Physikum is the traditional name in Germany for the intermediate examination in the context of medical studies . Since October 1, 2003, the official designation in the human medicine degree program has been the first section of the medical examination (according to the previously valid licensing regulations : medical preliminary examination) and in the dental examination, dental preliminary examination . The term Physikum is still used unofficially, however: In everyday university language it is the common one, it is also used in research literature and it appears regularly in specialist dictionaries and other newer titles from major specialist book publishers. Deviating from this, the traditional language used in the veterinary medicine course has remained the official one and thus physikum will continue to be used in documents in parallel to the new term veterinary preliminary examination . In the human medicine degree program, a new legal regulation in 2002 made the traditional intermediate examination of this name legally an integral first part of a state examination, which is reflected in the new official designation and above all has consequences for the assessment.
The Physikum is the first comprehensive examination in the context of medical studies. The name - as well as the content - reflects the program of the reform movement that led to the establishment of this examination in the 19th century. It was first introduced for the human medicine course and later adopted for the veterinary and dental medicine courses.
Contents and regulations of the examination
For the human medicine course
Formed the legal basis for the Germany-wide tests in the study course human medicine and forms since the late 19th century, the Licensing Regulations for doctors (AOÄ) for the German Reich (see the later chapter Historical background ) or below for the Federal Republic of Germany . Today it is valid in the version of June 27, 2002 (last changed on July 17, 2017). It was issued by the Federal Minister of Health and legally constitutes an ordinance and thus a federal law in the material sense . Paragraphs 9 to 21 contain general examination regulations and §§ 22–26 regulate details for the first section of the medical examination , the Physikum ( The wording can be found in electronic publication via the relevant appendix to this article).
Organization, implementation and content
The intermediate examination used to consist of the traditional Physikum for students from all medical faculties . Today, however, it is being replaced by other exams at some universities running model and reform courses . The exam takes place after four semesters of standard study time. In the federal state of Hesse , an “administration fee” of currently 95 euros (when registering for the exam in spring 2019) is to be paid when registering, with which “for processing the exam registration” is to be paid. (Even at the time of the introduction of the physics course - as well as for the previous exam - a considerable fee had to be paid, which at that time served to pay the examiners. / See the chapter on historical background below .)
The exam is divided into two consecutive parts, a written and an oral-practical, which are held on different dates. The written part of the human medicine course must be completed in the form of a Germany-wide standardized test. This is offered annually on two dates, in March and August, and carried out on each of the two dates on two consecutive days. For 2019 they are set accordingly on March 12 and 13 or August 20 and 21, for 2020 by two and for 2021 by one calendar day (s) earlier. At the last appointments in spring 2018, 2493 candidates across Germany took part, in "autumn" (late August) of the same year there were 6552 (see the subchapter exam results ). The content of the examinations, the preparation of the documents and the evaluation take place centrally in the Institute for Medical and Pharmaceutical Examination Questions ( IMPP - see the relevant appendix to this article). The registration for the exam and the decision on the admission take place decentrally at the state examination offices (LPÄ). These offices also conduct the exams and inform the examinees of their results. The exam comprises 320 single-choice questions from the subjects Physiology / Physics (80 questions) and Biochemistry / Chemistry (80 questions) on the first day, as well as Anatomy / Biology (100 questions) and Medical Psychology / Sociology (60 questions) on the second Day. The examinee has four hours to answer the questions on each of the two days. In the evaluation, all questions are weighted equally: One point is awarded for each answer that corresponds to the expectation. In theory, a maximum of 320 points can be achieved in this part of the exam. However, since errors in the task are discovered in the course of the evaluation, one or more questions must be removed from the assessment in such cases, which means that the number of maximum achievable points on which the grading scale is measured is correspondingly small reduced.
