List of Nobel Prize Winners

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Postage stamp 100 years of the Alfred Nobel Testament from the 1995 stamps issued by the Federal Republic of Germany
Marie Curie, Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903 and Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1911

The list of Nobel Prize winners shows everyone who has received a Nobel Prize in Physics , Chemistry , Physiology or Medicine , Literature and Peace since 1901 . In addition, the winners of the Alfred Nobel Memorial Prize for Economics , which was awarded for the first time in 1969 and which was donated by the Swedish Reichsbank and awarded together with the Nobel Prizes, are also listed.

History and modalities

The foundation stone for the Nobel Prize was laid by Alfred Nobel , who in his will decreed the establishment of a prize that was to be financed from the interest of his assets and awarded in five equally high-end categories. This led to the establishment of the Nobel Foundation .

The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences , the Karolinska Institute , the Swedish Academy and the Norwegian Nobel Prize Committee to individuals and organizations for excellence in the fields of physics , chemistry , physiology or medicine , literature and peace . In addition, the Swedish Reichsbank donated the Alfred Nobel Memorial Prize for Economics in 1968 .

A specific committee is responsible for each prize. The Royal Academy of Sciences awards the Physics , Chemistry and Alfred Nobel Memorial Prize for Economics , the Karolinska Institute the Physiology or Medicine Prize , the Swedish Academy the Nobel Prize for Literature , and the Norwegian Nobel Committee the Nobel Peace Prize . Each winner receives a medal, a certificate and a cash prize, the amount of which has changed over the years. In 1901, each award was endowed with 150,782 Swedish kronor, which would correspond to a value of 7,799,542 kroner (as of December 2008). Since 2017 the prize money has been 9 million crowns. The award ceremony takes place annually on the anniversary of Nobel's death on December 10th in Stockholm and Oslo.

In the years 1901–2017, 813 individuals and 24 organizations received the Nobel Prize. In addition, 79 people received the Alfred Nobel Memorial Prize for Economics . Four Nobel Prize winners have been forced by their governments to refuse acceptance. The Germans Richard Kuhn (chemistry, 1938), Adolf Butenandt (chemistry, 1939), and Gerhard Domagk (physiology or medicine, 1939) were forbidden by the National Socialist regime to accept the award. The Soviet Union forced Boris Pasternak (Literature, 1958) to reject his award. Two laureates , Jean-Paul Sartre (Literature, 1964) and Lê Đức Thọ (Peace, 1973), rejected the award. Since Sartre refused all official honors, he did not accept the Nobel Prize either. Lê Ðức Thọ rejected him because of the situation in Vietnam at the time. Six laureates have received multiple awards ( John Bardeen , Marie Curie , Linus Pauling , Frederick Sanger , the International Red Cross and the UNHCR ). The International Committee of the Red Cross (Peace, 1917, 1944, 1963) was among the winners three times, more often than any other .

54 of the 923 Nobel Prize winners were women. The first woman to be awarded a Nobel Prize was Marie Curie (Physics, 1903 and Chemistry, 1911).

In the years in which no prize was awarded due to special events or a lack of worthy nominations, the prize money flowed back into the respective foundation fund. This was often the case in both world wars. In the years 1940–1942 the award was completely stopped. The last time a prize was not awarded was in 1972. In 2018 the Nobel Prize for Literature was not awarded due to an internal crisis in the Swedish Academy , the awarding of the award to Olga Tokarczuk was rescheduled in 2019.

