Fire brigade in Austria

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Fire Department
Flag of Austria.svg
Emergency number : 122
(without youth):
Quota for women: 6%
Firefighter youth : 20,237
Fire brigades
Total number: 4808
Voluntary weirs 4490
Company fire departments 312
Professional fire departments 6th
Compulsory fire brigades 0
Total number: 272.775
Distribution according to type of use
Fire operations 47,951
Technical operations 206.891
Other uses 17,933
State of the data December 31, 2017

The fire brigade in Austria is largely organized on the basis of voluntary fire brigades (FF), which are provided on a voluntary basis by the local population. Only a few larger cities and a few large companies have professional fire departments. The local fire brigades also play the central role in disaster control and in technical assistance (accident operations and the like).

From a legal point of view, the fire service is a matter for the individual federal states . Accordingly, the organizational forms in the individual federal states are different. For example, while in Carinthia the local fire brigade is subordinate to the municipality as an auxiliary body, in Lower Austria and Burgenland every single volunteer fire brigade is a legal entity as a corporation under public law . Different models are possible in between. All fire brigades that are available for public fire protection are listed in the fire brigade register of the respective federal state.

On the other hand, according to the respective fire police or fire brigade law, every municipality is obliged to implement local fire protection and hazard protection . The individual fire brigades are independent and must adhere to the respective state laws and regulations of the state fire brigade associations . These associations support the individual fire departments in training and equipping. In addition, service instructions and standards for equipment, clothing, etc. are specified. According to the motto “Who pays, creates”, however, individual fire brigades deviate from these guidelines.

The federal government is only responsible for the overall coordination of civil protection, in which the regional associations are involved via the Austrian Civil Protection Association. The state civil protection centers are often located at the locations of the state fire brigade schools .

Organizational forms

There are various forms of organization for fire brigades:

Volunteer firefighter

Over 300,000 men and women are members of a volunteer fire brigade throughout Austria . Communities that consist of several places usually have outside the main town via one or more other fire departments in other towns or local or districts. Most of these fire brigades are independent; only in a few cases are there so-called separate trains in spatially separated fire stations , which are organizationally integrated in a main fire brigade . This type of fire brigade, in which all members work voluntarily and therefore free of charge, is one of the main pillars of the Austrian fire service.

The establishment of voluntary fire brigades in Austria goes back to the 1850s . As the first volunteer fire department in the entire previous monarchy which in 1851 by retired officer applies Ferdinand Leitenberger in the Bohemian imperial city founded volunteer vigilantes . The first city fire brigade was founded in Graz in 1853. In the beginning, gymnastics clubs in the fire brigade took on in particular . The gymnasts were equipped and trained to fight fires. In some federal states, the fire brigade still uses the gymnast greeting "Gut Heil", and the gymnast's cross can still be found on many an old fire station. When the old fire fighting equipment was converted into real fire brigades, most gymnastics clubs could not finance this from their own resources. The fire brigade so often went into the community or was financed by private individuals and became voluntary. The idea of ​​voluntariness prevailed more and more. In 1900 there were already 2,677 volunteer fire brigades in what is now Austria; in 2009 there were 4,528 volunteer fire brigades across Austria. This means that there are on average almost two fire departments per community .

In principle, anyone who is willing can be accepted into the fire service. Since the fire brigade is organized on the basis of state laws, other criteria are sometimes decisive depending on the state. Membership in Styria is legally only possible for EU citizens, even if this condition is not always met. In the course of various integration discussions, however, the bans are also supposed to fall in these federal states. This regulation came into force at the beginning of 2012 in Carinthia , where since then non-EU citizens have also been able to join .

Professional fire brigade

Since there is currently no job description of a fire fighter in Austria, the employees are employed by the respective city and assigned to the fire service. There are professional fire departments in Austria in the following six provincial capitals :

Fire extinguishing regulations with employed firemen were drawn up in Vienna as early as 1685 , so that the Viennese professional fire brigade can be described as the world's oldest.

Company fire brigade

ATW Fürstenfeld - The oldest established company fire brigade in Austria

In particularly endangered companies, the authorities can prescribe a company fire brigade (BtF). This can consist of employees of the respective company who carry out the fire brigade tasks on the side, or of full-time employees who are always on standby. Depending on the size, the company fire brigade is also included in the local alarm plans and, if necessary, supports the local fire brigade outside of the company premises. In some places the company fire brigade of a large company has even better equipment, e.g. B. a turntable ladder , and is therefore a base fire department for the surrounding areas.

