Aung San Suu Kyi
Aung San Suu Kyi ( Burmese အောင်ဆန်းစုကြည် ; [ àuɴ sʰáɴ sṵ tɕì ]; born June 19, 1945 in Rangoon , British Burma, now Myanmar ) is a Burmese politician . She has been campaigning for the non-violent democratization of her home country since the late 1980s and has been recognized as an outstanding representative in the freedom struggle against oppression and social injustice . In 1991 she received the Nobel Peace Prize for this .
On November 13, 2010, the military government of Myanmar released Aung San Suu Kyi from her 15-year house arrest . Aung San Suu Kyi was general secretary of the National League for Democracy (NLD) from 1988 to 2011 and has been chairwoman of the party since 2011.
In the by-elections to the Burmese lower house Pyithu Hluttaw on April 1, 2012, she won the election of MPs in the constituency of Kawhmu . Your party won 43 of the 45 new seats in parliament. On May 2, 2012, she took her oath as a member of parliament. On November 8, 2015, under her leadership, the NLD won an absolute majority of the seats in the parliamentary elections and in March 2016 elected Aung San Suu Kyi's close party friend Htin Kyaw with a two-thirds majority as president with the help of some small parties. Aung San Suu Kyi became head of government under him as state advisor , minister of the office of the president and foreign minister of Myanmar.
The International Criminal Court and the International Court of Justice began investigations into allegations of Rohingya genocide allegedly committed during their reign in Myanmar.
Family and education
Aung San Suu Kyi is the daughter of Aung San , commander of the Burma Independence Army (BIA) and president of the Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL) and champion of the independence of what was then Burma from the United Kingdom , and Ma Khin Kyi , first female Ambassador of Burma to India. In 1947 her father was murdered during a cabinet meeting. Daw Khin Kyi - "Daw" is the honorable address of a woman in the Burmese language - became a well-known figure in political life in Burma, where she was mainly active in social policy.
Aung San Suu Kyi grew up in India , where her mother represented Burma as an ambassador from 1960 . After graduating from high school in New Delhi , she went to England and studied at St Hugh's College at the University of Oxford from 1964 to 1967 . There she completed her studies in 1967 with a bachelor's degree in philosophy , politics and economics . From 1969 to 1971 she worked in the UN Secretariat in New York (administration and finance department), in her free time she did volunteer work in a hospital. In 1972 she married the British Tibetologist Michael Aris , with whom she has two sons.
Oxford and Kyoto
In 1974 Aung San Suu Kyi and Michael Aris moved to Oxford , where Aris was employed at the university. Aung San Suu Kyi began writing and researching her father's life, about whom she published a book in 1984. From 1985 to 1986 she received a scholarship in Kyoto , Japan , and continued researching her father's stay in that country. As a result, other publications about Burma emerged.
Party leader of the NLD
In 1988 she returned to her home country because of an illness of her mother. As a result, she witnessed the overthrow of the military dictator Ne Win and the bloody uprisings that followed. On August 26th of the same year she gave her first speech in which she campaigned for “democratic development in Burma”. The next military government followed three weeks later, banning any democratic aspirations. On September 27th, the National League for Democracy (NLD) was founded with Aung San Suu Kyi as party leader. The political goals are to be achieved through civil disobedience and non-violently . Despite all the threats and violence against her supporters, she continued her election campaign. In February 1989, they were banned from standing in the elections. She herself was placed under house arrest for the first time in July 1989 on the grounds that she was endangering state security . Students who were with her were arrested, and she went on hunger strike until she was assured of good treatment. In 1990 her party won the elections, but the result was not recognized by the military.
On October 14, 1991, Aung San Suu Kyi was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize "for her nonviolent struggle for democracy and human rights". Her husband and two sons accepted it on their behalf on December 10, as Aung San Suu Kyi feared that she would be refused entry to Myanmar if she went to Oslo to attend the awards ceremony.
It was not until July 10, 1995, after about six years, that Aung San Suu Kyi's house arrest was lifted. However, their freedom of movement remained very limited for at least another four years and people were repeatedly concerned about their survival - despite or perhaps because of their popularity in the country. On the other hand, journalists and UN members were allowed to visit her several times, but not her husband, whom she did not see again from 1995 until his death on March 27, 1999.
On 6 December 2000 gave US President Bill Clinton her the Medal of Freedom ( "The Presidential Medal of Freedom"), the highest civilian honor in the United States. The Irish rock band U2 created a musical memorial for her in 2001 with the song Walk on from the album All that you can't leave behind .
Further arrests and house arrest
After a government-attributed raid on her motorcade on May 31, 2003 in Dabayin, Sagaing Division , the military leadership arrested Aung San Suu Kyi again. After she was imprisoned for a while and underwent surgery, she has been under house arrest in Rangoon again . On October 24, 2005, she had spent a total of ten years under house arrest: 1989 to 1995, 2000 to 2002 and from May 2003 to October 24, 2005 inclusive. On November 28, 2005 it was officially extended for six months.
On May 20, 2006, Aung San Suu Kyi and UN envoy Ibrahim Gambari met in Rangoon. It was her first meeting with a foreign representative in over three years and was part of a new UN diplomatic mission to talk to the Burmese government about respect for human rights and the re-establishment of democracy. In spite of all hopes for a release, on May 26 the regime ordered the house arrest to be extended by a year. At the end of this period, it was renewed for one year on May 25, 2007, despite all appeals from the world public.
