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Paramedic with material

Paramedic (from the Latin sanitas "health") is generally a term for non-medical personnel in the medical / rescue service or in the military medical service and specifically for a person who has completed medical training.



In Germany , the term paramedic or paramedic ( SanH or SanHe abbreviated) describes in addition to the general meaning for non-medical personnel in emergency medicine in the narrower sense

There are further interpretations and modifications for the designation as well as different training levels (see below).

Application area

Paramedics during a disaster control exercise

Members of aid organizations who have completed medical training are usually deployed in the medical watch service at events, in the medical service (disaster control) , as on-site helpers to bridge the therapy-free interval until the arrival of the rescue service and also as auxiliary workers in the rescue service.

The medical training also represents an additional qualification for emergency services from other organizations (e.g. fire brigade , technical relief organization ), with this helpers are additionally prepared for the extended first aid of those affected as well as for the security of their own emergency services.

School paramedics work in the school medical service and provide first aid in the event of accidents or sudden illnesses at your school until the emergency services arrive.

A paramedics is in occupational medical service used for initial treatment of industrial accidents and diseases, this is from a certain number of employees or with a corresponding threat to the statutory accident insurance institutions prescribed uniform. In this context, the occupational health service is often supported in its preventive activities. The same applies to the healing assistants according to the mountain ordinances.

In the army all soldiers to be now basically Einsatzersthelfer A (formerly assistant in the medical service ) is designed to assist if necessary in carrying out the medical service union help ( "auxiliary stretcher-bearer" to the Geneva Conventions ). The medical soldiers in the Central Medical Service of the Bundeswehr and in the Army Medical Service contribute to the general mission of the medical service in order to protect, maintain and restore the health of the soldiers.

Medical training

Course and scope of training

The medical training serves to deepen and expand the contents of a first aid course. The aid organizations have drawn up their own (but similar) training plans for this purpose and some of them also name the various training levels differently. Often the medical training is preceded by a so-called introductory seminar (basic helper training at the Malteser Aid Service ; usually around eight teaching units ), which introduces the aid organization, its goals and the people involved.

The German Red Cross (DRK) offers uniform medical training to the extent of (at least) 48 teaching hours plus the duration of the examination. A member trained in this way may use the designation "paramedic" after the age of 16. With further courses from the basic training program (e.g. basics of supervision) she is also generally referred to as "emergency worker". There are numerous advanced and specialized training courses. In some Red Cross communities (e.g. water rescue service ) there are additional training courses such as those for lifeguards . Until 2010, the DRK's medical training was carried out in three parts A, B ("medical helpers "; 24 teaching hours each) and C (32 teaching units of specialist training e.g. for civil protection and disaster control ); there are recognition regulations for the transfer of already trained helpers . With the introduction of the current training regulations from 2011 and the associated guidelines, the training content was adapted and didactically prepared. As with most other organizations, this includes e. B. the use of an AED and the elimination of many theoretical bases in favor of more practical exercises. In addition, compulsory training of at least 9 teaching units within two years was specified.

The Johanniter-Unfall-Hilfe (JUH) offers the module B2 of the integrated basic training medical and care with 60 teaching units for all helpers. Graduates must have reached the age of 16 and may call themselves “paramedics” (sometimes referred to as “paramedics”). The training concludes with a written and practical exam, the latter consisting of a case study (e.g. an accident) and resuscitation with a laryngeal tube and defibrillator . During the training, the participants learn how to rescue them according to the ABCDE scheme, which, compared to the first aid course, also includes ventilation with a laryngeal tube and oxygen, as well as extended diagnostic measures such as measuring blood sugar . In some cases, there are (still) the former training courses for advanced first aid (24 hours of instruction) and old-style medical workers (only 48 hours).

At the Malteser Hilfsdienst (MHD), in addition to the less frequent training as "emergency helper" (formerly "paramedic", not to be confused with emergency helper (NRW) ; generally 50 hours of instruction), there is also the emergency paramedic (ES) as a new in-depth standard training for everyone active helper. This includes 80 hours of theory and 20 hours of internship and represents the medical training of the Maltese.

The German Life Saving Society (DLRG) has taken next to the lifeguard and -taucherausbildung the old division of the DRC in part (A and B), a person with training step A is in the DLRG as medical assistants referred, at level B as paramedics . The training consists of 24 hours per part and also includes water rescue-specific content. In the San A course, knowledge of the placement of Guedel tubes , cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the use of an AED and corresponding background knowledge is imparted. The participants are also enabled to perform oxygen therapy. San B are trained in preparing injections, infusions, using vacuum mattresses, larynx tubes, etc. The Potsdam DLRG has also further developed the emergency medical technician training of the Maltese (100 hours of instruction; includes San A + B, an AED training and disaster protection training in accordance with Brandenburg state regulations). Every two to three years, the training must be refreshed with a twelve-hour training seminar.

The Arbeiter-Samariter-Bund Deutschland (ASB) distinguishes between two levels of medical training, the medical assistant course (SHL) with 48 hours of training plus examination duration and the medical services course (SDL) with 24 teaching units plus examination duration and final examination. Before these two courses, the helper must complete a basic first aid course. The SHL exam can be omitted if the SDL training is started within three months of completing the medical assistant course. After successfully participating and passing the SHL exam, the helper becomes a first aid worker . Successful completion of the SDL turns the participant into a paramedic .