The oral part (actually: oral-practical part) includes the subjects of anatomy, physiology and biochemistry / molecular biology according to the new licensing regulations . According to the old license to practice medicine, two oral examination subjects were drawn by lots (anatomy, biochemistry, physiology, medical psychology / medical sociology). At some universities, the actual exam is preceded by a half-hour practical session, while other universities integrate the practical part into the oral exam. The oral examination is held by the professors of the university where the candidate is studying. The license to practice medicine provides for up to four examinees per examination group and stipulates an examination duration between 45 minutes and one hour per examinee.
The two parts of the examination do not have to be completed in the same semester. They are first graded separately and the overall grade for the passed physics course is then calculated as the arithmetic mean of the grades initially awarded for both parts. The written and oral exams are weighted equally. A failed part can be repeated twice. However, this is not permitted for a part that has already been passed - e.g. to achieve a better grade. One third of the overall grade for the Physikum will later be included in the overall grade for the medical examination. As a result of this evaluation method, the Physikum has fundamentally changed its character and status compared to earlier times: Since its introduction in the 19th century, it has been an intermediate examination in the traditional sense, the passing of which is only required and proven for admission to the final examination that takes place a few years later was (as was and is also practiced in other degree programs in Germany), as a result of the later reorganization as part of a new study reform since the licensing regulations from 2002, according to the law, it is considered the integral first part of a medical examination, each of which has three parts weighted equally, which was expressed by the change in the official name (see the introduction to the article above).
Successful completion of the physics course ends the preclinical part of the medical degree and leads to the clinical part. (For current plans to abolish this separation , which has existed since the introduction of the Physikum , see the following chapter Future prospects etc. )
For the veterinary medicine course
Implementation and content
The Physikum in the veterinary medicine course also takes place after the fourth semester. The subjects of animal breeding and genetics , biochemistry, physiology, anatomy, histology and embryology are examined . The examinations extend over a period of eight to ten weeks and are all taken in an oral and sometimes also in a practical form. The subjects chemistry, physics, zoology and botany are already examined in the pre-physics course after the second semester.
The legal basis for this is the new version of the Ordinance on Licensing of Veterinarians of July 27, 2006. Sections 5 - 18 contain general examination regulations, while Sections 19 - 21 cover the pre-physics course and sections 22-28 the physical course rules (the text of the same can be read in electronic form via the corresponding appendix to this article). In the last-mentioned section, the term Physikum still appears in the legal text today.
For the dentistry course
Implementation and content
The Physikum in the study of dentistry can be taken after the fifth semester at the earliest and includes the subjects anatomy, physiology, biochemistry and dentures . These subjects are examined separately orally, and dentistry is also linked to a practical examination lasting several days. The subjects chemistry, physics and biology are examined orally within the framework of the pre-physics course (officially: the natural science pre-examination ) at the earliest after the second semester.
The legal basis for this is the license to practice medicine for dentists . Sections 3 - 17 contain general examination regulations, while Sections 18 - 24 regulate the preliminary scientific examination and Sections 25 - 31 regulate the preliminary dental examination , i.e. the physical course (the text of which is in electronic form via the corresponding appendix to this article).
Far-reaching new regulations in preparation
Since the legal regulation and with it the forms and contents of training and examinations are perceived as outdated in view of the scientific progress in dentistry and human medicine, a new regulation with far-reaching changes is in preparation, which will also have corresponding consequences for the content and implementation of the intermediate examination . In particular, in the first part of the study, a much more advanced technical “interlinking” with the content of human medicine is planned, which will also be reflected in the future, newly designed physics course for prospective dentists.
Exam results in the human medicine course
The IMPP, which is responsible for the questions and their evaluation (see above), is also entrusted with the task of documenting and publishing the results (anonymously). Detailed graphics of this content can be studied on the institute's information portal (see the appendix to this article) for the past twenty years.
