Under first aid refers to life-saving and health-preserving emergency measures learned by anyone and medical emergencies, such as respiratory or cardiac arrest , can be applied. In the rescue chain, first aiders are responsible for alerting, securing the scene of the accident and looking after the patients until professional help arrives.
Depending on the context, people who provide first aid or people who have been trained to do so are referred to as first aiders.
Contents of a first aid training
The training content can differ significantly depending on the training level and specialization.
- Stable side position
- Airway management , Heimlich maneuver
- Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
- Automated external defibrillator
- Shock positioning
- Detection of heart attacks and strokes
- Poisoning , chemical burns
- Asthma and hyperventilation
- Abdominal pain , childbirth
- Sunstroke , heat stroke , heat exhaustion
- Frostbite and hypothermia
Injuries and wound care
- Injury to the spine , neck brace handle, neck collar
- Printing compound
- PECH rule
- Bone fracture , strain and contusion with fixations and immobilization
- Burns and scalds
- Eye injury , ear injury , nosebleed
- Wound dressings for various purposes: covering, hemostasis, wound healing, fixation
- Drug knowledge
- Nitroglycerin and ASA in heart attacks
- Epinephrine for allergic emergencies
- Emergency numbers
- Securing the scene of the accident
- Rescue , rescue from danger zone, carrying handles
- Water rescue
- Schemes of action such as ABCDE scheme ( ATLS )
- Psychological first aid (interviewing)
- Rescue chain
- Operations management
An early, if not the first publication on first aid (refuge of the wise in the absence of a doctor) was written in the 14th century by the Egyptian doctor Shams ad-Dīn Moḥammad al-Akfānī, who worked in Cairo, Mamluk .
In the late 18th century, drowning was one of the most feared causes of death. A water rescue organization was formed in Amsterdam in 1767, and in 1773 the British doctor William Hawes published treatises on artificial respiration for people who appeared to have drowned. In 1774 the Society for the Recovery of Persons Apparently Drowned was founded, and later the Royal Humane Society , which also contributed to the spread of resuscitation techniques.
The history of first aid is closely related to the military. Napoleon's doctor, Baron Dominique Jean Larrey , founded a medical corps that provided medical aid on the battlefield. Even under the Roman legionaries, however, there was the function of Capsarius , who tended the wounded and brought them to the hospital. The Red Cross was formed after Henry Dunant looked at the aftermath of the Battle of Solferino (1859). Since then, the various Red Cross and Red Crescent organizations have been the most important providers of first aid and related training.
The first formal training in first aid came about through the work of the Prussian military doctor Friedrich von Esmarch , who taught various techniques in lectures and writings after 1870. For the first time, soldiers were taught how to bandage wounds and splint limbs with the versatile triangular sheet long before they would need it in an emergency.
In 1872 the Order of Saint John shifted its focus from hospice care to practical medical assistance and funded the UK's first ambulances. This eventually resulted in the first aid organization St John Ambulance, which is widespread in English-speaking countries and which also has a German offshoot, Johanniter-Unfall-Hilfe .
The British military doctor Peter Shepherd heard about the work of Esmarchs and, together with the Colonel and later politician Francis Duncan, introduced an equivalent program in the British Army through lectures and publications. With the support of the Order of Saint John, Shepherd offered his lectures at the Presbyterian School at Woolwich - where he was stationed - to civilians.
When Esmarch gave a lecture to the merchants in 1885 , he personally turned to the chairwoman of the Red Cross in Lübeck , the wife of the city physician Carl Türk , to suggest the instructions in the Samaritan service. There arose the proposal these teachings for all sailors schools on the German coast for helmsmen to make mandatory. They were declared binding at their navigation school as the first German civilian institution.
In Germany, first aid training with the license to practice medicine from October 1, 1972 was a prerequisite for participation in the preliminary medical examination.
The first aid in the rescue chain
When a chain breaks, it always breaks at its weakest point. In order to ensure optimal care for the patient, each subsequent station in the rescue chain is dependent on the previous help being provided without delay and with great care. This underscores the great importance of first aiders: Without the timely action of a first aider - especially alerting - the rescue service cannot save a single life.