Even if the company fire brigade is not directly prescribed, in-house fire protection can have a financial impact on the premiums for fire insurance .

In industrial centers, a joint company fire brigade can be responsible for several companies, with members being recruited from all companies.

Companies without a company fire brigade must, if required by the authorities, nominate at least one fire protection officer who takes care of internal fire protection issues with fire protection control rooms.

The two university fire brigades in Graz (a fire brigade founded in 2009 at the University of Graz and one installed in 2018 at the Graz University of Technology ) occupy a special position among the company fire departments . Not only are they responsible for fire protection and other fire brigade tasks, but also through membership among the fire brigade members with an academic background, research results from this side also flow into the fire brigade system, especially in Styria.

Compulsory fire brigade

Communities without a volunteer fire brigade can set up a compulsory fire brigade . The same rules apply as for the volunteers. The only difference is that the municipality can oblige suitable persons to do fire service by means of a notice .

In Lower Austria, this passage has been deleted from the Lower Austrian Fire Brigade Act since 2000. If there is a company fire brigade in the municipality, this must be called in. If this does not exist either, a municipality can request a neighboring municipality to perform the tasks of fire and danger police.

Even in Styria, a municipality without its own fire brigade has the option of transferring the "extinguishing order" to the fire brigade of a neighboring municipality.

Supra-local structures

All fire brigades are organized in the respective state fire brigade association . The organization differs slightly from state to state due to the legal basis (ranks, uniforms, training). Every federal state has its own fire brigade school .

The head of the respective state fire brigade association is the state fire brigade commander (rank: state fire director). He is supported - depending on the federal state - by one or two deputies (rank: state fire director deputy) and in some federal states also by a state fire brigade inspector. As an exception, there is only one fire brigade inspector in the state of Vorarlberg. The state fire brigade commander and his deputy are each elected by the fire fighters, while the state fire brigade inspector is an official of the respective state government.

The state fire brigade associations have their own command structure. There is a state fire brigade command in all state fire brigade associations. This is the association's office and a kind of service point for the individual fire departments. Depending on the federal state, there are also district fire brigade commands and section fire brigade commands. At all levels there are assigned fire brigade members (clerks) who are responsible for looking after the fire brigades in their subject area (e.g. training or respiratory protection). The Federal Fire Brigade Association has no command structure. It is an umbrella organization of the state fire brigade associations and the cities with professional fire brigades.

For supraregional operations, KHD ( disaster relief services ) have been set up in all federal states , which are recruited from the respective fire brigades without competing with local fire protection. In Upper Austria , the central management of the KHD has been the responsibility of the state fire brigade command since the floods in 1954. This form has proven itself in 2002 during the flood operations in Lower and Upper Austria, during the overseas operations in Friuli in the Canal Valley in 2003 and during the 2005 floods in Tyrol and Vorarlberg .

To support the individual fire departments, some fire departments are specially equipped and also trained. They form so-called base fire brigades . These accommodate z. B. Special vehicles such as turntable ladders, breathing apparatus and hazardous goods vehicles. Furthermore, there are special services that are directly subordinate to the regional fire service control: for example, the utility service , air service , radiation protection unit , blasting services , diving services or the fire brigade patrol .

For several years now, fire brigades from all over Austria have also been integrated into the CRAFT Austria intervention force , which is specially trained and organized for missions abroad. As part of this, they mainly took part in flood operations in Eastern Europe, such as Romania and Bulgaria. The Austrian fire services always play a leading role in the CTIF - the organization for fire services on an international level.

Firefighter youth

The fire department youth is a youth organization within the fire department. The fire brigade youth can entertain within the individual volunteer fire brigade. In general, members can be both boys and girls, who are at least 10 years old until they are accepted into active service. Exact regulations, like the rest of the fire service, vary from state to state.


