Civil Protection Service

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With the term civil protection service specialist or specialist service of civil protection the definition and summary content enclosed areas of responsibility in the civilian in Germany Civil Protection and Emergency Situations referred.


After the Second World War, civil protection was created in Germany in 1957 with the “First Law on Measures to Protect the Civilian Population”. As an institution of the civil defense was air protection emergency service (LSHD) was founded. In order to cope with its tasks, the LSHD was subdivided into the areas of air protection NBC service, air protection rescue service, air protection support service, air protection and fire protection service, air protection telecommunications service, air protection guidance and social service, air protection medical service and air protection veterinary service. In setting up the units, we worked together with the existing aid organizations. In the area of ​​fire protection, these were the volunteer fire brigades , in the rescue service the Technische Hilfswerk (THW), in the medical service the German Red Cross (DRK), the German Life-Rescue Society (DLRG), the Arbeiter-Samariter-Bund (ASB), the Johanniter-Unfall-Hilfe (JUH) and the Malteser Hilfsdienst (MHD) and in the area of ​​the ABC service the Federal Air Protection Association .

With the law on extended disaster control , the air protection aid service was dissolved in 1968, since now the " extended disaster control " took its place as the provision of personnel from the normal disaster control for the case of defense. The incorporation was implemented in 1971. The law stipulates that disaster control units and facilities must be able to combat the particular dangers and damage that arise in the event of a defense . In particular, fire protection , rescue and repair, NBC protection, medical services, veterinary services , care, telecommunications, supply and catering were mentioned . As a result, tactical units in the form of disaster relief trains were formed in accordance with these specialist areas.

The fixed requirements of the federal government on the units of disaster control ceased to exist in 1997 with the law on the reorganization of civil protection (ZSNeuOG). The determination of the scope, equipment and personnel training of the respective units are now matters of state legislation. The federal states have accordingly adopted their own regulations, some of which differ from the previous STAN. The established division into the specialist services was largely retained by the federal states and the aid organizations involved. Some concepts created in the 1990s, such as the operational units , emphasize the multifunctional use of the personnel deployed.

Specialist services

In addition to the areas listed in the Law on Extended Disaster Protection, additional specialist services in special areas of responsibility have been defined in some federal states and aid organizations. Each specialist service has its own tactical symbol . In many aid organizations there are specialist service badges that appropriately trained staff may wear on their work clothing.

The common specialist services are in alphabetical order:

The task of the ABC service is to determine nuclear, biological and chemical hazards and to detoxify people and property. In the area of ​​the ABC service, it is mainly the fire brigades that are active today, and in the past also management units. In individual cases also aid organizations such as ASB, DLRG, DRK, JUH and MHD as well as the THW.

The tasks of the rescue service are the rescue of people and animals from particularly difficult situations as well as the recovery of property that has been affected in the event of an accident or a major disaster. This also includes exploring the damage situation and locating people who have been buried. Other tasks of the rescue service are clearing work and the preparation of paths and crossings. The THW is almost exclusively active in the rescue service. This does not exclude technical assistance by fire brigades.

The task of the care service is to take care of the people affected by a major disaster or a dangerous situation. This primarily includes temporary accommodation, food, and psychological and social care. A sub-area is the psychosocial emergency care , the mental care of those affected directly after an accident. ASB, DRK, JUH, MHD and, in rare cases, the DLRG are active in the field of care services.

The task of the fire protection service is fire fighting, fire prevention and the rescue of people in the event of a disaster. This area of ​​responsibility also includes the supply of extinguishing water to other fire protection units. Only the fire brigades are active in the area of ​​fire protection.

The task of the telecommunications service is to establish and operate radio and telephone connections as well as to provide and maintain the technical communication equipment. The telecommunications service has the task of supporting the other specialist services within disaster control. Furthermore, the telecommunications service takes on tasks in the area of ​​operations management, such as the procurement and maintenance of mission-relevant information bases and data as decision-making aids, the keeping of resource and force overviews and the documentation of the course of operations. Due to the cross-sectional function of the telecommunications service, every organization active in disaster control is active in this specialist service. In addition there are directing units and, in some areas, emergency radio groups for radio amateurs .

  • Repair service (specialist service III)
    Repair service

The task of the repair service is the makeshift repair of supply and disposal systems. Only the THW is active in this specialist service.

  • Medical service (Specialist IV)
    medical corps

The task of the medical service is to care for injured and sick people in the event of a mass attack by injured or sick people . Above all, this includes the creation of the necessary infrastructure by setting up treatment stations and setting up rescue equipment holding areas. ASB, DLRG, DRK, JUH and MHD are active in the field of medical services.

  • Catering service (if independent; otherwise located in the care service and partly also in the supply service)
    Catering service

The task of the catering service is to produce and distribute hot and cold meals as well as drinks to supply those affected and emergency services in an emergency. ASB, DLRG, DRK, JUH, MHD and THW as well as occasionally the fire brigades are active in the field of catering.

The task of the supply service is the material supply of the units and facilities as well as the tasks of material maintenance. The activities of the supply service are currently carried out by each organization for their sub-tasks.

The task of the veterinary service is to prevent, reduce and eliminate damage that occurs to animals, food of animal origin, feed and drinking water during disasters. In the field of veterinary services, in addition to regular veterinarians, only directing units are active.

The management is guaranteed by the respective supporting organizations or management units.

  • Other specialist services

Furthermore, more specific types of rescue services or disaster control units have established themselves as specialist services - apart from the earlier regulations. These include, for example, water rescue , altitude , depth , cave and mountain rescue as well as emergency pastoral care .


The training of the deployed staff is carried out by the aid organizations. The scope of specialist training varies, but usually lasts between 16 and 48 hours.

Individual evidence

  1. BBK: The air raid auxiliary service: what it is and what it wants . Bad Godesberg, 1961
  2. Law on Extended Disaster Protection
  3. BBK: strength and equipment verification (STAN) for the units and facilities of the disaster control (KatS)
  4. Law on the reorganization of civil protection (ZSNeuOG)
  5. BBK / BZS: Care Service (BtDi) in disaster control. Evidence of strength and equipment of the care train (BtZ). STAN no. 061. Status: May 1984.
  6. BBK / BZS: supply service (VersDi) in disaster control. Proof of strength and equipment for the catering squad (VpfTr). STAN no. 092. Status: May 1984.