The rescue chain is presented differently depending on the organization and source. Here is the structure used by the Swiss Samaritan Association:
|element||activity||Who is providing the help?|
|1||Emergency call, secure the accident site, observe your own protection, if possible or necessary: rescue the patient from the danger zone||First responder|
|2||Immediate life-saving measures (ventilation, cardiac massage, defibrillation)||First aiders (at least until the ambulance service arrives)|
|3||Further help (e.g. wound care)||Depending on the: first aider, rescue service or emergency doctor|
|4th||Stabilize patient condition and monitor
transport to hospital
|5||Care in the emergency room of the hospital||Doctors of various specialties, nurses, other specialists|
Within the rescue chain, it is not possible to clearly define where first aid ends and professional help begins. While some training courses are geared towards alerting and immediate life-saving measures (1st and 2nd link), some first-aid training courses also enable people to perform activities in the 3rd and 4th link of the rescue chain. This becomes even clearer in special situations such as high-altitude mountaineering , caving and research expeditions . In the event of an emergency, medical care and rescue transport often have to be carried out on your own responsibility.
Depending on the region, the rescue chain is supplemented by first responder systems (German term: helper on site ). First responders are positioned between pure first aiders and the emergency services. Since they are more widely spread than rescue guards and can be on site faster than conventional paramedics and emergency doctors, they strengthen the second link in the rescue chain and relieve the emergency services on the third link. In the canton of Bern, for example, the police are deployed as first responders, in other areas this can be a member of the fire brigade or a first aid organization. The first responder has a separate training, this is possible nationwide in Germany.
Smartphone apps are also increasingly being developed that can be used to locate and alert registered first aiders who happen to be in the vicinity of the emergency location.
Psychological first aid
Effective first aid includes not only medical but also psychological measures. Human closeness means reassurance and relief. Psychological measures stabilize the psychological situation of the person concerned and are of great importance for coping with the accident situation and the success of healing. The 4-S rules for mental first aid:
- 1. S age that you're there and that something happens
- 2. S chirme the injured off to spectators
- 3. S uche careful physical contact
- 4. S prich and listen
Situation in different countries
In many countries, first aid courses are compulsory in order to obtain a driver's license , or employers have to train a certain number of employees to be first aiders (company paramedics). However, you can take part in these courses independently at any time - this is also strongly recommended in order to be able to react correctly in an emergency situation. It is also recommended to refresh your knowledge again and again so that the first aider can make the right decisions with a high level of confidence.
In this course only life-saving emergency measures (LSM) from first aid were taught. The course lasted four double hours of 90 minutes each. Since April 1, 2015, the new first aid course with 9 teaching units (see below) has replaced the previous LSM training. After completing the LSM course, the participant should be able to act as an immediate / first aid worker at an accident site. The presentation of the certificate of attendance was in Germany a condition of the acquisition of the license categories AM, A1, A2, A, B, BE, L and T. For obtaining a driving license were the older LSM certificates valid until 21 October 2017 have since been only accepted first aid courses. Participation was also required to acquire the private pilot license (PPL).
The Driving License Ordinance (FeV FEV) does not provide for a statutory repetition obligation. The Road Traffic Act ( Paragraph 2, No. 6 of the Road Traffic ) stipulates that applicants for a driver's license can provide first aid . According to general recommendations, knowledge should be acquired every 2 to max. 3 years to be refreshed.
First aid course
In this course, the first aid measures for those affected by vital threats are to be conveyed. The knowledge that can be acquired here is helpful to life-saving in many emergencies that can occur in the private and professional environment. A large part of this concerns respiratory and circulatory emergencies. The care of injuries , burns , states of shock and poisoning is also taught. The duration comprises 9 teaching units of 45 minutes each (before April 1, 2015: 8 double lessons).
The course is compulsory in Germany for all driving license classes , for the acquisition of the passenger transport license , the youth leader card and for admission to the Physikum . The employers' liability insurance association prescribes a repetition over a period of two years, whereby the repetition training for company first aiders comprises 9 hours (before April 1, 2015: 4 double hours).