Investigation and University Political Controversy
An article published in the Deutsches Ärzteblatt in 2006 undertook to subject the examination results from 1994 (when the medical faculties in the new federal states first took part in the Physikum ) to a comparative and detailed analysis across Germany until 2004. However, the authors of this study warned against drawing any direct conclusions about the quality of medical teaching there from the examination results of the individual universities (and possibly basing political demands on the allocation of funds). Because of the explosive nature of the topic in terms of university politics, a discussion ensued among university teachers of medicine about the methodology and the significance of this study. In this context, the then Dean of Studies of the Medical Faculty of the University of Erlangen-Nürnberg , Hermann O. Handwerker, accused faculties with reform courses in human medicine, by setting them up - and as a result of not participating in the Germany-wide physics exam to have "fled" a direct comparison of their didactic capabilities.
In autumn 2016, 6,466 students nationwide (60.9% of them women) took part in the written physics exam. They achieved an average of 74.50% (men: 75.50%; women: 73.6%) of maximum performance. In the oral examination, there were 6,216 (60.4% of them women) who were given an average grade of 2.54 (men: 2.51; women: 2.56). The average overall grade was 2.31.
In spring 2017, 2,388 students (64.2% of them women) took the written test and achieved an average of 70.38% of the maximum performance. In the oral exam there were 2244 participants (63.1% of them women) who achieved an average grade of 2.93. The overall grade was an average of 2.64.
In autumn 2017, 6,496 students took part in the written exam after an average of 4.4 semesters; 60.6% were women. 91.07% of the test items passed. They achieved an average of 75.72% of the maximum possible number of points (the 3957 women: 75% / the 2539 men: 76.6%). In the oral exam there were 6,226 participants who achieved an average grade of 2.59 (women: 2.61; men: 2.56). The average overall grade from both parts was 2.27.
In spring 2018, 2,493 students took the written exam, 65.5% of them women. They achieved an average of 68.76% of maximum performance. 79.3% of the test items passed. In the oral exam, 2501 students achieved an average grade of 3.01. The average overall grade from both parts was 2.66.
In autumn 2018, a total of 6552 test subjects across Germany underwent the written part of the physics course . Of 315 tasks evaluated, they answered between 0 and 313 according to expectations; the result was an average of 235.29 per person. This enabled them to achieve an average of 74.7% of the maximum possible performance; 90.7% of the participating students passed the exam. They performed best in the subject biology (81.3%), followed by the subjects medical psychology & sociology (78.5%) and physiology (75.9% each of the maximum possible performance). Their successes were lowest in physics (61.5%).
Future prospects: Planned changes to the examination in the human medicine course
Introduction, principles and overview
As part of the reforms of medical studies, changes to the state examinations are also planned. Overall, they are based on the guiding principle of a stronger patient orientation of the training. It is planned for the Physikum that “in future more clinical references should be recorded”, which should also have a positive didactic and mnemonic effect: “[...] this makes it easier for the students to learn, but also to retain the essential basic knowledge, because it is included in contexts that make sense for doctors. ”Furthermore, in the second, the oral-practical part of the examination,“ topics that are important for patient contact are to be examined. ”The examinees should have the necessary“ good scientific basis ” “Being able to“ take a simple anamnesis ”at this point in time - while questions about therapy are still reserved for later examinations. Ultimately, they will also have to prove their ability to read and “judge” scientific studies in a targeted and critical manner. (Compare the critical statements in the article chapter Spectrum of Medicine .)
The master plan for medical studies 2020 on which these plans are based is characterized by the management of the IMPP in such a way that it “ aims at a paradigm shift in medical training and the medical state exams.” (To the one in medical history, theory and criticism since The concept of paradigm established in the 20th century, see the following chapters Historical Background and Criticism and Counter-Movements , which also make the renewed realignment understandable.)
- It is planned to create space for the inclusion of new learning content by “focusing on a core curriculum ” and “reducing the current examination content in the subject catalog by a total of approx. 20-25%”.
- Accordingly, "the scientific questions should be reduced in the written part of the examination."