Award winners

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year Nobel Prizes Alfred Nobel
Memorial Prize
physics chemistry Physiology
or medicine
literature peace
1901 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen Jacobus H. van 't Hoff Emil von Behring Sully Prudhomme Henry Dunant -
Frédéric Passy
1902 Hendrik Antoon Lorentz Emil Fischer Ronald Ross Theodor Mommsen Élie Ducommun -
Pieter Zeeman Albert Gobat
1903 Henri Becquerel Svante Arrhenius Niels Ryberg Finsen Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson William Randal Cremer -
Pierre Curie
Marie Curie
1904 John William Strutt William Ramsay Ivan Pavlov Frédéric Mistral Institut de Droit international -
José Echegaray
1905 Philipp Lenard Adolf von Baeyer Robert Koch Henryk Sienkiewicz Bertha von Suttner -
1906 Joseph John Thomson Henri Moissan Camillo Golgi Giosuè Carducci Theodore Roosevelt -
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
1907 Albert A. Michelson Eduard Buchner Alphonse Laveran Rudyard Kipling Ernesto Teodoro Moneta -
Louis Renault
1908 Gabriel Lippmann Ernest Rutherford Ilya Mechnikov Rudolf Eucken Klas Pontus Arnoldson -
Paul Ehrlich Fredrik Bajer
1909 Guglielmo Marconi Wilhelm Ostwald Theodor Kocher Selma Lagerlöf Auguste Beernaert -
Ferdinand Braun Paul Henri d'Estournelles de Constant
1910 Johannes Diderik van der Waals Otto Wallach Albrecht Kossel Paul Heyse Permanent International Peace Office -
1911 Wilhelm Vienna Marie Curie Allvar Gullstrand Maurice Maeterlinck Tobias Asser -
Alfred Fried
1912 Gustaf Dalén Victor Grignard Alexis Carrel Gerhart Hauptmann Elihu Root -
Paul Sabatier
1913 Heike Kamerlingh Onnes Alfred Werner Charles Richet Rabindranath Tagore Henri La Fontaine -
1914 Max von Laue Theodore W. Richards Robert Bárány not forgiven not forgiven -
1915 William Bragg Richard Willstätter not forgiven Romain Rolland not forgiven -
Lawrence Bragg
1916 not forgiven not forgiven not forgiven Verner von Heidenstam not forgiven -
1917 Charles Glover Barkla not forgiven not forgiven Karl Gjellerup International Committee of the Red Cross -
Henrik Pontoppidan
1918 Max Planck Fritz Haber not forgiven not forgiven not forgiven -
1919 Johannes Stark not forgiven Jules Bordet Carl Spitteler Woodrow Wilson -
1920 Charles Édouard Guillaume Walther Nernst August Krogh Knut Hamsun Léon Bourgeois -
1921 Albert Einstein Frederick Soddy not forgiven Anatole France Hjalmar Branting -
Christian Lange
1922 Niels Bohr Francis W. Aston Archibald V. Hill Jacinto Benavente Fridtjof Nansen -
Otto Meyerhof
1923 Robert A. Millikan Fritz Pregl Frederick G. Banting William Butler Yeats not forgiven -
John Macleod
1924 Manne Siegbahn not forgiven Willem Einthoven Wladyslaw Reymont not forgiven -
1925 James Franck Richard Zsigmondy not forgiven George Bernard Shaw Austen Chamberlain -
Gustav Hertz Charles G. Dawes
1926 Jean-Baptiste Perrin The Svedberg Johannes Fibiger Grazia Deledda Aristide Briand -
Gustav Stresemann
1927 Arthur Holly Compton Heinrich Wieland Julius Wagner-Jauregg Henri Bergson Ferdinand Buisson -
CTR Wilson Ludwig Quidde
1928 Owen Willans Richardson Adolf Windaus Charles Nicolle Sigrid Undset not forgiven -
1929 Louis de Broglie Arthur Harden Christiaan Eijkman Thomas Mann Frank B. Kellogg -
Hans von Euler-Chelpin Frederick Hopkins
1930 CV Raman Hans Fischer Karl Landsteiner Sinclair Lewis Nathan Soderblom -
1931 not forgiven Carl Bosch Otto Warburg Erik Axel Karlfeldt Jane Addams -
Friedrich Bergius Nicholas Murray Butler
