|Local name||Cmâc '|
|Residents||22,105 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density||78 inhabitants / km²|
|Patron saint||Rochus of Montpellier|
Comacchio is a town and municipality on the Adriatic Sea in the province of Ferrara in the Emilia-Romagna region in northern Italy with 22,105 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2019). It is the most important city in the Po Delta . The municipality (Comune di Comacchio) includes the Lidi di Comacchio and the localities of San Giuseppe, Vaccolino and Volania.
Comacchio is located south of the Po estuary, about 30 km north of Ravenna in the northeast of the province of Ferrara , which borders the Veneto region in the north . The municipality includes the port of Porto Garibaldi and several villages, inland lakes and Adriatic beaches between Lido di Volano in the north and Lido di Spina in the south.
In Latin documents issued by the Roman-German emperors Friedrich I. and Friedrich II. Comacchio, the place is called Comacle and Chomacle . Other traditional names are: Cimaculum , Comacium , Comachium , Comaclium . and komakula . In the 17th century the place was still called Comachio (instead of Comacchio ). There is no reliable information about the original origin of the place name. Some historians suspect a connection with Latin terms such as Commeatulus (small group of watercraft) or Comacula (small wave).
Historical tradition formation: origin as a lagoon city
Comacchio originally arose on thirteen separate lagoon islands between the Pega lagoon ( Valle Pega ) and the Isola lagoon ( Valle Isola ) and was still a pure lagoon city like Venice at the beginning of the 19th century, which can only be reached by land via bridges and by water across canals and lagoons. The island town was then surrounded by the approximately 18,000 hectare lagoons of Comacchio ( Valli di Comacchio ). After the drainage campaigns in the 19th and 20th centuries, their size shrank to around 9,000 hectares. The city center is now on the edge of the Valli di Comacchio , seven kilometers from the Adriatic coast in the east.
Etruscans, Greeks, Romans
As evidenced by around four thousand Etruscan graves found in the archaeological zone of S. Maria in Padovetere ( Zona archeologica etrusca S. Maria in Padovetere ) and in the vicinity of the lost Etruscan port and trading town of Spina , seven kilometers from the southwestern exit of Comacchios there were Greek and Etruscan settlements in the municipality of Comacchio before the time of the Roman Empire . During the Roman period Comacchio was an important trading post for salt that was extracted in its salt flats . The town of Porto Garibaldi at the entrance to the port, which was called Magnavacca until the 20th century , was called Sagis in Pliny 's time .
Trading empire of the early Middle Ages
At the beginning of the 6th century Comacchio was an episcopal diocese subordinate to the metropolis of Ravenna. Comacchio is already mentioned as a city in the famous capitularies of the Lombard king Liutprand from the year 715 or 730, in which the level of duties negotiated with city officials was determined, which the seafarers from Comacchio pay in the ports of the so-called land areas of the Longobards had. In the Middle Ages, Comacchio was the seat of a bishop who was subordinate to the Archbishop of Ravenna. 756 tried Pope Stephan III. , who had previously received the stretch of coast between Ancona and the southern branch of the Po estuary as part of the Pippin donation - this estuary flowed into the Adriatic Sea on the northern outskirts of Ravenna - the territory that fell to him, which later became the basis of the Papal States to expand areas north of the estuary, including the Comacchio lagoon. Like the Roman-German emperors of later centuries, who viewed the Comacchio lagoon as an imperial fiefdom, Emperor Otto III. have not recognized this territorial claim. Between 772 and the beginning of 774 Comacchio was temporarily captured by Desiderius , King of the Lombards .
Comacchio had one of the largest war fleets in the northern Adriatic. The city's prosperity, mainly due to salt production and trade, and its favorable strategic location aroused the desires of competing powers. The Venetians besieged and sacked the city in 854. In 877 the Pope asked King Charles the Bald , Roman Emperor Charles II since 875, for assistance against the Saracens because they had devastated Comacchio. In 946 the Venetians dealt a decisive blow to the city with the destruction of their fleet, from which it was never to fully recover. The Papal States also besieged the city several times.
