. Förg, Klaus J. Schönmetzler, Kurt Schubert: Mangfalltal - Bad Aibling and its landscape. Edition Förg, Rosenheim 1998, ISBN 3-9803116-2-7 .
- Christian Höschler: Home (less). The IRO Children's Village Bad Aibling, 1948–1951 . Berlin 2017, ISBN 9783745059816 .
- H. Loose: Archive pictures Bad Aibling. Sutton-Verlag, Erfurt 1999, ISBN 3-89702-142-0 .
- The Mangfallgau, local history yearbook for the Bad Aibling district. The historical association for Bad Aibling and the surrounding area has been published irregularly since 1956.
- Gottfried Mayr: Bad Aibling - history of a city. 2 volumes. 2006 and 2007.
- Walks through the old Bad Aibling. Photographs from the years 1920–1940. Geiger, Horb am Neckar 1989, ISBN 3-89264-328-8 .
- Eva Steffan, Christina Vicedom: Bad Aibling. Stadt-Bild-Verlag, Leipzig 2001, ISBN 3-934572-30-8 .
- Werner Keitz, Brigitte Weigert: Bad Aibling. The spa town and its districts in words and pictures. Geiger, Horb am Neckar 1993, ISBN 3-89264-855-7 .
- Entry on the coat of arms of Bad Aibling in the database of the House of Bavarian History
- ↑ "Data 2" sheet, Statistical Report A1200C 202041 Population of the municipalities, districts and administrative districts 1st quarter 2020 (population based on the 2011 census) ( help ).
- ^ City of Bad Aibling: Mayor & City Council. Retrieved May 23, 2020 .
- ^ City of Bad Aibling in the local database of the Bayerische Landesbibliothek Online . Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, accessed on August 20, 2018.
- ^ Historical Lexicon of Bavaria, Cities and Markets in Altbayern, section "Autonomy and legal resources" . Retrieved January 6, 2016.
- ^ Wilhelm Volkert (ed.): Handbook of Bavarian offices, communities and courts 1799–1980 . CH Beck, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-406-09669-7 , p. 425 .
- ^ Gottfried Mayr: The Bad Aibling POW camp 1945–1946. PWE No. 26 . Bad Aibling 2002.
- ↑ Christian Höschler: From the self-government Repatriierungsstillstand. Former soldiers of the Royal Yugoslav Army as Displaced Persons in Bad Aibling, 1946–1947 . In: Christian Pletzing and Marcus Velke (eds.): Camp - Repatriation - Integration. Contributions to displaced persons research . Biblion Media, Leipzig 2016, p. 19-46 ( kubon-sagner.com ). From self-government to the repatriation deadlock. Former soldiers of the Royal Yugoslav Army as Displaced Persons in Bad Aibling, 1946–1947 ( Memento from April 13, 2017 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ Christian Höschler: The IRO Children's Village Bad Aibling: A Refuge in the American zone of Germany, 1948-1951 . Dissertation, LMU Munich. 2017 ( uni-muenchen.de ).
- ↑ Focus: Unlucky live ticker
- ^ Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart and Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 587 and 589 .
- ↑ GENESIS-Online Bavaria: result - 12411-001 . Bavarian State Office for Statistics and Data Processing. Retrieved January 28, 2018.
- ↑ Mayor and City Council. Website of the city of Bad Aibling, accessed on June 4, 2020.
- ↑ Municipal elections 2014 Bad Aibling
- ↑ City council election 2008
- ↑ CSU Bad Aibling
- ↑ City partnership Bad Aiblings
- ↑ clinics. City of Bad Aibling, accessed on January 12, 2019 .
- ↑ Baden. City of Bad Aibling, accessed on January 12, 2019 .
- ↑ Fireballs say goodbye to 1st league , Aiblink network and print edition Aiblink Journal from March 19, 2015, p. 11, accessed on December 8, 2015
- ↑ Robin Gibbels: This is what winners look like. In: www.tba-fireballs.de. Retrieved August 29, 2016 .
- ↑ Bad Aibling listening system: BND and NSA are cooperating again . In: merkur.de . January 8, 2016. Accessed January 10, 2020.
- ^ Privileged royal fire rifle association Bad Aibling . Retrieved November 18, 2014.