1932 Werner Heisenberg Irving Langmuir Charles Sherrington John Galsworthy not forgiven -
Edgar Adrian
1933 Erwin Schrödinger not forgiven Thomas H. Morgan Ivan Bunin Norman Angell -
Paul AM Dirac
1934 not forgiven Harold C. Urey George H. Whipple Luigi Pirandello Arthur Henderson -
George R. Minot
William P. Murphy
1935 James Chadwick Frédéric Joliot Hans Spemann not forgiven Carl von Ossietzky -
Irène Joliot-Curie
1936 Victor F. Hess Peter Debye Henry Dale Eugene O'Neill Carlos Saavedra Lamas -
Carl D. Anderson Otto Loewi
1937 Clinton Davisson Norman Haworth Albert Szent-Györgyi Roger Martin du Gard Robert Cecil -
George Paget Thomson Paul Karrer
1938 Enrico Fermi Richard Kuhn Corneille Heymans Pearl S. Buck International Nansen Office for Refugees -
1939 Ernest Lawrence Adolf Butenandt Gerhard Domagk Frans Eemil Sillanpää not forgiven -
Leopold Ružička
1940 not forgiven not forgiven not forgiven not forgiven not forgiven -
1941 not forgiven not forgiven not forgiven not forgiven not forgiven -
1942 not forgiven not forgiven not forgiven not forgiven not forgiven -
1943 Otto Stern George de Hevesy Henrik Dam not forgiven not forgiven -
Edward A. Doisy
1944 Isidore Isaac Rabi Otto Hahn Joseph Erlanger Johannes V. Jensen International Committee of the Red Cross -
Herbert S. Gasser
1945 Wolfgang Pauli Artturi Virtanen Alexander Fleming Gabriela Mistral Cordell Hull -
Ernst B. Chain
Howard Florey
1946 Percy W. Bridgman James B. Sumner Hermann J. Muller Hermann Hesse Emily Greene Balch -
John H. Northrop John R. Mott
Wendell M. Stanley
1947 Edward V. Appleton Robert Robinson Carl Cori André Gide Friends Service Council -
Gerty Cori American Friends Service Committee
Bernardo Houssay
1948 Patrick MS Blackett Arne Tiselius Paul Muller TS Eliot not forgiven -
1949 Hideki Yukawa William F. Giauque Walter Hess William Faulkner John Boyd Orr -
Egas Moniz
1950 Cecil Powell Otto Diels Edward C. Kendall Bertrand Russell Ralph Bunche -
Kurt Alder Tadeus Reichstein
Philip S. Hench
1951 John Cockcroft Edwin M. McMillan Max Theiler Par Lagerkvist Léon Jouhaux -
Ernest TS Walton Glenn T. Seaborg
1952 Felix Bloch Archer JP Martin Selman A. Waksman François Mauriac Albert Schweitzer -
Edward M. Purcell Richard LM Synge
1953 Frits Zernike Hermann Staudinger Hans Krebs Winston Churchill George C. Marshall -
Fritz Lipmann
1954 Max Born Linus Pauling John F. Enders Ernest Hemingway United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) -
Walther Bothe Thomas H. Weller
Frederick C. Robbins
1955 Willis E. Lamb Vincent du Vigneaud Hugo Theorell Halldór Laxness not forgiven -
Polycarp Kush
1956 William B. Shockley Cyril Hinshelwood André F. Cournand Juan Ramón Jiménez not forgiven -
John Bardeen Nikolai Nikolayevich Semyonov Werner Forßmann
Walter H. Brattain Dickinson W. Richards
1957 Chen Ning Yang Alexander R. Todd Daniel Bovet Albert Camus Lester Pearson -
Tsung-Dao Lee
1958 Pavel A. Cherenkov Frederick Sanger George Beadle Boris Pasternak Georges Pire -
Ilya M. Frank Edward Tatum
Igor J. Tamm Joshua Lederberg
1959 Emilio Segrè Jaroslav Heyrovský Severo Ochoa Salvatore Quasimodo Philip Noel-Baker -
Owen Chamberlain Arthur Kornberg
1960 Donald A. Glaser Willard Libby Frank Macfarlane Burnet Saint John Perse Albert Luthuli -
Peter Medawar
1961 Robert Hofstadter Melvin Calvin George of Békésy Ivo Andric Dag Hammarskjöld -
Rudolf Moessbauer
1962 Lew Landau Max F. Perutz Francis Crick John Steinbeck Linus Pauling -
John C. Kendrew James Watson
Maurice Wilkins
