Dei sub numine viget
("Under God's protection it blossoms")
|place||Princeton, New Jersey , United States|
|president||Christopher L. Eisgruber|
|Annual budget||US $ 1.05 billion (2007)|
|Foundation assets||US $ 17.1 billion (2007)|
|University sports||Ivy League|
|Networks||Association of American Universities|
The Princeton University is in the town of Princeton in the State of New Jersey preferred private university . It is the fourth oldest university in the United States and a founding member of the Association of American Universities , an association of leading research-intensive North American universities and the so-called " Ivy League " that has existed since 1900 .
Together with the universities of Yale and Harvard , it is one of the most prestigious and richest universities in the world. It has the world's largest per capita wealth of any university. In 2015, the asset amounted to just under 21 billion US dollars, which in turn was largely due to donations from alumni .
In 1930 the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) was founded in Princeton , which became internationally known as Albert Einstein's last academic place of work . At the center of the research institute is the will to conduct independent research. The institute is only open to doctoral researchers. Although it is associated with Princeton University and cooperates closely with it, it remains independent and finances itself independently.
The university is associated with a total of 43 Nobel Prize winners , ten Turing Award recipients and 209 Rhodes scholarship holders . Two presidents of the United States , twelve judges of the United States Supreme Court, and heads of state from around the world were briefed at the institution, among other things.
Princeton was founded as the "College of New Jersey" on October 22, 1746 by Jonathan Dickinson , Aaron Burr and other Presbyterian supporters of the " Great Awakening " with the establishment of the founding charter. The college was then in Elizabeth for a year and then in Newark for nine years . In 1756 the college was moved to Princeton, but the name was retained for the time being. It was housed in the newly built “Nassau Hall” on land that was a gift from Nathaniel FitzRandolph. Nassau Hall housed the entire college for half a century. It was not until 1896 that the college became "Princeton University" due to its expanded faculties and thus degree programs. As a thank you to the place where it stood for so long, the name was retained. In 1900 the Graduate School was introduced.
The university played a special role during the American Revolution . In 1768 the Scot John Witherspoon became president of the college. Under his leadership, the college developed into one of the most educationally advanced in America. Witherspoon, for example, introduced history into the study curriculum and in his lectures spread the ideas of the enlightened common sense philosophy . When the conflicts between the colonies and the English motherland intensified, revolutionary ideas in Princeton fell on intellectual fertile soil. Witherspoon itself was in 1776 one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence , and many of his students were among the leaders of the revolutionary period and the early republic, such as from the graduating class of 1771 , James Madison , Gunning Bedford, Jr. , Philip Freneau and Hugh Henry Brackenridge , from of the class of 1772 Aaron Burr , Aaron Ogden , Henry Lee and William Bradford . At the Philadelphia Constituent Convention in 1787, nine Princeton graduates were among the 55 delegates, Yale and William & Mary made up only four, Columbia and Harvard three.
The campus, which extends over 200 acres of land, features an abundance of neo-Gothic style buildings, many of them over 200 years old. Some newer structures have been built in the style of modern architecture and a variety of sculptures are on campus.
The majority of the students live on campus. In later semesters, students also have the option of looking for their own apartment. However, since rents in Princeton are very high, many don't. In their free time, students can take advantage of a variety of leisure activities: Princeton University has its own swimming pools and tennis courts, and the university also has its own lake.
Teaching for courses with a bachelor's degree is organized in 34 departments. There is a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree in engineering.
Beyond the bachelor's degree, the degrees Master of Arts, Master of Architecture (M.Arch.), Master of Engineering (M.Eng.), Master in Finance (M.Fin.), Master of Science in Engineering (MSE), Master of Science (in Chemistry, MS), Master in Public Affairs (MPA), Master in Public Policy (MPP) and Master in Public Affairs and Urban and Regional Planning (MPA-URP) . The doctorate is awarded by all departments. Professors are not released to research, but always have to teach.