The training in a first aid course provides, among other things, the following knowledge:
- Conduct at the emergency site
- First link in the rescue chain : securing, self-protection, emergency call, immediate measures
- Second link in the rescue chain: First aid / further measures at
- Shock as a life-threatening condition
- Wounds and wound care, hemostasis
- Poisoning (e.g. with alcohol , medication , carbon dioxide , carbon monoxide , pesticides , chemicals or drugs )
- Seizure (epilepsy) and stroke (cerebral infarction)
- thermal damage ( burns , frostbite and hypothermia )
- acid burns
- Insect bites (especially in the mouth and throat)
- Violence on the head (head injury), concussion
- Suffocation ( swallowing foreign bodies )
- Abdominal injuries , acute abdominal disorders with nausea and diarrhea or vomiting
- Cardiovascular disorders ( cardiovascular arrest , heart attack , stroke and arrhythmia )
- Bone and joint injuries
- Mental care of the casualty / patient
- Third link in the rescue chain: ambulance service
- Fourth link in the chain of rescue: hospital
The rescue chain has been specified as four-link since 2005. The earlier separation between the "immediate measures" and the "emergency call" has been lifted, the emergency call is made as parallel as possible to the other immediate measures.
A final examination of the knowledge and practical skills acquired does not take place. Only participation is certified. Information on the possible emotional care of traumatized first aiders after z. B. serious accidents are not specified.
Special first aid courses
In the meantime, many aid organizations and other approved providers offer courses that are individually tailored to the customer, for example for members of special risk groups :
- First aid in child emergencies (for parents, grandparents, educators and other supervisors of children up to approx. 10 years)
- First aid in sports accidents (for sports teachers, trainers, trainers)
- First aid for the elderly
- First aid for the disabled
- First aid for cardiovascular patients
- First aid in the outdoor area, etc. a. specific Alpine first aid courses
- First aid for the long journey (extended first aid. The course includes, for example, the placement of infusions)
On the other hand, there are courses that are tailored to specific groups of first aiders:
- First aid for medical students
- First aid for road traffic
- First aid for company first aiders
- First aid for private and domestic use
- First aid for children, adolescents, the mentally or physically handicapped
- First responder for soldiers in the Bundeswehr
- First aid for instructors of sports associations
Some of these courses are also carried out in cooperation with schools, kindergartens or institutions for the disabled.
New in the program are the courses "Immediate life-saving measures with self-protection content" and "First aid with self-protection content", the content of which corresponds to a course in immediate life-saving measures or first aid and has been supplemented with topics from civil and civil protection. These courses are only 100% financed by the federal government if the very strict requirements are met (attention: funding is limited). The requirements include a very narrow age range for the participants (14 to 16 years) and a maximum of 15 participants per course.
Company first aiders
For some professional groups (personal and property protection, for all weapon carriers, for service dog handlers), medical training is mandatory. The medical training requires a basic training in first aid (usually with at least 9 teaching units). The employers' liability insurance association also stipulates that, depending on the size of the company, a corresponding number of first aiders must be present (with two or more employees). Only licensed doctors and dentists are regarded as first aiders without special training. From a certain company size, training to become an in-house paramedic is mandatory (from 1500 employees present, on construction sites from 100). This training lasts significantly longer than a normal first aid course (first aid = 9 teaching units. Versus company paramedic training = (at least) 95 teaching units, the latter being based on a first aid course) and also includes the basics of medical assistance. The training is divided into a basic and an advanced course (rescue workers, paramedics and assistants as well as the training to become a nurse / nurse and medical sergeant in the Bundeswehr are recognized as basic training). At least every three years, the company paramedic training must be refreshed with a 16-hour advanced training course. The training and further education may only be carried out by so-called authorized bodies. The so-called medical assistants are equivalent to the company paramedics according to the mining ordinances. (Source: Accident prevention regulation - DGUV regulation 1, principles of prevention, BGV A1 and professional association principles, BGG 949, published by the Federal Association of Commercial Employer's Liability Insurance Associations, as of January 1, 2004)
Courses or vocational training that go far beyond imparting first aid knowledge for first aiders are, for example, courses for on-site helpers (only D), rescue workers (only D), paramedics (D, Ö) and emergency paramedics (D, Ö ). In 2014, the vocational training as an emergency paramedic replaced that of the paramedic , who were able to gain further qualifications through further training. Information on these training courses can be found under the relevant keywords. Paramedics and paramedics are vocational training in Germany. In Austria, this applies to both paramedic training and emergency paramedic training.