- For this should occur more often:
- “Clinically oriented questions and in particular
- the acquisition of scientific competence,
- ethical-legal basis,
- psychosocial knowledge etc. "
- In principle, "application-oriented questions [...] should, if possible, replace questions for checking pure specialist knowledge."
- In implementation, the previous oral-practical examinations should be carried out using the newly developed methods of the objective structured practical examination (translated from English "objective structured practical examination," OSPE for short) or objective structured clinical examination (" objective structured clinical examination ," short OSCE), which will be carried out "[i] on a course with an expected ten stations".
- As part of this, nationwide "all students should be tested on centrally developed tasks."
- Abilities and skills such as
- As a didactic goal, the achievement of which is “guaranteed” for this part, is stated for this part “that the students learn from the beginning, in addition to acquiring the scientific principles, to take into account the patient's perspective” - which has been responding to criticism expressed for decades (see criticism below and counter movements ). (See also participatory decision making .)
- Finally, "[...] to restore the comparability of the performance standards in the various faculties, [...] the model courses [in the joint examination] should also take part."
Justification of the innovations
The head of the IMPP (see above contents and regulations of the examination ), the internist and university professor Jana Jünger, provided a more detailed reason for the intended reforms of medical training and a corresponding redesign of the state examinations in a lecture at the 78th Medical Faculty Day in Year 2017.
Already in 2011 - while she was still working as a senior physician in the Department of General Internal Medicine and Psychosomatics at the Heidelberg University Hospital - she complained in an interview that "[the] conversation between doctor and patient in normal medical training unfortunately closes briefly [come]. “On the one hand, this has the consequence that doctors do not ask even the simplest anamnesis and therefore prescribe the wrong therapy in up to a third of the cases for some diseases, as studies have shown. On the other hand,
"What each of us knows from his environment: Doctors may be technically good, but again and again they cause emotional damage by the way they talk to the patient."
"That the debate about the design of the House of Science and the necessary use of theories of science is very old."
Reflecting on current debates in the light of these disciplines is therefore helpful for clarity and understanding. Alienated by how much her colleagues are still fixated on questions of technology when discussing the medicine of the future , she warned
“[...] We see technology as the solution to many problems, but we have lost the patients as people. […] [W] e have to show the patient that we take our responsibility seriously and make our diagnostic-therapeutic approach understandable to them. "
Introduction and overview
The Physikum is not only the intermediate examination in the course of medicine, which is understood by its university lecturers as an applied science , but the interest of scientists has also been directed towards the Physikum itself for years . This research is carried out on the one hand from the perspective of medical history , which seeks to describe and explain historical developments and changes in the field of medicine against the general cultural , intellectual , social and scientific-historical background. In doing so, the focus is on the one hand on the convictions and the content of the program that led to the creation and technical composition of the examination and its subsequent changes and must be considered in the context of the design of the medical course as a whole, and on the other hand on its short and long-term effects on students , Doctors and medicine and thus on patients and society. (For these aspects, see the chapter on Historical Background and, based on this, Critique and Counter-Movements .) On the other hand, there is research from the perspective of university didactics , psychology and finally medicine itself, which investigate various aspects or the effects of the physics . A few years after successfully passing this examination, individual students also choose the physics as the subject of their own medical dissertation. (Compare the section on the positivist turn and the subject of the history of medicine in the historical background chapter.)
