List of Nobel Laureates

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Nobel Prizes have been awarded annually since 1901 by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences , the Karolinska Institute , the Swedish Academy and the Norwegian Nobel Prize Committee . With the exception of the Economics Prize, the award was donated by the Swedish inventor and industrialist Alfred Nobel . The Prize for Economics was donated by the Swedish Reichsbank in memory of Alfred Nobel. It is awarded to people and organizations for outstanding achievements in the fields of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, peace and economics.


Up to and including 2019, the actual Nobel Prizes were awarded to 787 men, 52 women and 27 organizations, the Business Prize to 82 men and two women (without multiple answers).

The first Nobel Prize winner was the physicist and chemist Marie Curie , who received the prize in the physics category in 1903 together with her husband Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel . Marie Curie was also the only woman to date to have received two Nobel Prizes: in 1911 she was honored with the Nobel Prize in Chemistry . 24 years later, their daughter Irène Joliot-Curie received the Nobel Prize in the same category. This makes Marie Curie and Irène Joliot-Curie the only mother-daughter team to date among the award winners.

A woman has been awarded a Nobel Prize 17 times in the Peace category , 15 times the Nobel Prize for Literature , 12 times in the Physiology or Medicine category , 5 times in the Chemistry category and 3 times in the Physics category. So far, two women have received the Memorial Prize for Economics . Four Nobel Prizes and the Business Prize went to women in 2009, the highest number of awards for women in a single year.