Providers in Germany include the local or district offices of the aid organizations as well as privately approved training providers. These aid organizations have joined forces in the Federal First Aid Working Group . In addition, there is a large number of offers from private educational institutions that are part of the “Association of Private First Aid Schools e. V. "organize. The membership of private educational institutions in this association is not a prerequisite for the approval and implementation of these courses, but its members have committed themselves to quality assurance of the training in the form of a quality seal. In addition, all providers are subject to quality control by state authorities and professional associations.
The prerequisite for the implementation of training in emergency life-saving measures (LSM) and first aid (EH) is recognition as an official body in accordance withFEV by the competent state authority; recognition by the employers' liability insurance association entitles the employer to undertake training and further training for the employers’s liability insurance association and accident insurance funds. Recognition only by the employers' liability insurance association also entitles to instruction for obtaining a driver's license.
Authorization for training in first aid and medical services in the context of professional and academic training is regulated by the federal states via the responsible ministries and fire protection agencies. Recognition in accordance withFeV is usually required if the professional certificate is recognized in accordance with Section 19 (5) sentences 1 to 3 for the acquisition of a driving license. These courses, as well as all others based on the FeV, may only take place in the premises of the respective training center or in special premises approved for this purpose in the approval notice and only by specially authorized persons. No professional qualifications (not even paramedic paramedics) entitle them to this training. The designation "medical school" does not automatically entitle the holder to conduct medical and medical assistant courses. This also applies to training positions for company paramedics or teaching staff.
The curriculum for the first aid course in Austria has the following structure:
- Why should you give first aid?
- First aid equipment
- First aid basics
- Rescue chain: Securing, providing first aid and making an emergency call (parallel), rescue service, further care
- Duties of the first aider
- Danger zones, safeguarding , recognizing, requesting special forces
- Emergency call : possibilities, what questions are asked?, Emergency numbers and other important telephone numbers
- Helmet removal, pull away, rescue (formerly "rescue") with the Rautek handle
- Emergency check
- turn around (from prone position to supine position), pull away, bring someone to a blanket
- Basic measures (formerly anti-shock)
- Conscious positions
- Immobile emergency patient
- Acute emergencies - identify each and take initial action
- Bones and joint injuries
- Arm injury (arm sling)
- Leg injury
In Austria , first aid training is provided by non-profit rescue services such as the Austrian Red Cross , the Johanniter-Unfall-Hilfe or the Arbeiter-Samariter-Bund . Since 2014, the 16-hour basic course has been part of basic training 1 (BA 1 / self and comrade help) for basic military servants in the armed forces .
First aid is kept as simple as possible in order to give everyone (even without material) the opportunity to provide adequate first aid in an emergency. This does not require a lot of material or deep basic knowledge such as anatomy.
The maxim in the first aid course: First aid is easy!
Duration and types
The following types of first aid courses are usually offered:
- 16 hours basic course - required for a D (bus) driving license
- 4 hour refresher course
- 8 hour refresher course
- Emergency courses for children (4 to 16 hours)
- 6 hours driving license course (immediate measures at the scene of the accident) - required for driving license B.
- Instruction for defibrillators and various special courses
Company first aiders
According to the Workplace Ordinance (Coreper), in-company first-aiders must be trained (Section 40 Coreper).