ÖBB's Taurus on an advertising tour for the Austrian fire services

The fire brigades are usually alerted by someone in charge

  • State alarm and warning center (LAWZ, LWZ), (Tyrol, Vorarlberg = rescue and fire brigade control center), (Burgenland, Upper Austria = state security center)
  • Area / district alarm and warning center / center (BAWZ, BWSt)
  • Sectional Alarm Center (AAZ), or
  • Federal warning center (in the event of a disaster)
  • Self-alarming via suitable warning and alarm systems (MMS90, CSI 8000, Alu2G, CSI9000)

The emergency number 122 goes to the relevant alarm center , depending on the location . It was introduced throughout Austria in 1955 after it had already been used in numerous individual local networks.


Fire service license plate

The municipality is primarily responsible for the equipment. In the context of state laws, so-called minimum equipment regulations stipulate a minimum of vehicle equipment, depending on the size of the municipality and the potential for danger. This minimum level of equipment can be supplemented by the individual fire departments through the municipality, company or private sponsors depending on the financial situation.


Every fire brigade member receives basic training at the start of their career, usually in their own fire brigade. For a number of years there has been a uniform national scheme, the basic training 2000 . These guidelines prescribe the level of knowledge required before further training can be completed either at the district level or in one of the fire service schools. In addition to the basic training, a first aid course is required, which is usually carried out by one of the rescue services .

To be promoted to a function within the fire service, different specialist courses must be completed, which are carried out in the fire service or in one of the fire service schools, depending on the type of training.

There is also the opportunity to take part in a large number of competitions to consolidate and check the knowledge and practical skills acquired. By successfully completing an application, the fire brigade member acquires the right to wear a corresponding badge as a visible sign of his performance.

Austrian fire service badge

The following competitions and badges that can be obtained in competitions exist in Lower Austria:

  • Fire service badge (bronze, silver, gold)
  • Lower Austria fire service badge in gold
  • Water service badge (bronze, silver, gold)
  • Boat skill competition
  • Lower Austria fire brigade radio performance badge
  • Demolition service badge (bronze, silver)
  • Fire Brigade Youth Achievement Badge (bronze, silver, gold)
  • Fire department youth competition badge (bronze, silver)
  • Training test extinguishing operations (bronze, silver, gold)
  • Training test for technical use (bronze, silver, gold)
  • Respiratory protection training test (bronze, silver, gold)

There are also corresponding competitions in Styria, which by and large correspond to those listed above, as well as the fire service badge. In addition, in individual federal states, z. B. Upper Austria, the respiratory protection badge in bronze, silver and gold. The examination for this is advertised by the respective district command and includes a theoretical and a practical part.

Competitions from non-fire service institutions can also be completed, such as the radiation protection badge in bronze, silver or gold from the AIT in Seibersdorf.

An essential part of the fire brigade training is training and exercises in the fire brigades themselves. These mostly weekly exercises contain both practical and theoretical training and further education content.


The main burden of the ongoing financing of the volunteer fire brigades lies with the municipalities. Part of the budget comes from subsidies from the respective federal state for the purchase of equipment or vehicles. The respective company is responsible for company fire brigades.

The state fire brigade associations also procure larger quantities, for example of a certain type of vehicle, which are then made available to certain fire brigades. These can also be small fire brigades with a specific focus. A company fire brigade can also receive this support if it commits itself to deploy outside the company if necessary.

In the case of technical operations that go beyond the legal obligation of the fire brigade, part of the running costs can be covered by billing the injured party or their insurance.

Since the fire brigades also have to operate supra-local disaster control, grants are also granted from the disaster fund.

A not inconsiderable amount is raised by the fire brigades themselves through collections, fire brigade festivals or other events. For such celebrations, the organizers enjoy special tax advantages for sales and corporation tax and exceptions to the obligation to provide receipts .

Since 2012, donations to individual fire brigades as well as to state fire brigade associations - as in the past to certain other organizations - have been given tax benefits.