Rule of the Estonians (from 1254/1325)
In May 1177 the Roman-German Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa granted the inhabitants of the lagoon some special fishing rights and other privileges, which in January 1232 at the Diet of Ravenna by the Emperor Friedrich II , the city and citizens of Comacchio under his special protection , confirmed and expanded. In 1229 the Comacchiens appointed the young Azzo d'Este as mayor, and a phase of growing prosperity began through the breeding and marketing of eel . From 1254, Ravenna ruled the lagoon city for a few decades. In 1275 the citizens of Comacchio elected Guido da Polenta as mayor for life. Ferrara conquered Comacchio in 1299.
In 1325, the citizens of Comacchio transferred the mayor's office to Rinaldo, Obizzo and Niccolò, Marquis d'Este and d'Ancona. In 1335 Comacchio was incorporated into the domain of the Este family . After Margrave Aldobrandino III on November 2, 1361. d'Este had died, Niccolò II. d'Este traveled together with his brother Alberto I d'Este to Nuremberg to see the Roman-German Emperor Charles IV in order to have the Comacchio county confirmed as an immediate imperial fief. The imperial deed of mortgage was issued on December 19, 1361. On September 17, 1433, the Roman-German Emperor Sigismund confirmed the Margrave Niccolò III. d'Este the county Comacchio as an imperial fiefdom, after he had already knighted his sons on September 13th. From 1452 Comacchio was ruled by Borso d'Este , who was succeeded by Alfonso I. d'Este . At the turn of the 15th to the 16th century, the belligerent Pope Julius II tried to stop the sale of salt from the Comacchio saltworks by threatening them, as this restricted the sales opportunities for the saltworks of the Papal States in Cervia . When Alfonso I d'Este did not react to the Pope's threats, troops personally led by Julius II invaded the territory of the Este around Ferrara.
Papal States (from 1597)
The economic boom under the rule of the Este family took over after the death of Alfonso I. in 1597 to an abrupt end because Pope Clement VIII. Duke used as the legal successor Cesare d'Este , a cousin Alfonso, the fief following capability denied and unilaterally the Duchy of Ferrara, including the Comacchio county moved in. In 1598 the city was directly subordinated to the Apostolic Chamber and no longer had an independent city administration. Through the mediation of Louis XIV , a settlement between Pope Alexander VII and the Este family was negotiated on February 12, 1664 , to which compensation was awarded for the loss of Comacchio.
Since the county of Comacchio was originally an imperial fief of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation , there was a rift between Pope Clement XI in connection with the War of the Spanish Succession . and the Roman-German Emperor Joseph I of Austria, who claimed Comacchio for the empire. In the spring of 1708, during the Comacchio War , Joseph I suddenly had a corps of imperial troops, mostly from Brandenburg, under the well-known Count de Bonneval, march into the region to occupy Comacchio and some surrounding villages such as Codigoro , Lagosanto , Ostellato and Argenta . Comacchio was occupied by the imperial on May 14, 1708. After de Bonneval was wounded in the arm from the window of a house in Ostellato, he had the place looted and burned down. In connection with the legal dispute between the emperor and the pope, a scholarly dispute broke out in which the important historians Muratori and Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz were also involved, and numerous legal opinions were drawn up. The Jesuit Giusto Fontanini stood up for the interests of the Pope . For the emperor election in 1711 to Frankfurt am Main , the Pope sent the Nuncio Albani, who advocated the return of the Comacchio county. Leibniz compared the Comacchio controversy with the famous Constantinian forgery .
From around 1720 the plan had been pursued to develop the port of Comacchio into a seaport. In 1724 Comacchio was returned, but subject to some imperial and Modenese sovereignty. In 1725 it was completely returned.
In 1796 the citizens of Comacchio revolted against the occupation by French troops, and the city was looted and almost destroyed. After the French invasion and occupation under Napoleon I , Comacchio was annexed to the French vassal state of the Cisalpine Republic . On November 15, 1813, British and Austrian warships anchored in the Bay of Goro and elsewhere. The British forces were under the command of Captain Charles Rowley. British and Austrian troops occupied the fortress of Magnavacca (Porto Garibaldi), abandoned by the French. About 800 British and Croatian soldiers were stationed there. Shortly afterwards, British soldiers are said to have appeared in Comacchio, who wanted to convert the city into a free port under the direct control of the British king. In the autumn of 1814, Austrian troops under Field Marshal Bellegarde Comacchio prepared for the defense against the French and troops of the King of Naples, who was still making a pact with Napoleon, but when a French column advanced on a causeway towards the city on November 24th, 1814, the French soldiers became expelled by the citizens of Comacchio themselves. In 1817 the port of Goro was apparently declared a free port.