In offices or workplaces with a comparable accident risk:
- 1 first aider for up to 29 employees who are regularly employed at the same time
- 2 first aiders for 30 to 49 employees who are regularly employed at the same time
- an additional first aider for every 20 other employees who are regularly employed at the same time
in all other workplaces:
- 1 first aider for up to 19 employees who are regularly employed at the same time
- 2 first aiders for 20 to 29 employees who are regularly employed at the same time
- an additional first aider for every 10 other employees who are regularly employed at the same time
for construction sites:
- 1 first aider for up to 19 employees employed by an employer on a construction site
- 2 first aiders for 20 to 29 regularly employed employees
- In addition, one additional first aider for every 10 additional employees regularly employed by an employer on a construction site
First aiders must have at least 16 hours of training (in companies with fewer than five employees, eight hours). An eight-hour refresher course must be completed every four years, alternatively a four-hour period every two years.
Providers and offers
In Switzerland , various organizations of the Swiss Red Cross , namely the Swiss Samaritan Association (SSB) , the Swiss Lifesaving Society (SLRG) and the Swiss Military and Medical Association offer first aid courses on a non-commercial basis. The second large provider, the Swiss Medical Corps - an association of doctors, paramedics and trainers - mostly works with commercial partners (especially driving instructors , Migros Club School , TCS ).
The Interverband für Rettungswesen (IVR) certifies and standardizes a large part of the training. As an example, an overview of the courses offered by the Samaritan Association:
|course||content||target group||Duration of the course (in hours)||Period of validity of the ID (in years)||requirement|
|First aid course||According to VZV : Securing the scene of the accident, alerting, maintaining vital body functions, positioning the injured person, ventilation, severe bleeding, basics of cardiac massage||Learner drivers ( categories A, A1, B and B1 ) must have a valid ID||10||6th||no|
Aider IVR 1
|General first aid in everyday situations (traffic, household, work, leisure) and correct alerting. The first aider can implement instructions from the emergency call center as appropriate. The participants also receive the certificates for the emergency aid course and BLS-AED-SRC.||general||14th||2 (or 6 and 3)||no|
Aider IVR 2
|Formerly known as the "Samaritan Course". Deepened and expanded first aiders IVR 1, including: assessment, first aid and observation of accidental physical injuries and acute illnesses until professional help arrives; Assessment of whether and which professional help must be requested; appropriate classification of dangerous situations.||z. B. youth group leaders, sports trainers, part-time company paramedics||14th||2||IVR 1 or first aid worker + BLS-AED-SRC|
Aider IVR 3
|Link to professional rescue. Differentiated assessment of the situation, best possible care for the patient based on the available resources. Assists emergency doctor and paramedic.||z. B. part-time or full-time company paramedics||42||1||IVR 2|
|BLS-AED-SRC||Ventilation, chest compressions and use of a defibrillator according to the guidelines of the Swiss Resuscitation Council .||in general, but especially relatives of cardiac patients, police officers, fire fighters, fitness instructors||4th||3||no|
|Emergencies in young children||Hazard identification, patient assessment, swallowing objects, resuscitation||Parents, child carers||4th||unlimited||no|
|First aid part of the CZV course||According to Annex CZV, section 3.5: Situation assessment, avoidance of consequential accidents, alarms, rescue and first aid, conduct / evacuation in the event of fire, procedure in the event of acts of violence, preparation of accident reports||Mandatory for people who drive category C, C1, D or D1 vehicles for work||2 × 8||5||none (in fact emergency helper course, due to previous learner's license category B)|
If repeat courses are attended within the validity period, this will be extended. There is no obligation to repeat courses, but employers (in the case of company paramedics), sports associations or youth organizations insist that the first aiders have a valid ID.
Specialized first aid courses offer:
- SLRG: accidents while bathing, swimming and water sports
- Swiss Alpine Club : Emergencies in mountain sports
The Bern Military Medical Association was founded in 1880 to provide medical services at major civil events (e.g. gymnastics and rifle festivals). The first Samaritan Association was founded in 1885, also in Bern, and the Swiss Samaritan Association in 1888. The Samaritan associations have offered emergency aid courses to the public since 1965, and since 1977 an emergency aid course has been compulsory for learner drivers. The Samaritan Association introduced resuscitation courses in 1993.
In Switzerland there is no more precise legal regulation of company medical services; the law stipulates that, depending on the operational hazards, location and size of the business, the "necessary resources" must be available, and that if necessary trained company paramedics and medical rooms must be available. The guidelines of the State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO) and those of the various industry associations are binding for judicial practice (e.g. liability issues) .