1963 Eugene Wigner Karl Ziegler John Carew Eccles Giorgos Seferis International Committee of the Red Cross -
Maria Goeppert-Mayer Giulio Natta Alan Hodgkin League of Red Cross Societies
J. Hans D. Jensen Andrew F. Huxley
1964 Charles H. Townes Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin Konrad Bloch Jean-Paul Sartre Martin Luther King -
Nikolai G. Bassow Feodor Lynen
Alexander M. Prokhorov
1965 Sin-Itiro Tomonaga Robert B. Woodward François Jacob Mikhail Sholokhov United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) -
Julian Schwinger André Lwoff
Richard Feynman Jacques Monod
1966 Alfred Chancellor Robert Mulliken Peyton Rous Samuel Agnon not forgiven -
Charles B. Huggins Nelly Sachs
1967 Hans Bethe Manfred Eigen Ragnar granite Miguel Ángel Asturias not forgiven -
Ronald GW Norrish Haldan K. Hartline
George Porter George Woods
1968 Luis Alvarez Lars Onsager Robert W. Holley Yasunari Kawabata René Cassin -
Har Gobind Khorana
Marshall W. Nirenberg
1969 Murray Gell-Mann Derek Barton Max Delbrück Samuel Beckett International Labor Organization (ILO) Ragnar Fresh
Odd Hassel Alfred D. Hershey Jan Tinbergen
Salvador E. Luria
1970 Hannes Alfvén Luis Leloir Bernard Katz Alexander Solzhenitsyn Norman Borlaug Paul A. Samuelson
Louis Néel Ulf von Euler
Julius Axelrod
1971 Dennis Gabor Gerhard Herzberg Earl W. Sutherland Pablo Neruda Willy Brandt Simon Kuznets
1972 John Bardeen Christian Anfinsen Gerald M. Edelman Heinrich Boell not forgiven John R. Hicks
Leon N. Cooper Stanford Moore Rodney R. Porter Kenneth Arrow
Robert Schrieffer William H. Stein
1973 Leo Esaki Ernst Otto Fischer Karl von Frisch Patrick White Henry Kissinger Wassily Leontief
Ivar Giaever Geoffrey Wilkinson Konrad Lorenz Lê Đức Thọ
Brian D. Josephson Nikolaas Tinbergen
1974 Martin Ryle Paul Flory Albert Claude Eyvind Johnson Seán MacBride Gunnar Myrdal
Antony Hewish Christian de Duve Harry Martinson Sato Eisaku Friedrich August von Hayek
George E. Palade
1975 Aage Niels Bohr John W. Cornforth David Baltimore Eugenio Montale Andrei Sakharov Leonid W. Kantorowitsch
Ben Mottelson Vladimir Prelog Renato Dulbecco Tjalling C. Koopmans
James Rainwater Howard M. Temin
1976 Burton judges William Lipscomb Baruch S. Blumberg Saul Bellow Betty Williams Milton Friedman
Samuel CC Ting D. Carleton Gajdusek Mairead Corrigan
1977 Philip Warren Anderson Ilya Prigogine Roger Guillemin Vicente Aleixandre Amnesty International Bertil Ohlin
Sir Nevill F. Mott Andrew V. Schally James E. Meade
John H. Van Vleck Rosalyn Yalow
1978 Pyotr Kapiza Peter Mitchell Werner Arber Isaac Bashevis Singer Anwar as-Sadat Herbert A. Simon
Arno Penzias Daniel Nathans Menachem Begin
Robert Woodrow Wilson Hamilton O. Smith
1979 Sheldon glass show Herbert C. Brown Allan M. Cormack Odysseas Elytis mother Teresa Theodore W. Schultz
Abdus Salam Georg Wittig Godfrey Hounsfield William Arthur Lewis
Steven Weinberg
1980 James Cronin Paul Berg Baruj Benacerraf Czeslaw Milosz Adolfo Pérez Esquivel Lawrence Klein
Val Fitch Walter Gilbert Jean Dausset
Frederick Sanger George D. Snell
1981 Nicolaas Bloembergen Kenichi Fukui Roger Sperry Elias Canetti United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) James Tobin
Arthur L. Schawlow Roald Hoffmann David H. Hubel
Quay Siegbahn Torsten N. Wiesel
1982 Kenneth Wilson Aaron Klug Sune Bergström Gabriel García Marquez Alva Myrdal George Stigler
Bengt I. Samuelsson Alfonso García Robles
John R. Vane
1983 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Henry Taube Barbara McClintock William Golding Lech Walesa Gérard Debreu