After the expulsion of the French usurpers , Austrian protection troops were stationed in Comacchio and Ferrara on the basis of a provision made by the Congress of Vienna . In Comacchio, the Sant'Agostino monastery has been converted into a military base. On the night of March 30, 1848, the fortifications were destroyed and stormed by Swiss troops and a civil guard, and the Austrian troops, a total of 2,000 soldiers, had to surrender and withdraw.
Salt production was expanded during the Napoleonic period and reached around 250,000 quintals a year by the middle of the 19th century. The Saline of Comacchio was next to the Saline of Cervia (over 300,000 quintals per year) one of the two largest saltworks in Northern Italy. Comacchio's salt production was sufficient to supply the northern provinces of the Papal States, and salt could also be exported abroad. Today the salt production is stopped.
In World War II Comacchios fishing port of Porto Garibaldi was completely destroyed by Allied bombs, but soon rebuilt after the war. An old church near the harbor had also been destroyed; In 1949 a new church for Porto Garibaldi was built further from the port.
Development of the population
- 1881: 7,630, together with Magnavacca (today Porto Garibaldi ) 9,974
- 1901: approx. 8,400, as a municipality 10,877
- 1921: 8,690, as a community 12,350
- 1970: approx. 19,000
- 1975: approx. 21,000
Comacchio's deep sea fishing port, Porto Garibaldi, is an important factor in the region's economy. In addition to deep-sea fishing, there is fishing in the lagoons around Comacchio. As early as the Middle Ages, eels were bred in the lagoons, processed in Comacchio and shipped from there nationwide. The fish specialties of the region are marinated eel ( Anguilla marinata ) and marinated earfish ( Aquadella marinata ), which are sold in metal cans by several manufacturing companies. The city, which is criss-crossed by a network of canals and thus reminiscent of Venice, is also a popular tourist destination today. Gondola rides can be taken on the canals. One of the main sources of income today is bathing tourism at the Lidi di Comacchio in the summer months.
The city's infrastructure includes a customs office and a public hospital. On the northeastern edge of the city center there is a medium-sized sports stadium with a roofed west stand and floodlights. A football stadium with floodlights and a tennis hall are located opposite the Kapuziner-Arkade. For public events of all kinds in the open air during the bathing season (theater, operas, musicals, concerts, etc.), the inner courtyard of Palazzo Bellini is available in the historic city center of Comacchio. The Palazzo Bellini houses an archaeological museum as well as the city's library.
From the edge of the town center of Comacchio to the entrance to Porto Garibaldi, a separate bicycle path runs parallel to the connecting road over a length of about 4.5 km, which is illuminated when it is dark.
The busy Strada Romea (Strada Statale 309, SS 309 Romea), a former pilgrimage, trade and military route that runs south from Venice in the north , runs through the municipality at a distance of approx. 4.5 km from the outskirts The port city of Chioggia runs past Pomposa to Ravenna (and from there to Rome ). Comacchio is connected to the provincial capital of Ferrara , 52 km to the west, via the Ferrara - Porto Garibaldi motorway ( Autostradale Ferrara - Porto Garibaldi , free of charge). The nearest train stations are Ravenna train station and Codigoro train station, 25 kilometers away , terminus of the Ferrara – Codigoro branch line. The closest commercial airports are the airports of Venice, Bologna and Rimini .
Comacchio is connected to its Adriatic port, Porto Garibaldi, by a navigable canal by water. This canal is navigable for ships up to a size of 1,350 GRT. Inland, this channel flows into the Po of Volano ( Po di Volano ), which flows past Ferrara and flows into the Adriatic between the towns of Volano and Lido di Volano. The northern municipal boundary runs in parts through the middle of the river; the place Volano is already outside the municipality.