Many states require people to provide assistance in an emergency, regardless of their level of knowledge. Likewise, many states encourage first responders by explicitly exempting them from liability claims as long as they act in good faith (known in English as the "Good Samaritan Laws"). Important legal aspects of first aid are:
- failure to provide assistance
- negligent bodily harm or death
- civil liability for damage to health or material damage
- Liability under contractual law (e.g. youth group commissions a trained first aider to look after a summer camp)
- Reimbursement of costs by the accident victim or his insurance
- Management without a mandate (e.g. when chargeable help is requested for an unconscious patient)
In Germany every person is obliged to provide help to people in need or who are helpless if the circumstances can reasonably be expected to do so (see Criminal Code ). Anyone who does not help is guilty of failure to provide assistance , which can be punished with a fine or imprisonment.
Providing assistance is unreasonable if there is a definable risk for the helper due to the assistance or if other important duties are neglected, but the legal interests of life and health must be observed. If the person refuses to help or if there are clear signs of death (e.g. total destruction of the vital organs: brain, heart and lungs and also in the case of visible and smellable decay), no help is required.
The legislature protects the first aider: if first aid services damage the injured person's clothing or immediate measures such as a heart pressure massage result in damage to health, first aiders do not face any legal consequences. The prerequisite, however, is that there is no grossly negligent or deliberate error. It is expected that the knowledge and skills are up to date.
In contrast to psychological support for full-time emergency workers, there is no statutory right of first aiders to any necessary care after the aid has been provided and / or regulated access to crisis intervention. For first aiders - whether lay or professional first aiders - the necessary help for their soul is conceptually not provided. Likewise, their presence and assistance for injured people is not regularly registered or even rewarded. They are only mentioned in exceptional cases in police and accident reports.
In Austria every citizen is obliged to help in an emergency, provided it is physically and mentally reasonable for them. At least one emergency call can be made by anyone.
There are penalties enshrined in several laws:
- Section 94 of the Criminal Code: "Leaving the injured in the lurch" - up to 3 years imprisonment
- Section 95 Criminal Code: “Failure to provide assistance” - up to 1 year imprisonment
- Section 4 (2) of the Road Traffic Regulations: Obligation to provide assistance in connection with a traffic accident.
First aiders are protected in Austria. If clothing is damaged as a result of first aid services or health impairments occur as a result of immediate measures, first aiders do not face any legal consequences. Not a single judgment is known in Austria for first aid provided, but on the contrary sufficient for failure to provide assistance.
According to Art. 128 of the Criminal Code, failure to provide assistance is punishable by up to three years imprisonment or a fine. Is punished:
- who does not help a person he has injured, although it was reasonable for him to do so
- who does not help a person who is in immediate mortal danger, although it was reasonable for him to do so
- who hinders or prevents other people from providing help
Art. 51 of the Road Traffic Act states that in the event of a traffic accident with injured persons, all persons involved in the accident must provide assistance. Bystanders must help as far as they can reasonably be expected to.
If the patient is harmed by the first aider, there are civil and criminal law consequences. Those who act carefully and according to their experience, training and (specialist) knowledge cannot be punished for negligent homicide or bodily harm. Civil law liability could arise from Art. 41ff of the Code of Obligations, which again must be negligent and unlawful damage.
First aiders and their training: quality and effectiveness
The inadequate educational and methodological quality of many first aid courses often results in uncertainties and inadequate practical knowledge on the part of lay helpers. As a study shows, important things are not always communicated, but useless are told, and the participants' confidence in action is not sustainably promoted. Not the acquired skills, but only the participation are certified.