The training and further education of the company paramedics is relatively precisely defined in the relevant regulations (BGV A1 - "Prevention"; DGUV Principle 304-002, formerly BGG 949).

For the training of the military medical personnel, see first aiders .

Content and implementation of the training

Care of a wound

In order to be admitted to the introductory medical training courses, it is usually necessary to have completed a first aid course (9 hours, before April 1, 2015: large first aid course with 16 hours). It covers medical topics such as anatomy and physiology , life-threatening disorders of consciousness, breathing and circulation, head and brain, poly, thoracic and abdominal trauma, thermal damage, infectious diseases, gynecological emergencies, accidents with hazardous substances / poisoning, rescue and transport, acute Vascular diseases, diabetes mellitus , fight against shock , electrical accidents, bone fractures , heart disease , general emergencies and minor injuries. In addition, equipment-related parts such as handling blood pressure and blood sugar measuring devices , suction and ventilation aids (ventilation with a resuscitator, insertion of a Guedel tube and larynx tube) as well as splinting and transport equipment are taught. Furthermore, knowledge of the assistance and preparation of medical measures such as injection , infusion and intubation as well as about the Medical Devices Act and the Medical Device Operator Ordinance (MPBetreibV) is imparted.

The Johanniter accident assistance trains participants also respect personal protective equipment (PPE) and rights of a paramedic. In addition, you will learn how to deal psychologically with stressful assignments.

In the training to become a company paramedic, there are also topics from the environment of the employers' liability insurance association, for example occupational safety and administrative regulations for dealing with work accidents.

At the end of the medical training there are usually written and practical exams.

The duration of the training varies depending on the requirements of the training organization, usually between 48 and 80 teaching hours (e.g. SanA and SanB together with the course on early defibrillation ). In order to enable volunteer members of the aid organizations to receive training, it is often carried out in the evening and / or over several weekends.

The training is usually offered by aid organizations, the fire brigade, the Federal Armed Forces, private rescue service schools or freelance trainers .

Further education

The next higher qualification level is usually the training to become a rescue worker or paramedic .

In the Malteser emergency service, a qualification level was introduced with the emergency medical technician between the classic paramedic (helper) training and the rescue worker: the training is more oriented towards rescue service measures and is supplemented by an internship.

In addition to the above-mentioned training courses with emergency medicine content, there are further qualifications (e.g. lifeguards ) and advanced specialist training , e.g. B. for water rescue or catering .


In the state or national competition of the Johanniter-Unfall-Hilfe , paramedics compete within a so-called A-team.


In Austria it is generally used to refer to personnel in the rescue service ( ambulance and emergency paramedics ). Even non-medical medical personnel in the armed forces are usually referred to as "Sani".

The term “ fire paramedic” has been introduced in Austrian fire brigades .


In Switzerland there is the job description of the qualified paramedic , who is the most highly qualified non-medical person in the rescue service. The job title “Dipl. Paramedic HF ”is protected and may only be used by graduates from a higher technical school .


  • Udo Helms (edit.), German Red Cross (ed.): Manual for the medical service. 2nd Edition. Self-published by the DRK, Bonn 1994, ISBN 3-9802947-4-9 .
  • G. Zerlett (Hrsg.): Handbook Sanitätsdienst: First Aid - Rescue - Disaster Control. Loose-leaf collection with supplements. Ecomed Fachverlag, Landsberg / Lech 1999, ISBN 3-609-70630-9 .
  • Egon Jung: Textbook for the medical service. Hofmann, Hildburghausen 2004, ISBN 3-922865-65-8 .
  • Franz Keggenhoff, German Red Cross (Ed.): Handbook Sanitätsdienst - The textbook for paramedics, rescue workers and company paramedics. 5th, revised edition. 2009, item no. 821 030

Web links

Wiktionary: Paramedic  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Malteser Bildungszentrum Euregio: Qualification in disaster control
  2. ^ BRK - Red Cross Introductory Seminar .
  3. ^ "Regulations for basic, advanced and advanced training in the German Red Cross, part: Medical service training" from November 25, 2010 .
  4. JUH - paramedics .
  5. ^ JUH RV Upper Franconia - training as a paramedic .
  6. MHD - Emergency helper in the school medical service ( Memento of the original from April 2, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  7. Malteser in Bad Honnef: 17 emergency workers take their final exams ( Memento from June 5, 2015 in the Internet Archive ).
  8. MHD - medical training .
  9. Information on emergency paramedic and rescue workers (NRW) training on the website of the Malteser Hilfsdienst Jüchen ( Memento from June 26, 2015 in the Internet Archive ).
  10. DLRG - Medical Training ( Memento from September 27, 2013 in the Internet Archive ).
  11. DLRG - San A .
  12. DLRG - San B
  13. ^ DLRG Potsdam - emergency medical personnel .
  14. ^ ASB Munich Paramedic Training , accessed on March 9, 2018.
  15. DGUV Principle 304-002 , September 2016, Chapter 1, Page 6, Document server of the German Social Accident Insurance , accessed on July 1, 2019.