William A. Fowler
1984 Carlo Rubbia Bruce Merrifield Niels K. Jerne Jaroslav Seifert Desmond tutu Richard Stone
Simon van der Meer Georges JF Koehler
César Milstein
1985 Klaus von Klitzing Herbert A. Hauptman Michael S. Brown Claude Simon International Doctors for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW) Franco Modigliani
Jerome Karle Joseph L. Goldstein
1986 Ernst Ruska Dudley R. Herschbach Stanley Cohen Wole Soyinka Elie Wiesel James M. Buchanan
Gerd Binnig Yuan T. Lee Rita Levi-Montalcini
Heinrich Rohrer John C. Polanyi
1987 Georg Bednorz Donald J. Cram Susumu Tonegawa Joseph Brodsky Óscar Arias Sánchez Robert M. Solow
K. Alex Müller Jean-Marie Lehn
Charles J. Pedersen
1988 Leon M. Lederman Johann Deisenhofer James W. Black Nagib Mahfuz United Nations peacekeeping forces Maurice Allais
Melvin Schwartz Robert Huber Gertrude B. Elion
Jack Steinberger Hartmut Michel George H. Hitchings
1989 Norman Ramsey Sidney Altman J. Michael Bishop Camilo José Cela Tenzin Gyatso , the 14th Dalai Lama Trygve Haavelmo
Hans G. Dehmelt Thomas R. Cech Harold E. Varmus
Wolfgang Paul
1990 Jerome I. Friedman Elias James Corey Joseph E. Murray Octavio Paz Mikhail Gorbachev Harry M. Markowitz
Henry W. Kendall E. Donnall Thomas Merton H. Miller
Richard E. Taylor William F. Sharpe
1991 Pierre-Gilles de Gennes Richard R. Ernst Erwin Neher Nadine Gordimer Aung San Suu Kyi Ronald H. Coase
Bert Sakmann
1992 Georges Charpak Rudolph A. Marcus Edmond H. Fischer Derek Walcott Rigoberta Menchú Gary Becker
Edwin G. Krebs
1993 Russell Hulse Kary Mullis Richard J. Roberts Toni Morrison Nelson Mandela Robert Fogel
Joseph H. Taylor Jr. Michael Smith Phillip A. Sharp FW de Klerk Douglass North
1994 Bertram Brockhouse George A. Olah Alfred G. Gilman Kenzaburo Oe Yasser Arafat John C. Harsanyi
Clifford G. Shull Martin Rodbell Shimon Peres John F. Nash
Yitzhak Rabin Reinhard Rare
1995 Martin L. Perl Paul J. Crutzen Edward B. Lewis Seamus Heaney Józef Rotblat Robert E. Lucas
Frederick Reines Mario J. Molina Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
F. Sherwood Rowland Eric F. Wieschaus
1996 David M. Lee Robert F. Curl Peter Doherty Wislawa Szymborska Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo James A. Mirrlees
Douglas D. Osheroff Harold Kroto Rolf Zinkernagel José Ramos-Horta William Vickrey
Robert C. Richardson Richard E. Smalley
1997 Steven Chu Paul D. Boyer Stanley Prusiner Dario Fo International campaign to ban landmines Robert C. Merton
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji John E. Walker Myron S. Scholes
William D. Phillips Jens C. Skou Jody Williams
1998 Robert B. Laughlin Walter Kohn Robert F. Furchgott José Saramago John Hume Amartya Sen
Horst L. Störmer John Pople Louis J. Ignarro David Trimble
Daniel C. Tsui Ferid Murad
1999 Gerardus' t Hooft Ahmed Zewail Günter Blobel Günter Grass Doctors Without Borders Robert Mundell
Martinus JG Veltman
2000 Shores I. Alfjorov Alan J. Heeger Arvid Carlsson Gao Xingjian Kim Dae-jung James Heckman
Herbert Kroemer Alan MacDiarmid Paul Greengard Daniel McFadden
Jack Kilby Hideki Shirakawa Eric Kandel
2001 Eric A. Cornell William S. Knowles Leland H. Hartwell VS Naipaul U.N. George A. Akerlof
Wolfgang Ketterle Ryoji Noyori Tim Hunt Kofi Annan Michael Spence
Carl E. Wieman Barry Sharpless Paul Nurse Joseph E. Stiglitz
2002 Raymond Davis Jr. John B. Fenn Sydney Brenner Imre Kertész Jimmy Carter Daniel Kahneman
Masatoshi Koshiba Koichi Tanaka H. Robert Horvitz Vernon L. Smith
Riccardo Giacconi Kurt Wüthrich John E. Sulston