Although Princeton is one of the leading elite universities in the United States, there is no School of Law . This fact is often unknown, even in films and series, reference is often made to elitist law students from Princeton, although these do not exist at all (e.g. The Prince of Bel-Air ).
Admission of the students
Princeton follows an admissions policy that ignores applicants' solvency. The university pays any differences to the very high tuition fees in the form of grants from its own capital stock. Approximately 60% of the first-year students in 2012 received financial support from the university, which averages US $ 28,930 (66.6% of the total cost of US $ 43,425) per year. Despite this admission policy, which also enables children of parents of lower income groups to study at the renowned university, a large part of the student body is made up of children from wealthy families. Currently, approximately 10% of students are Princeton alumni children.
Sights on campus
The Princeton University Art Museum , Princeton University's own art museum , gives a glimpse of its wealth: it contains works by many famous artists, including Claude Monet and Andy Warhol . The university has an important library to which the Scheide Library is attached.
Princeton University's sports teams are the Tigers. The university is a member of the Ivy League . The university's mascot is a tiger, and the school colors are orange and black.
Nobel Prize Winner
- John Bardeen (1908–1991) - two-time Nobel Prize winner (Physics 1956 and 1972)
- Gary Becker (1930-2014) - Nobel Prize Winner (Economics 1992)
- Arthur Compton (1892–1962) - Nobel Prize Winner (Physics 1927)
- Clinton Davisson (1881-1958) - Nobel Prize Winner (Physics 1937)
- Angus Deaton (* 1945) - Nobel Prize Winner (Economics 2015)
- Albert Einstein (1879–1955) - Nobel Prize Winner (Physics 1921), received an honorary doctorate from the university and taught there from 1932
- Richard Feynman (1918–1988) - Nobel Prize Winner (Physics 1965)
- Robert Hofstadter (1915–1990) - Nobel Prize Winner (Physics 1961)
- James Heckman (born 1944) - Nobel Prize Winner (Economics 2000)
- Paul Krugman (* 1953) - economist and writer, Nobel Prize laureate (2008 economy)
- Mario Vargas Llosa (* 1936) - writer, Nobel Prize winner (literature 2010)
- Thomas Mann (1875–1955) - German writer, Nobel Prize winner (literature 1929)
- Edwin McMillan (1907-1991) - Nobel Prize Winner (Chemistry 1951)
- Toni Morrison (1931-2019) - writer, Nobel Prize winner (literature 1993)
- John Forbes Nash Jr. (1928–2015) - Nobel Prize Winner (1994) for the Nash Equilibrium
- Eugene O'Neill (1888-1953) - Nobel Prize Winner (Literature 1936)
- James Peebles (* 1935) - Nobel Prize Winner (Physics 2019)
- Richard E. Smalley (1943-2005) - Nobel Prize Winner (Chemistry 1996)
- Michael Spence (* 1943) - Nobel Prize Winner (Economics 2001)
- Steven Weinberg (* 1933) - Nobel Prize Winner (Physics 1979)
- Eugene Wigner (1902–1995) - Nobel Prize Winner (Physics 1963)
Personalities with ties to the university
Due to its considerable international reputation, Princeton University has a large number of thinkers from all over the world as alumni:
- Hannah Arendt (1906–1975) - political theorist; First woman with a professorship in Princeton (visiting professor for one semester 1959)
- Clifford Geertz (1926-2006) - American ethnologist. He is considered the most important representative of interpretive ethnology
- Hobey Baker (1892-1918) - ice hockey player
- Meredith Michaels-Beerbaum (* 1969) - show jumper
- James Baker (born 1930) - Minister under US President George HW Bush
- Ben Bernanke (* 1953) - head of the US Federal Reserve Bank
- Jeff Bezos (* 1964) - founder of Amazon.com
- Manjul Bhargava (* 1974) - mathematician, Fields Medal 2014
- Julian Bigelow (1913–2003) - engineer, computer pioneer