Prize winners

year person country category Reason for awarding the prize image
1903 Marie Curie
FranceFrance France
(born in Warsaw , then Congress Poland or Russia ) Congress PolandCongress Poland Russian Empire 1858Russian Empire 
physics "In recognition of the extraordinary merit that they have earned through their joint work on the radiation phenomena discovered by H. Becquerel" Marie Curie
1905 Bertha von Suttner
Austrian EmpireEmpire of Austria Austria
(born in Prague , then Austria)
peace No reason; her life's work, novel Lay down your arms! , "Permanent International Peace Bureau", suggested Nobel, whose private secretary she was for a short time, presumably to the foundation of the Nobel Peace Prize Bertha von Suttner
1909 Selma Lagerlöf
SwedenSweden Sweden literature "On the noble idealism, the wealth of imagination and the soulful representation that shape their poetry" Selma Lagerlöf
1911 Marie Curie
FranceFrance France
(born in Warsaw , then Congress Poland or Russia ) Congress PolandCongress Poland Russian Empire 1858Russian Empire 
chemistry “In recognition of the merit she has earned in the development of chemistry through the discovery of the elements radium and polonium , through the characterization of radium and its isolation in a metallic state, and through her investigations into the nature and chemical compounds of this important element " Marie Curie
1926 Grazia Deledda
Italy 1861Kingdom of Italy (1861-1946) Italy
(born in Nuoro , Sardinia )
literature "For her authorship, carried by a high level of idealism, who portrays the life of her fatherly origin with vividness and clarity and treats general human problems with depth and warmth" (awarded in 1927)
1928 Sigrid Undset
NorwayNorway Norway
(born in Kalundborg , Denmark ) DenmarkDenmark 
literature "Mainly for their powerful descriptions of medieval life in the (Scandinavian) north"
1931 Jane Addams
United StatesUnited States United States peace No reason; President of the "Women's International League for Peace and Freedom" Jane Addams
1935 Irène Joliot-Curie
FranceFrance France chemistry "For their joint syntheses of new radioactive elements" (with her husband Frédéric Joliot-Curie )
1938 Pearl S. Buck
United States 48United States United States literature "For their rich and genuine epic accounts of Chinese peasant life and for their biographical masterpieces"
1945 Gabriela Mistral
ChileChile Chile literature "For the poetry inspired by powerful feelings, which has made its poet's name a symbol for the ideal aspirations of the entire Latin American world"
1946 Emily Greene Balch
United StatesUnited States United States peace No reason; President of the " Women's International League for Peace and Freedom " Emily Greene Balch
1947 Gerty Cori
United States 48United States United States
(born in Prague , then Austria ) Austrian EmpireEmpire of Austria 
Physiology or medicine "For their discovery of the course of the catalytic glycogen metabolism" Gerty Theresa Cori
1963 Maria Goeppert-Mayer
United StatesUnited States United States
(born in Katowice , then German Empire ) German EmpireThe German Imperium 
physics "For their discovery of the nuclear shell structure "
1964 Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin
United KingdomUnited Kingdom United Kingdom chemistry "For their structure determination of biologically important substances with X-rays "
1966 Nelly Sachs
SwedenSweden Sweden
(born in Berlin , German Empire ) German EmpireThe German Imperium 
literature "For their outstanding lyric and dramatic works, which interpret the fate of Israel with moving clarity"
1976 Betty Williams
United KingdomUnited Kingdom United Kingdom
( Northern Ireland ) Northern IrelandNorthern Ireland 
peace No reason; Founders of the "Northern Ireland Peace Movement" (renamed "Community of Peace People") Betty Williams
Mairead Corrigan
(* 1944)
United KingdomUnited Kingdom United Kingdom
( Northern Ireland ) Northern IrelandNorthern Ireland 
peace Mairead Corrigan
1977 Rosalyn Yalow
United StatesUnited States United States Physiology or medicine "For the development of radioimmunological methods for the determination of peptide hormones " Rita Levi-Montalcini
1979 Mother Teresa
IndiaIndia India
(born in Üsküp (today Skopje ) in the then Ottoman Empire , now the capital of North Macedonia )
peace No reason; Founder of the order "Missionaries of Charity" mother Teresa
1982 Alva Myrdal
SwedenSweden Sweden peace No reason; Diplomat and delegate of the UN disarmament conferences
1983 Barbara McClintock
United StatesUnited States United States Physiology or medicine "For their discovery of the movable structures in the genetic material" Barbara McClintock
1986 Rita Levi-Montalcini
ItalyItaly Italy / United States (born in Turin , Italy ) United StatesUnited States 
Physiology or medicine "For their discovery of the nerve growth factor " Rita Levi-Montalcini
1988 Gertrude B. Elion
United StatesUnited States United States Physiology or medicine "For their groundbreaking discoveries of important biochemical principles of drug therapy " Gertrude Belle Elion
1991 Nadine Gordimer
South Africa 1961South Africa South Africa literature "For her epic poetry, which has shown great use to mankind and which, through its deep insights into historical events, helps shape this event" Nadine Gordimer
Aung San Suu Kyi
(* 1945)
Myanmar 1974Myanmar Myanmar peace for their commitment to human rights Aung San Suu Kyi
1992 Rigoberta Menchú
(* 1959)
GuatemalaGuatemala Guatemala peace for their commitment to human rights, especially of indigenous people Rigoberta Menchú
1993 Toni Morrison
United StatesUnited States United States literature "For her literary portrayal of an important side of US society through visionary power and poetic conciseness" Toni Morrison
1995 Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
(* 1942)