The articles Fire Brigade in Austria / Members and Feuerwehr_in_Österreich # Statistics overlap thematically. Help me to better differentiate or merge the articles (→  instructions ) . To do this, take part in the relevant redundancy discussion . Please remove this module only after the redundancy has been completely processed and do not forget to include the relevant entry on the redundancy discussion page{{ Done | 1 = ~~~~}}to mark. Many thanks and greetings Woelle ffm (Uwe) ( discussion ) 11:28, Oct. 26, 2017 (CEST)
gleicher oder ähnlicher Inhalt; wird nur 1x benötigt --Vielen Dank und Grüße Woelle ffm (Uwe) (Diskussion) 11:28, 26. Okt. 2017 (CEST)

Fire brigades

state Professional fire brigade Company fire brigade Volunteer fire departments
Burgenland 0 7th 318
Carinthia 1 20th 399
Lower Austria 0 88 1,635
Upper Austria 1 33 884
Salzburg 1 4th 119
Styria 1 82 692
Tyrol 1 20th 339
Vorarlberg 0 24 115
Vienna 1 35 2
total 6th 313 4,503


The articles Fire Brigade in Austria / Members and Feuerwehr_in_Österreich # Statistics overlap thematically. Help me to better differentiate or merge the articles (→  instructions ) . To do this, take part in the relevant redundancy discussion . Please remove this module only after the redundancy has been completely processed and do not forget to include the relevant entry on the redundancy discussion page{{ Done | 1 = ~~~~}}to mark. Many thanks and greetings Woelle ffm (Uwe) ( discussion ) 11:28, Oct. 26, 2017 (CEST)
gleicher oder ähnlicher Inhalt; wird nur 1x benötigt --Vielen Dank und Grüße Woelle ffm (Uwe) (Diskussion) 11:28, 26. Okt. 2017 (CEST)
state Active men Active women Firefighting youth male Firefighters female Reservists male Reservists female
Burgenland 12,914 (−47) 574 (+42) 1,172 (+17) 344 (+18) 1,658 (−12) 0
Carinthia 17,908 (−821) 523 (+73) 889 (+42) 191 (+8) 759 (+46) 0
Lower Austria 72.108 (+457) 3,508 (+297) 3,780 (+51) 930 (−8) 16,033 (+92) 25 (−10)
Upper Austria 62,608 (−187) 1,948 (+162) 8.384 (+533) 1,487 (+184) 17,785 (+161) 23 (+2)
Salzburg 10,072 (−44) 289 (+11) 699 (−61) 117 (+8) 5,337 (+65) 33 (+18)
Styria 35,395 (−2,611) 1,840 (+74) 4,996 (+10) 946 (+218) 7,047 (+182) 75 (+32)
Tyrol 23,104 (+8) 371 (+15) 1,130 (−111) 138 (+25) 7,687 (+259) 18 (+5)
Vorarlberg 6,770 (+404) 182 (+29) 670 (+43) 80 (+11) 1,196 (+42) 8 (+8)
Vienna 3,122 (+80) 38 (+11) 49 (+4) 0 (−1) 26 (+2) 0
total 244,001 (−2,761) 9,273 (+714) 21,769 (+528) 4,251 (+461) 57,528 (+837) 182 (+55)
253,274 (−2,047) 26,020 (+989) 57.710 (+892)

The data in brackets show the change compared to December 31, 2008.

Membership development since 1999
year total Active including women Firefighter youth of which girls reserve
1999 312,897 246.201 2,001 18,600 1,228 48.096
2000 314.278 246.029 2,824 19.102 1,479 49,147
2001 317,744 247.227 3,439 20,149 1,751 50,368
2002 319.213 246,893 3,462 21,567 2.151 50,744
2003 325,533 273.503 6,760 22,497 2,440 52.030
2004 326.403 247.252 5,068 25,607 2,902 53,544
2005 325,584 246,694 5,625 25.194 3,161 53,696
2006 328.281 247.909 6,635 25,157 3,509 55.215
2007 330,843 249.507 7,479 25,738 3,792 55,598
2008 337.170 255.321 8,559 25,031 3,790 56,818
2009 337.004 253.274 9,273 26,020 4,251 57,710

Data from ÖBFV from December 31, 2017

In 2008, the fire brigades had 255,321 active firefighters. There were also 25,031 youth fire brigades and 56,818 reservists.

As of September 2018, there are 339,179 fire service members in the fire service in Austria.


The first references to fire brigades in Austria can be found in Carnuntum , where a fire brigade consisted of military veterans in the military camp as early as the 3rd century . There were also some in Vindobona ( Vienna ), Flavia Solva ( Leibnitz ), Ovilava ( Wels ), Lauriacum ( Lorch ) and Virunum .