- W. Michael Blumenthal (* 1926) - US Treasury Secretary under Jimmy Carter and director of the Jewish Museum Berlin
- Bill Bradley (born 1943) - former basketball star, member of the Basketball Hall of Fame, former US Senator
- Aaron Burr (1756–1836) - Vice President of the United States under Thomas Jefferson
- Dean Cain (born 1966) - actor who played Superman in the television series Lois and Clark
- Heliane Canepa (* 1948) - entrepreneur
- Frank Carlucci (1930–2018) - Secretary of Defense under Ronald Reagan
- Rudolf Carnap (1891–1970) - philosopher
- Alonzo Church (1903–1995) - mathematician, one of the founders of theoretical computer science
- William Colby (1920–1996) - Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
- John Horton Conway (1937-2020) - mathematician
- Ingrid Daubechies (* 1954) - mathematician
- Martin Davis (* 1928) - logician
- Kemal Derviş (* 1949) - Vice President of the World Bank 1996–2001, Turkish Finance and Economics Minister 2001–2002
- David Duchovny (born 1960) - actor best known for his role in the television series The X-Files
- John Foster Dulles (1888–1959) - politician and former US Secretary of State
- Richard Exner (1929–2008) - literary scholar and poet
- Jim Flaherty (1949-2014) - Secretary of the Treasury
- Gerd Faltings (* 1954) - mathematician, Fields Medal 1986, proof of Mordell's conjecture
- José Ferrer (1912–1992) - Academy Award and Tony Award recipient
- Joschka Fischer (* 1948) - former German Foreign Minister and Vice Chancellor (guest lecturer)
- F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896-1940) - author
- Malcolm Forbes (1919–1990), Steve Forbes (* 1947) - editors of Forbes Magazine
- Kurt Gödel (1906–1978) - mathematician and logician
- John Hopfield (* 1933) - physicist, molecular biologist, neuroscientist
- Carl Icahn (born 1936) - billionaire and investor
- Julian Jaynes (1920–1997) - psychologist and author of The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind
- Robert E. Kahn (* 1938) - one of the co-inventors of the TCP / IP protocol
- George F. Kennan (1904-2005) - Ambassador
- John F. Kennedy (1917–1963) - US President, was de-registered after his first year with jaundice
- Brian W. Kernighan (* 1942) - Co- developer of the programming languages awk and C, co-author of The C Programming Language
- Nina L. Khrushcheva - granddaughter of the former head of government of the USSR Nikita Sergeevich Khrushchev, professor at New School University, New York
- Saul Kripke (* 1940) - philosopher
- Henry Lee III ("Lighthorse Harry") (1756-1818) - father of Robert E. Lee
- Bernard Lewis (1916–2018) - British historian and doyen of Islamic studies, taught at the Department for Near Eastern Studies until 1986
- David Kellogg Lewis (1941-2001) - philosopher
- James Madison (1751–1836) - former President of the United States
- Oskar Morgenstern (1902–1977) - co-founder of game theory
- Ralph Nader (* 1934) - consumer advocate and advocate of consumerism
- Joyce Carol Oates (born 1938) - American author
- Michelle Obama (* 1964) - wife of the 44th US President Barack Obama
- Max Otte (* 1964) - German-American economist
- John von Neumann (1903–1957) - chemical engineer, mathematician and physicist
- George Parros (born 1979) - ice hockey player
- David Petraeus (* 1952) - General in the US Army and former CIA director
- David Remnick (* 1958) - New York journalist
- Neil Leon Rudenstine - past President of Harvard University
- Donald Rumsfeld (* 1932) - Secretary of Defense under George W. Bush
- George Rupp - former President of Columbia University
- Jonathan Safran Foer (born 1977) - writer
- Paul Sarbanes (born 1933) - US Senator
- George P. Shultz (* 1920) - US Secretary of State under Ronald Reagan
- Charles Schwab (born 1937) - US entrepreneur
- Harold Shapiro (* 1928) - former President of Princeton University