- Cathedral of San Cassiano ( Cattedrale di San Cassiano ), a church in the center of Comacchio, whose origins date back to 708 and which was rebuilt between 1694 and 1720. The cathedral, which originally had three aisles, is now a single nave, has twelve side chapels, a barrel vault and a 33 meter high tower and is 62 meters long and 30 meters wide. The church tower was built in 1754, collapsed, was rebuilt in 1766, but remained unfinished. The interior consists of a single nave with twelve side chapels, of which the Capella del Sacro Cuore is particularly impressively decorated with frescoes and stucco. In the apse there are also two rows of wooden choir stalls and a statue of St. Cassiano worth seeing.
- Sanctuary of Santa Maria in Aulia Regia and the arcade of the Capuchins there, a long archway that from 143 resting on marble columns arches and connects the church with the city. The current building was built in 1665 and was erected on the area where the monastery of Santa Maria in Auregario was once located, which was first mentioned in the 10th century. The altarpiece on the main altar, which is surmounted by the statue of Mary, a work of Ferrarese painting from the Renaissance, is of art historical interest. The Capuchin Arcade was built in 1647 at the behest of Cardinal Stefano Donghi, was destroyed by an earthquake in 1670, restored and partially rebuilt in 1676–1686 and restored again in 1818.
- Chiesa del Carmine , a single-nave church with a semicircular apse , built in the early 17th century. The bell tower was built in 1756. In the 1970s, the interior was changed significantly. The main wooden altarpiece from the 17th century is of art historical relevance.
- Chiesa del Caduti or Chiesa del Suffraggio . This church of the Fallen or Fürbitterkirche houses the mortal remains of some sons Comacchios that the First and Second World War have fallen. The triptych behind the altar by Antonio Rand (1577–1650) and an unknown artist of the 17th century is of art historical importance .
- Chiesa del Rosario , a single-nave church built in 1816 at the request of the Brotherhood of S. Rosario. The wooden crucifix made by the Venetian woodcarver Filippo de Porris (1641), the multicolored wooden statue of the Madonna (17th century), and the paintings (17th century) depicting the beheading of John the Baptist and the Annunciation are of artistic historical importance . Also from the 17th century is the painting showing the Madonna del Rosario between St. Dominic and St. Catherine.
- Pedestrian canal bridges in the historic center. These small bridges, the stairs of which are made of brick, shape the image of the historic town center as a whole.
- Trepponti Bridge ( Ponte Trepponti ): The pedestrian bridge, built in 1634 at the behest of Cardinal Pallotta and designed by the Ravenna architect Luca Danesi , is Comacchio's most famous bridge. It is made up of five stairs - three front and two rear - and five round arches and was built at the confluence of three canals.
- Petersbrücke ( Ponte San Pietro , 18th century): This completely renovated bridge leads over the Canale Maggiore on the southern edge of the historic city center near Via dei Govi.
- Sisti Bridge ( Ponte dei Sisti , 18th century): connects Via Agatopisto and Via Buonafede
- Häscherbrücke ( Ponte degli Sbirri ): This bridge (like the Trepponti Bridge) was built at the request of Cardinal Pallotta and designed by the architect Luca Danesi between 1631 and 1635. It consists almost entirely of bricks and which owes its name to dungeons, which used to be in the vicinity, leads at the level of the fish hall ( Pescheria ) over the Canale Maggiore.
- Carmini Bridge ( Ponte del Carmini , 18th century): leads over a side canal at the level of the Carmini Church ( Chiesa del Carmini ).
- Theater bridge (18th century): connects Via Cavour with Via G. Carducci.
- Pizzetti Bridge ( Ponte Pizzetti ): The bridge, built in the early 19th century, connects Via Carducci and Via Gramski.
- Clock tower. The bell tower, built around 1330 and equipped with a clock on the east side, collapsed on March 22, 1816 and was rebuilt in 1824. It stands on a square foundation made of Istrian natural stone, the building material from which the roof of the mausoleum of Theodoric in Ravenna is made. An extension of the natural stone foundation consists of bricks. An octagonal brick tower with four wide and four narrow sides stands on this two-part base. Halfway up there is a niche with a stone statue of the Virgin Mary from the late 17th century.