After the second Turkish siege , four firemen were deployed in Vienna in 1685 for fire protection. This was the actual hour of birth of the Viennese professional fire brigade. 1759 issued Maria Theresia the Vienna fire order , the minimum number of men and the necessary professions that team of the Vienna fire department were established. The ordinance was improved as fire extinguishing ordinance by her son Josef II .

Basically, however, prohibitions and requirements for fire prevention were regulated by law, while fire protection made only scant progress. In 1831 the first plant fire brigade was established in Schwaz in Tyrol in the kk tobacco factory and in 1847 a fire brigade on a voluntary basis in St. Florian monastery , and in 1851 a fire brigade in Linz. Among these men was Johann Rosenbauer, the founder of today's fire service manufacturer Rosenbauer . However, this was soon dissolved again.

Only a relaxed association law after the March Revolution of 1848 made it possible for associations to be formed in the years to come. The first voluntary fire brigade on Austrian territory was founded in Innsbruck in 1857 . In principle, Austria's first voluntary fire brigade was founded in Klagenfurt, where a commander was elected. This was followed by volunteer fire brigades in Bregenz and Krems an der Donau (1861), Wiener Neustadt (1862), Scheibbs (1863), Klagenfurt and Steyr (1864), as well as Graz and Salzburg (1865). In the following five years, more than 400 fire departments were founded. As in Germany , they mostly originated from the gymnast fire brigades .

The first hydrants were set up in Vienna in 1850 . At that time they were called fire exchange . In 1881 the ring theater fire fell with 384 deaths, as a result of which the iron curtain was made mandatory on theater stages.

Through the association right according to the law of 1867 , which "effective for Bohemia, Dalmatia, Galicia and Lodomeria with Cracow, Austria under and above the Enns, Salzburg, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Bukowina, Moravia, Silesia, Tyrol and Vorarlberg, Istria, Gorizia and Gradiska, then the city of Trieste and its territory ”, the“ early days ”began for the volunteer fire brigades on a larger scale. In Austria there were 147 fire brigade associations in 1870, 809 in 1880 and finally 2,677 fire brigade associations at the turn of the century.

The Federal Fire Brigade Association was founded in 1889 as the umbrella organization for all fire services. In accordance with the state borders, the Czech and Silesian fire brigades today were also part of it. In 1897 there were around 20 professional fire brigades in what was then Austria-Hungary, 11,190 volunteer fire brigades and 6,619 compulsory fire brigades in Galicia and Hungary.

Before the beginning of the First World War , the fire brigades had to take over the rescue service of the Red Cross . The firefighters formed so-called local transport columns . On the other hand, the crews were weakened by the many drafted soldiers, so that men from the reserve were called up again.

After the First World War, the rescue service initially remained one of the tasks of the fire brigade. She was only trained and supported with material by the Red Cross .

The relatively democratic structures of the fire brigades were a thorn in the side , especially during the period of Austrofascism after 1934. For example, new fire extinguishing regulations were drawn up in the federal states, which brought the fire brigades more into the sphere of influence of the state governments .

A complete change took place in 1938 after the annexation to the German Reich . The professional fire brigades were subordinated directly to the Reich Ministry of the Interior in Berlin and transferred to the fire police, while the volunteer fire brigades were included as "technical auxiliary police forces" in the regulatory police and dissolved as associations in 1938. However, equipment and funding remained the concern of the municipalities. In larger cities, the Air Force's own vehicles were also stationed by the Security and Emergency Services (SHD). The ranks were taken over by the police, the vehicle color by the Wehrmacht .

The law on fire extinguishing, which was already in force in Germany, did not take effect until October 1, 1939. Admission to the voluntary fire brigade was still on a voluntary basis, whereby the mayor had to give his consent, so that the form as a voluntary organization survived this time.

After the Second World War , the laws from before 1938 were generally restored. However, this did not apply to clubs to which the fire departments were also included. These were only allowed to resume their activities with the approval of the Security Directorate. That was the case shortly after the war. It was different with the legal position of the fire brigade. It was not until the 1970s that the fire brigades were considered public corporations in all federal states.

Women in the fire department

Women were already in the fire brigade during the war years. After the wars, the fire brigade was again a purely male domain , and the picture began to change only slowly - especially among the volunteers. The problem of daytime readiness becoming more difficult led to the need to officially admit women to the fire service. In the past, women were often to be found in the second row and helped when a man was needed, but because of their unofficial status they had no insurance cover. Sometimes they could take courses but not graduate. The first federal state in which women were also officially allowed to join the fire service was Burgenland in 1993; Lower Austria followed in the following year.

