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An emergency is any situation in which there is an imminent danger to property, animals or the physical integrity of people. This coincides with the tasks of the fire brigade . Emergencies are e.g. B. major floods, major fires, plane crash or a medical emergency. Emergencies can be classified according to their severity. The situation in which an affected person finds himself is also called an emergency .

Emergency types

There are different types of emergencies, each depending on the circumstances of the emergency or the surroundings of the emergency or the possible consequences of the emergency. For some types of emergency, appropriate emergency signals and special rescue services and the disaster control service are known. Known types of emergency, emergency signals and responsible bodies are:

Medical emergency

Danger to life due to insufficient oxygen supply to the brain

There are five medical emergency categories to consider when providing emergency care:

  1. Everyday emergency,
  2. Work accident ,
  3. outpatient acute care,
  4. the catastrophe,
  5. the epidemic

In the rescue service, medical emergencies are particularly those cases in which there is a threatening disruption of the vital parameters of consciousness , breathing and circulation or the functional circuits of the water-electrolyte balance , acid-base balance , temperature balance and metabolism . Without immediate assistance, there is a risk of serious damage to health or death of the patient. First aid focuses on ensuring vital functions (consciousness, breathing and circulation).

In a broader sense, one also encompasses mental emergency situations such as suicide intentions or psychoses as well as violence under the medical emergency term (see also: psychiatric crisis ).

Emergency management

Occupational health and safety and disaster control and other areas conduct emergency planning. The rescue chain is an essential part of the danger prevention, another is the individual (company-specific) emergency planning.

Rescue chain

In emergencies, it is important that all those involved in the rescue chain , first aiders , rescue services, etc. work together well in order not to lose any time. For the emergency is available in all states of the EU and of Switzerland to immediately get a on the emergency telephone number 112 is available, the control center is connected the emergency services.

First aid for an emergency patient by the emergency doctor

The optimal care of a person affected by a medical emergency can be described with the scheme of the rescue chain, which consists of four to six links depending on the representation.

Security technology

Building security

As a precaution in case of emergency buildings, for example, with safety outputs , sprinkler systems , fire doors or fire escapes armor.

Emergency shutdown

In the event of an emergency, many machines and technical equipment can interrupt the energy supply by means of an emergency stop shutdown (e.g. escalators or oil heating) or trigger an emergency brake (e.g. emergency brake in trains).

Technical emergency equipment

In many endangered areas, the provision of certain equipment for emergencies is mandatory, for example first aid kits in cars, fire extinguishers in buildings, eye showers in laboratories, emergency kits in life-saving appliances or lifeboats on ships.

See also

Web links

Wiktionary: emergency  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Saarland: Overview of degrees of danger and types of emergency (PDF), viewed December 10, 2013.
  2. Barbara Baur: To organize the emergency supply at the planned major airport Berlin-Brandenburg. In: anwalt24.de . November 29, 2013, accessed December 10, 2013.
  3. ^ Gesine Hofinger, Günter Horn: Emergency planning. Tasks, requirements, suggestions. 2002 (PDF) viewed December 10, 2013.
  4. ^ Günter Horn: Emergency planning - basics of emergency management. (PDF), viewed December 10, 2013.