- Episcopal Palace. The building in need of renovation (2009) was almost certainly built towards the end of the 16th to the beginning of the 17th century and served as the residence of the rulers. The Comacchio parish bequeathed it to Bishop Cristoforo Lugaresi in 1745, with the stipulation that a seminary and public schools be established there. From 1748 to 1886 it was the residence of the bishops of the Diocese of Comacchio. It is planned to restore the building and to open an art history museum in its halls, in which not only the valuable sacred works of art of the over a thousand year old diocese of Comacchio will be shown, but also the archives of the curia and the parish as well as the Libraries of the seminary and the cathedral chapter .
- Ruins of the Sant'Agostino monastery
- Palazzo Bellini, a noble palace built in 1870 in the neo-renaissance style, which was bought by the municipality and completely restored by them. The building now houses the city library ( Biblioteca Lodovico Antonio Muratori ) with the historical archive, the Archaeological Museum, Dept. Roman Ship, a hall for meetings and other events and the offices of the Office for Cultural Institutions, Tourism and Education.
- Palazzo Tura, a two-storey building with a Venetian facade and central turret, erected in 1715 by the monk Zanoli on an almost square base, recently restored by its current owner. The staircase with balustrade made of multicolored marble, designed towards the end of the 19th century by the Bolognese architect Collamarini , which was built to replace the destroyed staircase, is worth seeing .
- Palazzo Patrignani
- Grain Loggia ( Loggia di Grano ). The building, erected in 1621 at the behest of Cardinal Giaccomo Serra, originally served as a grain store for the poor Comacchio. The granary was on the upper floor of the building. The lower floor now houses a cafeteria.
- Former San Camillo Hospital. At the request of the legate cardinal Francesco Carafa, the hospital was designed in the Renaissance style by the architects Antonio Foschini and Gaetano Gento and built between 1778 and 1784. It was in operation until 1970 and will house the Museum of Ethnology of the Po Delta in the future.
- Saline, headquarters of the state monopoly for the Comacchio saltworks.
- Garibaldi Refuge ( Cappano di Garibaldi ), Lungomare Italia 109, Lido delle Nazioni ; a small rural hut in which the Italian founder Giuseppe Garibaldi hid from the Austrian military on August 5, 1849. It was his first hiding place. Another Garibaldi hut is located not far from Ravenna near the road connecting the towns of Marina Romea and Porto Corsini.
In the 19th century, the bell tower of the Cathedral of San Cassiano was an exceptional tourist attraction because it was accessible and, from its upper platform, up to which a staircase led, offered a magnificent view of the city and the surrounding lagoon and coastal landscape. The bell tower is currently not open to visitors.
Sights in nature
- Observation points for birds. In the area of the lagoons, in the Comacchio saltworks, whose area borders on Lido degli Estensi , and in other swamp and wetland areas in the hinterland of the Comacchio beaches, which can be reached on foot or by bike, numerous species of birds can regularly be observed , including: Mediterranean seagulls , thin-billed gulls , black-headed gulls , terns , egrets , avocets , stilts , sea snipes , shelduck , shovelers and also flamingo colonies. Corresponding observation points are marked on maps that can be obtained from tourist information offices.
- Archaeological zone of the Etruscan tombs of S. Maria in Padovetere ( Zona archeologica etrusca S. Maria in Padovetere ); About four thousand Etruscan graves had been found in the archaeological site. The ceramic vessels found are exhibited in the National Museum in Ferrara and represent the largest collection of its kind in the world.
- Wild horses. To the north of Lido delle Nazioni there is an extensive fenced-in enclosure where wild horses live and bulls are bred. The wild horses were originally imported from the Camargue .
- Argine di Agosta; Scenic road on the south west bank of the Comacchio lagoons, which runs along an old Roman road between the (now drained) Mezzano lagoon and the Fossa di Porto lagoon.
- Fish marinating factory ( Manifattura dei Marinati ); This new and interesting museum, the entrance gate of which is in the Capuchin Arcade in front of the pilgrimage church of S. Maria in Aulia Regia, is housed in a former large roasting plant for eel and corn fish , which had twelve barbecue chimneys. The focus is on eel fishing, which has an old tradition in the Comacchio region, and the cooking and preservation of eel and honor fish by roasting and marinating.