Nevertheless, there was still a long way to go before women were really recognized in the fire service. On the other hand, especially in areas where men work week-end commuters , women have to work around the clock. In the beginning they were mainly used in radio, administration, etc., today women are fully integrated into the work of the fire brigade, albeit as a minority. There are already the first women as fire brigade commanders.

More and more girls from the youth fire brigade are also taking up active service alongside the boys, which is continuously increasing the proportion of women. As of September 2018, the proportion of girls was around 30%.

However, there are still prejudices against women as comrades in many fire departments - especially among older comrades . Women can be prevented from joining the fire brigade for fear of additional conflicts or for reasons of lack of sanitary facilities and changing rooms.

However, the ongoing rejuvenation of the crews and also the commanders leads to a more objective assessment of the question, and the coexistence of firefighter and firefighter is increasingly taken for granted.

Fire department management software

  • Fire brigade data information system and disaster control management FDISK - (until 2004: emergency number 122 Lower Austria)
  • Fire Brigade Information System FIS - Upper Austria (until 2011)
  • Fire Brigade Administration Online - Burgenland (until 2013)
  • EDP ​​administration software - Carinthia
  • Fire Brigade Information System FIS - Salzburg
  • Fire brigade data information system and disaster control management FDISK - Styria
  • Fire brigade data information system FDIS - Tyrol
  • syBOS - Vorarlberg, Upper Austria, Burgenland
  • Intelli R.4C - staff software for all districts and the state fire brigade command in Lower Austria

Acceptance in the population

Due to the high penetration of all sections of the population with fire brigade members, these are always in top positions compared to other professional groups in the trust that the population places in them. Every year, Reader's Digest carries out one of the largest studies in Europe: the Readers Digest European Trusted Brands . In March 2012, out of around 32,000 readers in Europe, around 900 selected fire service members as the profession with the highest trust value of 97% in Austria. In the 15 countries surveyed, only the fire departments in Finland (98%) achieved a higher value. In Austria, pilots follow with 88% and nurses with 85%.

See also


Web links

Commons : Firefighting in Austria  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Links of the various associations

Links about fire brigade laws

Individual evidence

  1. Statistics of the Austrian fire brigades 2017 , accessed on December 1, 2018.
  2. a b c Austrian Federal Fire Brigade Association: Legal forms of fire brigades
  3. Bernaschek / Speil 1956 p. 107
  4. ↑ The ban on migrants from the fire brigade should fall on ORF from August 5, 2011, accessed on August 5, 2011
  5. Migrants are also allowed to go to the fire brigade , ORF , January 31, 2012, accessed on January 31, 2012.
  6. ^ [1] BF Innsbruck
  7. Archived copy ( memento of the original dated November 5, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. BF Linz @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  8. ^ [2] BF Salzburg
  9. ^ Karl-Franzens-Universität founds university fire brigade on the portal of the BFV Bad Radkersburg on November 19, 2018, accessed on November 25, 2018.
  10. m68ale: New training center for the professional fire brigade in operation. In: Retrieved January 4, 2017 .
  11. Uniform emergency call. Announcements from the Lower Austrian Fire Brigade Association , born in 1955, p. 132 (online at ANNO ).Template: ANNO / maintenance / noe
  12. "Fire Brigade Competitions 2017-12-25: Wet Competition. Accessed December 25, 2017 .
  13. Does the fire brigade festival of a fire brigade organized in the legal form of a corporation under public law have to be registered with the register? accessed on October 6, 2016.
  14. Austrian Federal Fire Brigade Association: Statistics of the ÖBFV (PDF; 2017)
  15. Paul Bernaschek, Hugo Speil: Fire stand still! 1956; P. 17
  16. Bernaschek / Speil, 1956; P. 76
  17. Brandaus 3/2008: "The connection and the consequences for the fire departments"
  18. Brandaus 3/2008 article by Horst Rainer Sekyra
  19. ^ "140 Years of the Lower Austrian Fire Brigade Association", 2009, ISBN 978-3-9502364-7-7 .