Medical aspects and physics research on effects and success
A study at the University of Düsseldorf, understood as a pilot study and published as a dissertation in 2001, was devoted to the subject of stress and physical complaints during exam preparation using the example of the Physikum . This was carried out on sixty-six medical students of both sexes with an average age of 23.14 years (with an additional, smaller control group) using questionnaires and protocols. The daily learning duration averaged 8.38 hours in the final phase before the written and 8.13 hours before the oral part of the exam (p. 14), during which the test participants “slept significantly less” (p. 16). “The Physikum turned out to be a particularly stressful situation for the medical students” (p. 14) in the evaluation of the survey based on subjective perception (p. 21). The author came to the conclusion that a large number of different complaints were logged, but mostly not significantly more often than in the control group of medical students outside the exam preparation phase. “Only palpitations and stumbling occurred significantly more frequently in the exam group ” (p. 17). Only 4.5% of the exam candidates in the first and 13% in the second preparation phase reported no complaints (p. 20). A further hypothesis about the effects of different learning styles could not be tested because of the “unexpectedly low number of symptom-free subjects” (p. 22). The explanation for the greater freedom from symptoms of the control group, which was expected but not found in the investigation, was assumed to be an "increased sense of responsibility for their own health in the exam candidates" or "that the exam candidates consciously reduced other potential risks such as alcohol consumption , but not those Test subjects of the control group ”(p. 21), as well as that due to a suspected tendency to“ reduce social contacts ”in the period under review,“ the exposure of the students to potentially pathogenic germs was also reduced. This would be a possible explanation for the reduced infection rate among the exam candidates ”(p. 21 f.). (Compare the demands on medical health and the role model function in this regard in the later subchapter Criticism from the perspective of medical history . See also the article chapter Stress in medical studies .)
A prospective study in the field of pulmonology published four years later investigated the connection between snoring and physics . By interviewing medical students from Bochum , 481 of whom provided usable data sets, the researchers came to the conclusion that the body mass index (in today's highly anglicised terminology: body mass index , abbreviated BMI ) of a person studying medicine is not clear Correlated enough with exam grade to serve as a predictor ; but “Age and snoring seem to have an independent influence on the results of the Physikum exam.” The average exam grade for the snoring medical students - 3.1 versus 2.8 - was three decimal places higher than that of the non-snoring students. A dissertation also grew out of this research project.
Current criticism and future planning
- Thomas Bohrer, Michael Schmidt, Johann-Heinrich Königshausen: "On the necessity of philosophy in medical studies". In: German Medical Weekly . Volume 143, 2018, pp. 1272-1275.
- Jana Jünger: “Competence-oriented testing in the state examination.” In: Heyo K. Kroemer (Ed.): Conference report - 78th Ordinary Medical Faculty Day on June 15 and 16, 2017 in Hamburg. MFT office, Berlin 2017, ISBN 978-3-9816052-4-2 , pp. 135–150.
- Erwin Heinz Ackerknecht : Contributions to the history of the medical reform of 1848. In: Sudhoffs archive for the history of medicine . Volume 25, 1932, pp. 61-183. (EH Ackerknecht received his doctorate in 1931 at the University of Leipzig with a dissertation on this subject under the guidance of the medical historian Henry E. Sigerist and later published further articles and a biography in book form on R. Virchow and his work. )
- August Hirsch (Hrsg.): Biographical lexicon of the outstanding doctors of all times and peoples. Second edition reviewed and supplemented by H. Haberling, F. Hübotter and H. Vierordt. Six volumes. Urban & Schwarzenberg publishing house, Berlin and Vienna 1929–1935.
- Johanna Bleker : “The endangered body in society. Approaches to a social medicine at the time of the bourgeois revolution in Germany. ”In: Arthur E. Imhof (Hrsg.): Man and his body. From antiquity to today. CH Beck, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-406-09191-1 , pp. 226-242.
- Klaus Dörner : Chapter 14: Paths of psychiatry (psychiatry history). In: derselbe et alii: To err is human. Textbook of psychiatry and psychotherapy.
- Wolfgang Uwe Eckart : History, theory and ethics of medicine. 8th, revised edition. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg 2017, ISBN 978-3-662-54659-8 .
- Werner Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Encyclopedia Medical History. Verlag Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 .
- Dietrich von Engelhardt , Fritz Hartmann (Hrsg.): Classics of medicine. Two volumes. Beck Verlag, Munich 1991, ISBN 3-406-35592-7 .
- Heinrich Schipperges (Hrsg.): History of medicine in spotlights . Meyers Lexikonverlag, Mannheim 1990, ISBN 3-411-02704-5 . (Information about the medical historian H. Schipperges can be found in the subsection Critique from the perspective of medical history .)
