Johann Jakob Atzel

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Johann Jakob Atzel (born July 31, 1754 in Lohnsfeld near Winnweiler, County of Falkenstein, Palatinate; † March 25, 1816 in Ulm , not in Stuttgart 1820!) Was one of the most famous architects of his time. He studied at the Hohen Carlsschule and ended his career as the bailiff-builder responsible for large parts of Upper Swabia in Ulm.

Live and act

As a child, Atzel came to Ludwigsburg with his parents, where his father had found work in the local porcelain factory. But this died soon afterwards. His widow married a packer Müller, who was also employed in the factory.

Atzel seems to have attended school in Ludwigsburg and was then a pupil of the Académie des Arts in Ludwigsburg as early as 1768. On April 27, 1770, the sixteen-year-old came to the military orphanage founded by Duke Carl Eugen von Württemberg a few months earlier, which later became generally known as the Hohe Carlsschule and which ultimately held the rank of university. As a student of architecture, he was particularly influenced by his teacher Reinhard Ferdinand Fischer and studied primarily civil architecture. As a schoolboy he was well acquainted with the five years younger and later famous poet Friedrich Schiller . In 1782 Atzel made several designs for tombs for a treatise by Schiller in the Wirtemberg Repertory of Literature , which made him well known. The short-lived magazine was founded by Atzel together with the professor at the Carlsschule Jakob Friedrich Abel and his fellow students Friedrich Schiller and Johann Wilhelm Petersen .

In February 1778 he received the title of "Cabinet Designer" and was taken on as a teacher of hand drawing, architecture and perspective at the High Carls School. He was a teacher and sponsor, like Major Karl August Friedrich von Duttenhofer , of Christian Zais , who later became the famous urban developer of Wiesbaden . In 1787 he received the offer from the Margrave of Ansbach and became an agricultural inspector there. After a few years, however, he returned to Stuttgart and now worked as an architect. After Württemberg had risen to become a kingdom, Atzel switched to civil service and became construction director in Stuttgart.

On July 24, 1808 he was appointed master builder for the districts of Ehingen and Altdorf. In this office he was responsible for the recording and mapping of public buildings and areas in the areas that were newly part of Württemberg, as well as for their repair and maintenance. The planning of new buildings was required less often, but also had to be done. In October 1810 he moved to Ulm as a master builder for the bailiffs on the Danube and Lake Constance. There he died 62 years old.


Examples of his work include the construction of apartments in the former barracks in Biberach / Riß, the construction of the Oberamt building in Riedlingen, as well as extensive repair work on the Landvogteigebuilding in Ulm and the Wag- und Lagerhaus ibid. And the new church in Herrlingen in 1815. In 1812 he made an unrealized colored design draft for the cemetery (draft of how the churchyard could be enclosed with a wall) .


  • August Friedrich Batz: Description of the Hohen-Karls-Schule in Stuttgart. Stuttgart 1783, pp. 118f.
  • Gradmann: The learned Swabia. P. 15f.
  • The learned Germany. Volume 5, 1820, pp. 55f.
  • Julius Hartmann: Schiller's childhood friends. Stuttgart-Berlin, 1904
  • Landesmuseum Stuttgart (Ed.): Exhibition "Die Hohe Carlsschule", November 4, 1959 - January 30, 1960

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Heinz Hildner: Wiesbaden residential buildings of the classical period. With a comparative consideration of the model buildings in southwest German residential cities from the 17th to the 19th centuries. L. Schelleberg'sche Hofbuchdruckerei, Wiesbaden 1931, also: Dissertation, Technical University Darmstadt, November 19, 1931