GermanyGermany Germany Physiology or medicine "For their fundamental knowledge about the genetic control of early embryo development " Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
1996 Wisława Szymborska
PolandPoland Poland literature "For her work, which ironically and precisely lets the historical and biological context emerge in fragments of human reality" Wisława Szymborska
1997 Jody Williams
(born 1950)
United StatesUnited States United States peace for their efforts to outlaw anti- human mines internationally Jody Williams
2003 Shirin Ebadi
(* 1947)
IranIran Iran peace for their commitment to democracy and human rights Shirin Ebadi
2004 Linda B. Buck
(* 1947)
United StatesUnited States United States Physiology or medicine "For the research of the olfactory receptors and the organization of the olfactory system " Linda B. Buck
Elfriede Jelinek
(* 1946)
AustriaAustria Austria literature "For the musical flow of voices and dissenting voices in novels and dramas that reveal the absurdity and compelling power of social clichés with a unique linguistic passion" Elfriede Jelinek
Wangari Maathai
KenyaKenya Kenya peace for their contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace Wangari Muta Maathai
2007 Doris Lessing
United KingdomUnited Kingdom United Kingdom
(born in Kermanshah , Iran , then Persia ) IranIran 
literature "The epic woman of female experience who, with skepticism, passion and visionary power, has set out to test a fragmented civilization" Doris Lessing
2008 Françoise Barré-Sinoussi
(* 1947)
FranceFrance France Physiology or medicine "For the discovery of the HI virus " Françoise Barré-Sinoussi
2009 Elizabeth Blackburn
(* 1948)
United StatesUnited States United States
(born in Hobart , Tasmania , Australia ) AustraliaAustralia 
Physiology or medicine for discovering "how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase " Elizabeth Blackburn
Carol W. Greider
(* 1961)
United StatesUnited States United States Physiology or medicine Carol Greider
Ada Yonath
(* 1939)
IsraelIsrael Israel chemistry "For the studies of the structure and function of the ribosome " Ada Yonath
Herta Müller
(* 1953)
GermanyGermany Germany
(born in Nitzkydorf , Banat , Romania ) RomaniaRomania 
literature "Which draws landscapes of homelessness by condensing poetry and the objectivity of prose" Herta Müller
Elinor Ostrom
United StatesUnited States United States Economics "For your analysis of economic activity in the area of common goods " Elinor Ostrom
2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf
(* 1938)
LiberiaLiberia Liberia peace "For their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights so that they can fully participate in the peace movement" Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf
Leymah Gbowee
(born 1972)
LiberiaLiberia Liberia peace Leymah Gbowee
Tawakkol Karman
(* 1979)
YemenYemen Yemen peace Tawakkol Karman
2013 Alice Munro
(* 1931)
CanadaCanada Canada literature "The master of contemporary short stories" Alice Munro
2014 May-Britt Moser
(* 1963)
NorwayNorway Norway Physiology or medicine "For discoveries of cells that form a positioning system in the brain" May-Britt Moser
Malala Yousafzai
(* 1997)
PakistanPakistan Pakistan peace "For their fight against the oppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education" Malala Yousafzai
2015 Tu Youyou
(* 1930)
China People's RepublicPeople's Republic of China People's Republic of China Physiology or medicine "For their discoveries regarding a novel therapy for malaria " Tu Youyou 5012-1-2015.jpg
Svetlana Alexievich
(* 1948)
BelarusBelarus Belarus literature "For her polyphonic work, which is a monument to the suffering and courage of our time" Swetlana Alexievich 2013.jpg
2018 Donna Strickland
(born 1959)
CanadaCanada Canada physics "For groundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics " Donna Strickland - Ultrafast laser group - 2017 (cropped) .jpg
Frances H. Arnold
(* 1956)
United StatesUnited States United States chemistry "For the directed evolution of enzymes" Frances Arnold 2012.png
Nadia Murad
(* 1993)
IraqIraq Iraq peace "For their use against sexual violence as a weapon in wars and armed conflicts" Nadia Murad in Washington - 2018 (42733243785) (cropped) .jpg
Olga Tokarczuk
(* 1962)
(awarded 2019)
PolandPoland Poland literature "For a narrative imagination that shows, with encyclopedic passion, transgressions as a way of life" Olga Tokarczuk (2018) .jpg
2019 Esther Duflo
(* 1972)
FranceFrance France / United StatesUnited StatesUnited States  Economics "For their experimental approach to fighting global poverty" Esther Duflo - Pop! Tech 2009 - 001 (cropped (2)). Jpg

See also

Web links


  1. Country as stated on The country may differ from the nationality of the laureate.
  2. a b Northern Ireland is mentioned in the official lists of the Nobel Peace Prize, but the United Kingdom is mentioned in the official lists of the entire Nobel Prize. Since Northern Ireland has never been an independent state, this information is shown here in brackets.
  3. Information from the official lists of the Nobel Foundation. Although Mother Teresa was born into a Catholic Albanian family and grew up in what was then the Ottoman Empire belonging to Macedonia , but worked most of her life in India and took in 1948 to the Indian citizenship. That is why she is also listed as an Indian on the lists.
  4. Information from the official list of the Nobel Foundation. Mother Teresa - Facts ,
  5. This was the first time that the role of environmental protection for world peace was honored.
  6. Blackburn is listed as an American in the official lists of the Nobel Foundation, but also has Australian citizenship.
  7. Due to a crisis in the Swedish Academy , the 2019 award was given retrospectively for 2018.

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Nobel Foundation : Nobel Prizes and Laureates. 2019, accessed on October 10, 2019.