Louis-Marie Stanislas Fréron

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Louis-Marie Stanislas Fréron
Signature Louis-Marie Stanislas Fréron.PNG

Louis-Marie Stanislas Fréron (born August 17, 1754 in Paris , † July 15, 1802 in Saint-Domingue ) was a politician of the French Revolution .


Louis-Marie Stanislas Fréron was born as the son of the well-known publicist Élie Catherine Fréron (1718–1776) and attended the famous college Louis-le-Grand . There he met Robespierre and Desmoulins .


Fréron became an enthusiastic student of Jean Paul Marat . From December 1789, Fréron published the high-circulation newspaper “ L'Orateur du Peuple ”, which resembled Marat's “ L'Ami du Peuple ” in style and language . Fréron accused Mirabeau of treason and demanded his execution after the king's failed escape in June 1791. In September 1792, Fréron was elected a member of the National Convention in Paris . He joined the Mountain Party and soon voted for the execution of Louis XVI .

On behalf of the National Assembly , Paul Barras and Stanislas Fréron were sent to the Basses-Alpes and Hautes-Alpes departments in March 1793. There both supervised the raising of troops and led them to the Var Army. On December 4, 1793, Barras and Fréron convened a revolutionary tribunal in Marseille and sentenced over 400 people to death. Fréron named Toulon after the reconquest on December 19, 1793 in "Port-la-Montagne" . In addition, on the same day, 800 inhabitants of Toulon were rounded up and cartridged on Fréron's orders. Other residents were arbitrarily incarcerated and had to be ransomed by their relatives , since “face value weighs more heavily than a melodious phrase” . In early January 1794, Barras and Fréron ordered the town hall, the monuments and the houses of wealthy citizens in Marseille to be demolished. To justify their actions in Marseille and Toulon, Barras and Fréron were recalled to Paris a few weeks later. Fearing for his life, Fréron joined Robespierre's enemies and actively supported the overthrow of the 9th Thermidor (July 27, 1794).

After the 9th Thermidor, Fréron demanded the destruction of the Paris City Hall and the Faubourg Saint-Antoine . Furthermore, he declared himself in favor of the closure of the Jacobin Club and worked as the leading demagogue of the “ Jeunesse dorée ” in Paris. On October 5, 1795, he participated in the suppression of the royalist Vendémiaire uprising . A little later, Fréron was sent again to Marseille as a commissioner to “protect the Republicans”. There he led a scandalous life and was therefore relieved of his office in the spring of 1796. From August 1799 Fréron worked on behalf of the Board of Directors for the Paris Tax Administration.


Stanislas Fréron met the Corsican Bonaparte family in Marseille in 1794. Pauline Bonaparte fell in love with the much older and powerful man at the time. Despite Napoleon's resistance to a marriage between Pauline and Fréron, the two remained lovers for many years. To get rid of his sister's annoying lover, Napoleon Bonaparte appointed Fréron sub-prefect of Saint-Domingue ( Haiti ). After only six months on Saint-Domingue, Fréron died of yellow fever on July 15, 1802.


  • Bernd Jeschonnek: Revolution in France 1789 to 1799. A lexicon . Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1989, ISBN 3-05-000801-6 .
  • Albert Sacharowitsch Manfred: Rousseau, Mirabeau, Robespierre . 1st edition. Verlag der Nation, Berlin 1989, ISBN 3-373-00304-0 .

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