- Brooke Shields (born 1965) - actress
- Ruth J. Simmons (* 1945) - first female and first black president of an Ivy League university (Brown University)
- Peter Singer (* 1946) - philosopher
- Sonia Sotomayor (born 1954) - Supreme Court judge
- James Stewart (1908–1997) - actor
- Donna Strickland (* 1959) - Nobel Prize Winner in Physics
- Péter Szondi (1929–1971) - literary scholar (guest lecturer 1965)
- Terence Tao (* 1975) - mathematician
- Robert Tarjan (* 1948) - computer scientist, inventor of a variety of algorithms in graph theory, winner of the Turing Prize (1986)
- Shirley M. Tilghman (* 1946) - President of Princeton University from 2001 to 2013
- Alan Turing (1912–1954) - pioneer of computer science, inventor of the Turing machine and the Turing test
- Katrina vanden Heuvel (* 1959) - editor-in-chief of The Nation
- Paul Volcker (1927–2019) - predecessor of Alan Greenspan as Chairman of the US Federal Reserve
- Cornel West (* 1953) - intellectual of Afro-American origin
- Meg Whitman (* 1956) - CEO of Hewlett Packard (also from Ebay for a long time)
- Thornton Wilder (1897–1975) - author of Our Town, premiered in Princeton
- Andrew Wiles (* 1953) - mathematician who proved the great Fermat theorem
- Robert R. Wilson (1914–2000) - electrical engineer, physicist, collaborator on the atomic bomb
- Woodrow Wilson (1856–1924) - former President of the United States, former President of Princeton University
- Edward Witten (* 1951) - mathematician, physicist
- Sheldon Wolin (1922-2015) - political scientist
- Wentworth Miller (born 1972) - actor
- Princeton offense - basketball strategy developed at Princeton University
- The first centennial anniversary of the College of New Jersey. Celebrated June 1847. JT Robinson, Princeton, NJ 1848 ( archive.org ).
- John McLean: History of the College of New Jersey. From its origin in 1746 to the commencement of 1854. Volume IJB Lippingcott & Co., Philadelphia 1877 ( archive.org ).
- The Princeton book: a series of sketches pertaining to the history, organization and present condition of the College of New Jersey. The Riverside Press, Cambridge 1879 ( archive.org ).
- Laws of the College of New Jersey. 1888 ( archive.org ).
- William Milligan Sloane: Princeton in American history. An address delivered to a company of historical pilgrims. 1895 ( archive.org ).
- George McLean Harper, John De Witt, Charles Woodruff Shields (Eds.): Memorial book of the Sesquicentennial celebration of the founding of the College of New Jersey and of the ceremonies inaugurating Princeton university. (Part 1: An account of the sesquicentennial celebration. Part 2: Letters and telegrams of congratulations. Part 3: Historical sketch of Princeton university. ) Charles Scribner's sons, New York 1898 ( archive.org ).
- John Rogers Williams: Handbook of Princeton. Grafton Press, New York 1905 ( archive.org , with many photos of the buildings).
- Francis E. Blake: History of the town of Princeton, in the county of Worcester and commonwealth of Massachusetts, 1759-1915. Volume 1. Published by the Town of Princeton 1915 ( archive.org ).
- Edwin Mark Norris: The story of Princeton. Illustrated with drawings by Lester G. Hornby. Little, Brown and company, Boston 1917 ( archive.org ).
- Financial Report 2007
- These are the richest US universities , Wirtschaftswoche, February 18, 2015, accessed September 16, 2015.
- The 29 most successful Princeton alumni of all time . In: Business Insider . ( businessinsider.com [accessed February 9, 2018]).
- Princeton history
- Stanley Elkins and Eric McKitrick: The Age of Federalism. Oxford University Press, New York 1993, pp. 81-85.
- Constitutional Convention of 1787, The ,. Retrieved November 20, 2017 .
- Ute Mehnert: Anyone who just wants to research should go. Interview, June 2, 2013, accessed June 2, 2013