2003 Alexei A. Abrikosov Peter Agre Paul C. Lauterbur JM Coetzee Shirin Ebadi Robert F. Engle
Witali L. Ginsburg Roderick MacKinnon Peter Mansfield Clive WJ Granger
Anthony J. Leggett
2004 David Gross Aaron Ciechanover Richard Axel Elfriede Jelinek Wangari Maathai Finn E. Kydland
David Politzer Avram Hershko Linda B. Buck Edward C. Prescott
Frank Wilczek Irwin Rose
2005 Roy J. Glauber Yves Chauvin Barry Marshall Harold Pinter International Atomic Energy Organization Robert Aumann
John L. Hall Robert Grubbs J. Robin Warren Thomas Schelling
Theodor Hänsch Richard R. Schrock Mohammed el-Baradei
2006 John C. Mather Roger D. Kornberg Andrew Z. Fire Orhan Pamuk Muhammad Yunus Edmund S. Phelps
George F. Smoot Craig Mello Grameen Bank
2007 Albert Fert Gerhard Ertl Mario Capecchi Doris Lessing Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Leonid Hurwicz
Peter Grünberg Martin Evans Al Gore Eric S. Maskin
Oliver Smithies Roger B. Myerson
2008 Yoichiro Nambu Osamu Shimomura Harald zur Hausen Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio Martti Ahtisaari Paul Krugman
Makoto Kobayashi Martin Chalfie Françoise Barré-Sinoussi
Toshihide Maskawa Roger Tsien Luc Montagnier
2009 Charles Kuen Kao Venkatraman Ramakrishnan Elizabeth Blackburn Herta Müller Barack Obama Elinor Ostrom
Willard S. Boyle Thomas A. Steitz Carol W. Greider Oliver E. Williamson
George E. Smith Ada Yonath Jack Szostak
2010 Andre Geim Richard F. Heck Robert Edwards Mario Vargas Llosa Liu Xiaobo Peter A. Diamond
Konstantin Novoselov Ei-ichi Negishi Dale Mortensen
Akira Suzuki Christopher Pissarides
2011 Saul mother-of-pearl Dan Shechtman Bruce Beutler Tomas Tranströmmer Ellen Johnson Sirleaf Christopher Sims
Adam Riess Jules Hoffmann Leymah Gbowee Thomas Sargent
Brian P. Schmidt Ralph M. Steinman Tawakkol Karman
2012 Serge Haroche Robert Lefkowitz John Gurdon Mo Yan European Union Alvin E. Roth
David Wineland Brian Kobilka Shin'ya Yamanaka Lloyd S. Shapley
2013 François Englert Martin Karplus James Rothman Alice Munro Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Eugene Fama
Peter Higgs Michael Levitt Randy Schekman Lars Peter Hansen
Arieh Warshel Thomas Südhof Robert J. Shiller
2014 Isamu Akasaki Eric Betzig John O'Keefe Patrick Modiano Kailash Satyarthi Jean Tirole
Hiroshi Amano Stefan W. Hell May-Britt Moser Malala Yousafzai
Shuji Nakamura William E. Moerner Edvard Moser
2015 Takaaki Kajita Tomas Lindahl William C. Campbell Svetlana Alexievich Quartet du dialogue national Angus Deaton
Arthur B. McDonald Paul Modrich Satoshi Omura
Aziz Sancar Do youyou
2016 David J. Thouless Jean-Pierre Sauvage Yoshinori Osumi Bob Dylan Juan Manuel Santos Oliver Hart
F. Duncan M. Haldane J. Fraser Stoddart Bengt Holmström
J. Michael Kosterlitz Bernard L. Feringa
2017 Rainer Weiss Jacques Dubochet Jeffrey C. Hall Kazuo Ishiguro International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons Richard H. Thaler
Barry Barish Joachim Frank Michael Rosbash
Kip Thorne Richard Henderson Michael W. Young
2018 Arthur Ashkin Frances H. Arnold James P. Allison Olga Tokarczuk Denis Mukwege William D. North House
Gérard Mourou George P. Smith Tasuku Honjo Nadia Murad Paul Romer
Donna Strickland Gregory P. Winter
2019 James Peebles John Goodenough William G. Kaelin Peter Handke Abiy Ahmed Ali Abhijit Banerjee
Michel Mayor M. Stanley Whittingham Peter J. Ratcliffe Esther Duflo
Didier Queloz Akira Yoshino Gregg L. Semenza Michael Kremer
year physics chemistry Physiology
or medicine
literature peace Economic