- Museum of the Roman Ship ( Museo della Nave Romana ); a museum that exhibits parts of a Roman ship 21 meters long and parts of its cargo, found in 1981 in the village of Valle Ponti near Comacchio. The ship dates from the imperial era and was designed for the transport of goods on rivers and seas. It had started from a Mediterranean port and was supposed to go inland via the Po (river) , but was shipwrecked in the area of the river mouth and quickly silted up there. As a result of the rapid silting up, part of the cargo was preserved and can now be viewed in the museum. The hull of the ship is exhibited in a separate hall next to the museum.
- Museum of Ethnology of the Po Delta; a museum currently under construction (2009) to be installed in the halls of the former S. Camillo hospital. From March 27th to June 28th, 2009 the exhibition 'L'Isola del Vescovo' (The Bishop's Island) took place there, on which archaeological relics were shown that were discovered in 2006 by the University of Venice in the vicinity of the Cathedral of S. Cassiano's excavations had been found.
- Museum of Modern Art 'Remo Brindisi' ( Casa Museo Remo Brindisi ), Via N. Pisano, 45, Lido di Spina. Founded in 1976 by the art collector and artist Remo Brindisi (1918–1996), the museum houses an important collection of pictures and sculptures made by modern European, American and Asian artists. The permanent exhibition shows works by Alberti, Archipenko, Alechinsky, Arman, Armitage, Arp , Artias, Azuma, César, Bacon, Bellaguet, Berrocal, Brauner, Calder, Chaissac, Chamberlain, Christo, Corneille, Dalí , Delima, Deyrolle, Dine, Diulgheroff, Dubuffet, Ernst , Feito, Gastaud, Giacometti, Gischia, Grant, Hains, Hartung, Hausmann, Hsiao-Chin, Huelsenbeck, Kijno, Kline, Klein, Kodra, Kokoschka , Kou, Kristoffersen, Jorn, Lam, Lebestein, Le Parc, Martin , Matta, Mathieu, Moore, Morris, Pacheco, Parker, Picasso , Pinchas, Piqueras, Poleskie, Poliakoff, Pollock, Rauschemberg, Riopelle, Roccamonte, Rotko, Singier, Seuphor, Shultz, Soto, Stryk, Sutherland, Tapies, Tomshinsky, Tsoclis , Vasarely, Verdet, Warhol , Wols, Yamagata and Zimmermann. In addition, musical events (jazz, reggae, Latin American music, musicals, etc.), film events and poetry readings take place here.
- Mariano Museum; In the small museum next to the pilgrimage church of S. Maria in Aulia Regia, which is located on the upper floor of an annex to the church, contemporary sacred art is on display, including works by Remo Brindisi and Sepo (Severo Pozzati).
- Lagoon Museum ( Museo dei Valli ); this museum, which dealt with all aspects of the Comacchio lagoons, used to have its own building on the western edge of the Fattibello lagoon ( Valle Fattibello ) near the Stazione di pesca Foce . When a dilapidated canal bridge near Comacchio, via which the museum had previously been easily accessible, was replaced by a new and much larger bridge a few kilometers away, funded by the European Union , the detour turned out to be too big, and the museum building and an adjacent restaurant were closed. Currently (2009) a new one is being built on the site of the old canal bridge, and the restaurant has already reopened. Until the old museum building is possibly reopened, the scenic zone around this station with its old fishing and saline buildings is a kind of 'lagoon open-air museum'.
sons and daughters of the town
- Adriana Benetti (1919–2016), actress
- Appiano Buonafede (pseudonym Agatopisto Cromaziano ), * 1716, † 1793 in Rome, philosopher and theologian
- Antonio Cavalieri Ducati (1853–1927), entrepreneur
- Severo Pozzati (pseudonym Sepo ), * 1895, † 1983 in Bologna, graphic artist and painter
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- City map (PDF; 1.4 MB)
- Comacchio Tourist Office
- Information office for Comacchio
- Information about the Po Delta Park
- Excursion destinations in the Po Delta
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- Heinrich Leo : History of the Italian States , 5th part: From 1492 to 1830 , p. 668 ff .