- Jean-Charles Sournia et al. a .: Histoire de la Medicine, de la Pharmacie, de l'Art Dentaire et de l'Art Veterinaire. Societe francaise d'editions professionelles, medicales et scientifiques. Albin Michel-Laffont-Tchou, Paris 1978.
- German as: Illustrated history of medicine. German version with technical advice from the Institute for Theory and History of Medicine at the University of Münster, Director: Richard Toellner. 8 volumes. Verlag Andreas & Andreas, Salzburg 1980, ISBN 3-85012-090-2 (quoted from the German edition).
- Rudolf Virchow : Complete Works. Edited by Christian Andree . Olms Verlag, Hildesheim and Zurich. Has been published since 1992 (with a change of publisher since then).
- Rolf Winau : "The discovery of the human body in modern medicine." In: Arthur E. Imhof (Ed. :): The human being and his body. From antiquity to today. CH Beck, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-406-09191-1 , pp. 209-225.
Medical theory, history of science, philosophy and philosophy of science
- Jürgen Mittelstraß (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Philosophy and Philosophy of Science. 2nd, revised and significantly expanded edition. 8 volumes. Verlag JB Metzler, Stuttgart, 2005 to 2018, ISBN 978-3-476-02108-3 .
- Ilse Jahn (ed.): History of biology - theories, methods, institutions, short biographies. 3rd, revised and expanded edition. Spektrum Verlag, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3-8274-1023-1 .
Hans Diller , Heinrich Schipperges, Richard Toellner , Peter Probst: Medicine. In: Historical Dictionary of Philosophy . Edited by Joachim Ritter, Karlfried Gründer and Gottfried Gabriel with the participation of more than 1,500 specialist scholars. 13 volumes. Schwabe Verlag, Basel and Stuttgart 1971-2007, ISBN 978-3-7965-0115-9 . Here: Volume 5, 1980, columns 968-1002.
In this chronologically structured article, the named authors each wrote the individual sections: I. Antiquity (Col. 968–976). II. Middle Ages and Renaissance (Sp. 976–984). III. Early modern period (Sp. 984–992). IV. From Schiller to the present (Col. 992-1002).
- Karoly Simonyi: Cultural History of Physics. From the beginnings till now. 3rd, revised and expanded edition. Verlag Harri Deutsch, Frankfurt am Main 2001, ISBN 3-8171-1651-9 .
- Thure von Uexküll : Man and nature. Basics of a natural philosophy. (= Dalp Collection; Volume 13). Francke Verlag, Bern 1953. German licensed edition: Leo Lehnen Verlag, Munich 1953.
- Thure von Uexküll (Ed. :) Textbook of psychosomatic medicine. 1st edition: Verlag Urban and Schwarzenberg, Munich et al. 1979, ISBN 978-3-541-08841-6 .
- 8th edition: Uexküll - Psychosomatic Medicine. Theoretical models and clinical practice. Edited by Karl Köhle , Wolfgang Herzog, Peter Joraschky, Johannes Kruse, Wolf Langewitz and Wolfgang Söllner. Verlag Elsevier / Urban & Fischer, Munich 2017, ISBN 978-3-437-21833-0 . (This article quotes from the two editions given.)
- Rolf-Peter Warsitz: The psychoanalysis between the methodologies of science. In: Psyche . Journal of Psychoanalysis and Its Applications . Founded by Alexander Mitscherlich . Edited by Margarete Mitscherlich . 51st year, issue 2, February 1997, Verlag Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1997, , pp. 121-142.
Foreign language dictionaries
Unless otherwise stated in the individual references , the following foreign language dictionaries were used:
- Langenscheidt's encyclopedic dictionary of the English and German languages. "The Great Muret-Sanders". Four volumes. 10th edition. Langenscheidt-Verlag, Berlin a. a. 1992 (ISBN varies according to individual volumes).