Various authors have also criticized the quality of first aid. Burghofer, Koehler et al. pointed in 2007 to the limited success of first aid measures through so-called lay aid. Although they are an indispensable link in the chain of rescue , they may be a. limited by the scope and timing of training. The study examined in 431 primary missions which first aid measures were actually carried out in emergencies before the air ambulance service arrived. It was documented whether and how many first aiders were present, what qualifications they had, what measures they carried out and who made the emergency call. It was shown that especially basic resuscitation measures, the correct positioning of the patient, but also the preservation of heat and the application of sterile bandages were often performed inadequately or not at all. First aiders often found themselves overwhelmed in internal emergencies (e.g. heart attack or stroke ) and in the case of serious injuries and illnesses. The emergency call was often made by people in the immediate social environment of the patient. With the primary emergency call, the rescue control center was addressed directly in only 53% of all cases. Even after completing the first aid course, the proportion of correctly implemented measures was only 62.5%. In the opinion of the authors, the current training concepts have therefore still proven to be inadequate. They call for an earlier start of training, regular repetition of the training courses and increased awareness of internal emergencies.
- Friedrich von Esmarch: The first help with injuries. Hanover 1875.
- Friedrich von Esmarch: First aid in the event of sudden accidents - a guide for Samaritan schools in six lectures. FCW Vogel, Leipzig.
- Urs Hefti, Martin Walliser, Pascale Fluri, Daniel Walter: First aid for hikers and mountaineers. SAC-Verlag, Bern 2016, ISBN 978-3-85902-409-0
- Friedhelm Henke: First aid. First aid. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-17-017884-9 .
- Stefan Herger, Roland Albrecht: Provide first aid, act safely. Careum Verlag, Zurich 2014, ISBN 978-3-03787-179-9 .
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- Lutz Rothe, Volker Skwarek: First aid concrete . 6th edition. Bildungsverlag EINS, 2012, ISBN 3-441-92000-7 .
Psychological first aid
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Emergencies in children
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- Martin Reichert, Robert Weicker: Child emergencies - first aid for infants, toddlers and children. Gehlen, Bad Homburg vd H. 1999, ISBN 3-441-92010-4 .
- Janko von Ribbeck: Quick help for children - emergency medicine for parents. Kösel Verlag, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-466-30713-9 .
- Margaret Austin, Rudy Crawford, Barry Klaassen: First Aid Manual . 10th edition. Official Handbook of St John Ambulance, St Andrew's First Aid and the British Red Cross, 2016, ISBN 978-0-241-24123-3 .
- First aid information from the DRK
- BGI / GUV-I 509 First aid in the company (PDF) Regulation from the federal cooperative regulations
- Legal issues with first aid. (PDF) German statutory accident insurance
- Workplace Ordinance , (Coreper) Austria
- Friedrun R. Hau: al-Akfānī, Šamsaddīn Muḥammad. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 24.
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- My city saves: network with first aid app
- aid app: Faster than any rescue service?
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- FeV §76 Transitional Law 11b.
- Rescue chain DRK , accessed on March 30, 2012.
- www.aerztezeitung.de Sailors learn first aid for long voyages
- DGUV regulation 1 principles of prevention. (PDF; 790 kB) Accident Prevention Regulations. (No longer available online.) Professional Association for Health Services and Welfare Care (BGW), October 1, 2014, p. 19 , archived from the original on March 4, 2016 ; Retrieved April 27, 2015 .
- Revision of first aid training and advanced training (PDF) DGUV, 2015
- BGG / GUV-G 949 (status 2011) of the DGUV ( Memento from July 24, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- Association of Private First Aid Schools e. V. (VPEH)
- DGUV: First aid for the acquisition of the driving license - change of the driving license regulation
- Chauffeur Ordinance of 2007: https://www.admin.ch/opc/de/classified-compilation/20070665/index.html
- Ordinance 3 of the Labor Act (health protection)
- OLG Munich, judgment of April 6, 2006 , Az. 1 U 4142/05, full text.
- Report from the Süddeutsche Zeitung, which illuminates the situation of first aiders
- Der Spiegel first aid courses are often inadequate
- K. Burghofer, M. Köhler u. a .: First aid measures in emergencies, prospective observational study during primary missions by RTH Christoph 1 . In the magazine Emergency & Rescue Medicine , Springer Berlin, issue 11: March 2, 2008, 127–136, doi: 10.1007 / s10049-007-0985-5
- Martin U. Müller: Emergency in the wing chair . In: Der Spiegel . No. 15 , 2008, p. 152 ( Online - Apr. 7, 2008 ).