See also

Web links

Commons : Nobel Prize  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Alfred Nobel. In: Nobel Foundation, accessed June 17, 2010 .
  2. a b Nobel Prizes. In: Nobel Foundation, accessed June 17, 2010 .
  3. Awarders. In: Nobel Foundation, accessed June 17, 2010 .
  4. ^ The Nobel Prize Amounts. In: Nobel Foundation, accessed December 10, 2017 .
  5. ^ The ceremonies. In: Nobel Foundation, accessed June 17, 2010 .
  6. a b c Facts. In: Nobel Foundation, accessed October 9, 2014 .
  7. Nobel Prize awarded women. Retrieved October 28, 2019 (American English).
  8. ^ Nobel Prizes 1942. In: Nobel Foundation, accessed December 10, 2017 .
  9. Why the Nobel Prize for Literature will not be awarded this year ., May 4, 2018.
  10. The Nobel Prizes in Literature for 2018 and 2019 In: Nobel Foundation, accessed January 11, 2019
  11. For this list, the common name form of the Nobel Prize winners was adopted from the official website of the Nobel Foundation and the common German name of the organizations was used. Award winners. In: Nobel Foundation, accessed June 17, 2010 .
  12. a b c Since the three laureates, Richard Kuhn, Adolf Butenandt and Gerhard Domagk, were forbidden to accept the Nobel Prize in 1938 and 1939, they did not receive any monetary amount in accordance with the statutes, but the medal and certificate were presented in later years.
  13. ↑ In 1948 no Nobel Peace Prize was awarded. Mahatma Gandhi died before the nomination period expired and could therefore no longer be awarded posthumously. There was also no successor organization that could have been awarded, so the decision was made not to award the award because there was no suitable living candidate. Gandhi. In: Nobel Foundation, accessed June 17, 2010 .
  14. a b c Boris Pasternak had to reject his award in 1958 under pressure from the Soviet government.
    In 1964, Jean Paul Sartre turned down his prize for literature.
    In 1973 Lê Đức Theh rejected the Nobel Peace Prize. Facts. In: Nobel Foundation, accessed October 7, 2014 .
  15. On the morning of October 3, 2010, the Nobel Prize Committee at the Karolinska Institute announced Steinman as one of three winners in the Physiology / Medicine category, but only learned afterwards that Steinman had died on September 30. The statutes for the Nobel Prize provide that the prize may not be awarded posthumously unless the winner dies between the announcement and the award ceremony. The Nobel Foundation, however, left it to the decision, since the purpose of the rule was to prevent an intentional posthumous award. Steinman was allowed to receive the award. His widow took it. Ralph Steinman Remains Nobel Laureate. In: Nobel Foundation, accessed March 20, 2013 .