- Peter Reuter: Springer-Großwörterbuch Medizin / Medical dictionary: German-English, English-German. Springer Verlag, Berlin et al. 2001, ISBN 978-3-540-41980-8 .
- Wilhelm Gemoll (author), Karl Vretska (editor): Gemoll - Greek-German school and manual dictionary. Tenth, completely revised edition. Oldenbourg, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-486-00234-1 .
- Henry George Liddell , Robert Scott : A Greek-English Lexicon. Revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones . Clarendon Press, Oxford 1996, ISBN 0-19-864226-1 .
Hermann Menge (author), Otto Güthling (editor): Langenscheidt's pocket dictionary of the Greek and German languages. 19th edition. Langenscheidt publishing house, Berlin.
- Volume 1: Greek-German (1950).
- Volume 2: German-Greek (1957).
- Thomas Baier (Hrsg.): Der Neue Georges: Detailed Latin-German concise dictionary. Compiled from the sources and […] elaborated by Karl Ernst Georges , taking into account the best resources . Two volumes. On the basis of the 8th, improved and increased edition, Hahnsche Buchhandlung, Hanover and Leipzig 1913. Revised: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 2013, ISBN 978-3-534-25214-5 .
- Legal text on the regulation of the physics degree in human medicine.
- www.impp.de Institute for medical and pharmaceutical examination questions in Mainz; this asks the written questions of the Physikum centrally throughout Germany. Documentation on the results achieved can also be viewed there.
- Legal text on the regulation of physics in the veterinary medicine course.
- Legal text on the regulation of the physics degree in dentistry.
- Investigation of the performance of the students of the various faculties in Germany in the human medicine course in the exams between 1994 and 2004.
- Article about the Würzburg project of a lecture entitled Philosophicum for medical professionals on the information portal of Thieme-Verlag (from January 17, 2011).
- Information about the Philosophicum project on the information portal of the Würzburg University Hospital.
- Studies fundamentale - irrigation of the cultural desert via the compulsory accompanying course at the University of Witten / Herdecke on the information portal of the Berliner Zeitung Tagesspiegel (first published there on August 21, 2000).
- The Stufu Thursday in Witten on the Thieme Verlag information portal (February 25, 2014).
- Information about the fundamental studies on the information portal of the University of Witten / Herdecke.
Arthur Boniface Pranada: Internet-based study on the relationship between quality of sleep, quality of life and the course of study among Bochum medical students. Medical dissertation, Bochum 2005, p. 66: "[...] However, [...] there was a connection between snoring and poor grades in the Physikum."
Likewise in the technical paper presented in the subsection of the Physikum research.
- Manfred Spitzer : "From violins to physics: Cortical plasticity in humans: an update." In: Nervenheilkunde . Volume 31 (2012), pp. 378-381.
- Christian Götz, Ursula Pohl, Ute Schlasius-Ratter, Hossein Shahla: Does “Physikum” matter? Predictive power of the pre-clinical basic subjects for the examination performance in the second section of the medical examination . Joint annual meeting of the Society for Medical Education (GMA) and the working group for the further development of teaching in dentistry (AKWLZ). Münster, September 20-23, 2017. German Medical Science Publishing House, Düsseldorf 2017.
- Pschyrembel specialist dictionary medicine German-English. 4th revised edition by Fritz-Jürgen Nöhring. Verlag de Gruyter, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-11-022030-8 , p. 1196. There, Physikum is translated as "preliminary (medical) examination, first medical examination."
Current examples on various special topics and from various publishers are:
T. Brockfeld, V. Lippek, B. Müller: Learning strategies: MC techniques and test rhetoric ; in 30 days through the oral and written physics. 6th edition. Medi-Learn-Verlag, Marburg 2015, ISBN 978-3-95658-018-5 .
O. Strompen, T. Vogt, LA Cömert: Biochemistry for Physicians: Exam Questions and Answers for the Physikum . Lehmanns Media, Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-86541-840-1 .