- Julius Ficker: Research on the imperial and legal history of Italy , Volume II, Innsbruck 1869, p. 317 .
- Christoph Gottlieb Heinrich: Teutsche Reichsgeschichte , 7th part, Leipzig 1797, footnote g) on pp. 539-540 .
- Friderich Wideburg: Impartial considerations on the most important events of the German Empire and Papal States , Halle 1738, p. 684 .
- Nicolaus Hyronymus Gundling : Academic treatise on the condition of the Teutsche Reich under the government of Konrad the First , Halle / Saale 1742, p. 100 ff.
- Heinrich Leo: History of the Italian States , Part 5: From 1492 to 1830 , Hamburg 1832, p. 728 .
- Andreas Lazarus von Imhof: Newly opened historical picture room , 7th part, Nuremberg 1719, pp. 302–309 .
- A contemporary political situation report on the legal dispute is contained in the historical-political journal Europäische Fama , Volume 85 (1709), pp. 166–168 .
- Ganganelli : Pope Clement XIV : his letters and his time ; (477 pages), Berlin 1847, p. 29 .
- Johann Stephan Pütter : Literatur des teutschen Staatsrechts , 3rd part, Göttingen 1783, pp. 31-36 .
- Pierer '' Universal Lexicon of past and present , 4th edition, volume 6: Europe - Gascoepo , Altenburg 1858 S. 410th .
- Christoph Gottlob Heinrich: Allgemeine Weltgeschichte , 96th volume, Vienna 1803, p. 196.
- Gabriele Bickendorf: The historicization of the Italian view of art in the 17th and 18th centuries , Gebr. Mann, 1998, p. 189.
- The Present State of the Republic of Letters, for January 1733 , Volume XI, London 1733, p. 385 .
- Jacob Carl Spener : Teutsches IUS PUBLICUM or des Heil. Roman-German Empire complete legal theory , 4th part, Frankfurt and Leipzig 1725, pp. 307-310 .
- dictionary of Christian religious and church history (WD Fuhrmann, ed.), Volume 1, Halle 1826, p. 267 .
- The Penny Cyclopaedia , Volume IX: Dionysius - Erne , London 1937, pp. 239-240 .
- Hermann Reuchlin: History of Italy from the founding of the ruling dynasties to the present , Leipzig 1859, here online (253 pages).
- Emil Ruth: History of the Italian people under Napoleonic rule as the basis of the latest history of Italy , Leipzig 1859, here online (95 pages).
- J. Ralfe: The Naval Biography of Great Britain ., Vol IV, London 1828, p 81 ff. .
- "The Landing of the Austrians on the Eastern Coast of Northern Italy in November 1813" (based on a diary report), Austrian military magazine, Volume 4 (1846), Issue 10, pp. 3–41, especially p. 19 .
- Charles v. Smola: The life of Field Marshal Heinrich Count von Bellegarde , Vienna 1847, p. 224 .
- Christian Gottfried Stein: Handbook of Geography and Statistics , Volume 1, 4th Edition, Leipzig 1819, p. 204. On p. 204 under point 16 it must probably be Lagosanto , and the port of Goro should be meant.
- Handbook of Travelers in Northern Italy (John Murray, ed.), 10th edition, London 1866, p. 566 .
- British and Foreign State Papers (issued by the Foreign Office, Great Britain), Volume 37 (1848–1849), London 1962, p. 980 .
- Carl Johann Bernard Karsten: Textbook of Saline Science , Berlin 1846, p. 492 .
- Brockhaus' Konversations-Lexikon . 14th edition, Volume 4, Berlin and Vienna 1898.
- Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 6th edition, Volume 4, Leipzig and Vienna 1908, p. 238.
- The Big Brockhaus . 15th edition, Volume 4, Leipzig 1929, p. 189.
- Meyer's Encyclopedic Lexicon . 9th edition, Volume 5, Mannheim / Vienna / Zurich 1978, p. 825.
- Meyer's Great Universal Lexicon . Volume 3, Mannheim / Vienna / Zurich 1981, p. 328.
- L. Jacoby, The fishing in the lagoon of Comacchio together with a representation of the eel question . Berlin 1880.