Mihai Ancau: Clinical Basics for the Physikum . Springer Verlag, Heidelberg / Berlin 2016, ISBN 978-3-662-46713-8 .
Final spurt - the scripts for the Physikum. 4th updated edition. Book series published by Thieme-Verlag, Stuttgart 2017.
Exam questions: General rehearsal Physikum H 17, day 1 + 2 . Medi-Learn-Verlag, Ottendorf 2018, ISBN 978-3-95658-084-0 .
- Leaflet of the Hessian State Examination and Investigation Office in Health Care: First section of the ÄP (M1) in spring 2019 .
- In § 24 (see the legal text in the appendix to this article).
- accordance with Section 33 of the Licensing Regulations for Doctors (see the legal text available in the appendix to this article).
- Like the license to practice medicine from 1970, the license to practice medicine regulation for doctors of July 14, 1987, in its §§ 22 - 24 , spoke of a medical preliminary examination , the content of which corresponded to the traditional Physikum . This was later followed by the medical examination regulated in §§ 25 ff. , Which in turn consisted of three parts, so that the overall grade was calculated from the three individual grades, which was regulated in § 34. Since the license to practice medicine for doctors of June 27, 2002 (which came into force on October 1, 2003), however, the traditional Physikum is no longer referred to as a preliminary examination , but as the first part of the medical examination , which is based on its §§ 22 - 26 or from Section 33.
- Section 22 begins with the words "The Physikum includes the examination subjects [...]"
- Thomas Zimmermann, Karl Wegscheider, Hendrik van den Bussche: Medical faculties: The training success in comparison. In: Deutsches Ärzteblatt 103 (25), 2006, pp. A-1732 - 1738 (see the relevant appendix to this article).
- Comments and letters. In: Deutsches Ärzteblatt 103, 2006, in issues 37 and 38.
"[...] If rankings are inevitable in our society, then we prefer to stick with the uncorrected and unvarnished ' Bundesliga table' of the IMPP. However, a number of faculties have already taken refuge in 'reform courses ' before making this comparison. ”
Quoted from: Letters - Universities: Confused and disappointed. ibidem , volume 37, p. A-2375. (The letter is also readable in electronic form by indexing from the investigation given in the appendix to this article .)
"Interview: No longer just crossing - what exam exams could soon look like. IMPP director Prof. Jana Jünger in an interview with the MBZ: Communication and patient orientation are new focuses ”. In: Marburger Bund - Newspaper No. 12/24. August 2018. p. 7.
(Also published in electronic form on the IMPP information portal.)
- Jana Jünger: “Competence-oriented testing in the state examination in medicine.” In: Federal Health Gazette - Health Research - Health Protection. Volume 61 (Issue 2), February 2018, pp. 171–177.
- Ibidem. Chapter "Revision of the item catalogs."
- Ibidem. Chapter "Future design of the first section of the medical examination (M1)."
- A biographical portrait can be found on the IMPP information portal (accessed on March 11, 2020).
- Competence-oriented testing in the state examination (see literature ).
- patients: 'Doctors repeatedly cause emotional damage.' Interview with the German news magazine Der Spiegel . Published on its Internet portal on February 14, 2011 (accessed on March 10, 2020).
- "[...] Yesterday I sometimes had the feeling that the human-machine model from the 1970s had risen again [...]"
- Natalija Schüller: Connection between exam stress and the organization of learning times and physical complaints in medical students during exam preparation. Medical dissertation, University of Düsseldorf 2001.
- J de Zeeuw et alii : "Influence on academic success through sleep-related breathing disorders - results of a survey of medical students from Bochum." In: Pneumologie 2005; 59 - P139.
- This was quoted in the introduction to this article in connection with the use of the term.
- Marcel H. Bickel: Ackerknecht, Erwin Heinz. In: Encyclopedia of Medical History. P. 6.