During the monks' protests (“monk marches”) , a group of around 1,000 monks managed to get to their property at 54 University Avenue on September 22, 2007, whereupon they stood in front of the house for about 15 minutes. It was her first public appearance in over four years. Rumors of her alleged arrest have been denied by an Asian diplomat. After two meetings with UN special envoy Ibrahim Gambari on September 30 and October 2, 2007, the junta made an offer to speak in the face of public pressure. If Aung San Suu Kyi abandons her "course of confrontation, devastation and sanctions", ruler Than Shwe will meet with her in person. When she accepted the offer "in the interests of the nation" on November 8, it marked the beginning of a campaign in which the regime denied her alleged representation of all nationalities in Myanmar. UN negotiator Gambari read her statement after returning from his second crisis mission in Singapore.
On October 25, 2007, the regime began arranging a series of meetings with the newly appointed 'Liaison Minister' Aung Kyi. As part of these media-effective discussions, Aung San Suu Kyi was able to meet members of the National League for Democracy on November 9, 2007 for the first time since May 2003 . Although it was said that they wanted to exchange information on a weekly basis, there were only five meetings. The meeting with the liaison minister on November 19, 2007 took place at the same time as the 13th ASEAN Summit was being held in Singapore. After the last meeting on January 30, 2008, members of their party reported their dissatisfaction with the slow progress of the discussions. With the announcement of a referendum on the newly drafted constitution and the following pronouncements, the regime has indicated that it is no longer interested in a further "dialogue" with Aung San Suu Kyi.
The US Congress provided them by a unanimous vote on 17 December 2007 with the "Congress Gold Medal". Her Canadian honorary citizenship (since 2007) was unanimously revoked by parliament at the end of September 2018 because the bearer refused to condemn the genocide of the Rohingya .
Court case 2009
In May 2009, Aung San Suu Kyi was arrested a few days before her house arrest expired and taken to Insein Prison in Rangoon for disregarding house arrest regulations . There, a trial was opened against her on the charge that she had hosted an American in her house from May 3rd to May 5th.
After fierce international protests, foreign observers were admitted to the trial for the first time on the third day of the trial. A day later, the public was again excluded from the trial.
In August 2009, she was sentenced to an additional 18 months of house arrest. Five minutes after the verdict was announced, the State Council for Peace and Development and General Than Shwe revised the sentence initially imposed (three years in prison with forced labor). The reason for the mitigation of the sentence was, among other things, a reference to the father of the convicted, the "national hero" Aung San. On October 2, 2009, an appeal against the verdict was rejected. The American citizen who visited Aung San Suu Kyi was sentenced to seven years in prison and forced labor, but was allowed to leave the country a few days after the verdict on the initiative of US Senator Jim Webb .
In a letter to General Than Shwe , Aung San Suu Kyi offered a new era of cooperation. She wanted to work with the military leadership for the lifting of international sanctions.
Exclusion from the 2010 parliamentary elections
Aung San Suu Kyi was excluded from the November 7, 2010 parliamentary elections by an electoral law published by the military government in March 2010 . The law states that prisoners cannot be members of a political party. At the same time, the National League for Democracy was forced to expel the politician from the party if she wanted to take part in the elections. Although the new law met with international criticism, the military government also annulled the results of the 1990 parliamentary election because it no longer complied with the new constitution. The NLD won the election at that time with a large majority.
Release and swearing in as a member of parliament
On November 13, 2010, she was released from house arrest.
In 2011, Aung San Suu Kyi sat on a jury consisting of renowned public figures who were involved in the selection of the universal logo for human rights .
In mid-January 2012 she decided to run for a seat in parliament in the by-elections on April 1, 2012 . On January 29, 2012, she started her campaign tour. She won the Kawhmu constituency ; her party won 43 of the 45 vacant seats that were up for election.
On May 2, 2012, Aung San Suu Kyi and 33 other newly elected members of the National League for Democracy took their oath in the Myanmar Parliament. In the run-up, she initially refused to swear by the 2008 constitution that she criticized. This stipulates the prerogatives of the military, for example that a quarter of parliamentary seats must be given to members of the military. Under pressure from the party and voters, she finally gave up her resistance after about a week.
Foreign trips to Thailand and Europe 2012
On May 29, 2012, Aung San Suu Kyi went on her first trip abroad in 24 years. In Bangkok she took part in an economic forum. After being invited to a panel discussion there and a planned visit to a camp for Myanmar refugees in the border area, President Thein Sein canceled his visit to the economic forum.
On June 13, 2012, Aung San Suu Kyi arrived in Geneva for a more than two-week trip to Europe. In Switzerland, she spoke at a conference of the International Labor Organization (ILO) about trade unions and forced labor in Myanmar. She was also supposed to meet with Foreign Minister Didier Burkhalter and President Eveline Widmer-Schlumpf in Bern . On June 16, Aung San Suu Kyi made up for the lecture for the 1991 Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo City Hall . She campaigned for coordinated international aid for the reforms in her home country and was "cautiously optimistic" with regard to the democratic reforms. On June 21st she gave a speech in the House of Commons.
Confirmation as party leader
At the end of the first party congress in the 25-year history of the NLD on March 10, 2013, the 120 delegates of the Central Committee unanimously confirmed Aung San Suu Kyi as party leader.
Speech in the European Parliament 2013
"Freedom of thought begins with the right to ask questions and this right our people in Burma have not had for so long that some of our young people do not quite know how to ask questions."
“Freedom of thought begins with the right to ask questions; and the people in Burma had not had this right in so long that some of our young people no longer even know how to ask questions. "
Victory in the 2015 general election
In the parliamentary elections held on November 8, 2015, the National League for Democracy of Aung San Suu Kyi won an absolute majority of the 657-seat lower and upper house, as the electoral commission announced before all votes were counted, with an increase of 349 seats compared to the previous composition. The military had secured a quarter of the parliamentary seats in the run-up to the election. Myanmar's constitution, passed by the regime in 2008, prevents Aung San Suu Kyi from running for president because Burmese with foreign spouses or children are not allowed to run and their husband was British and their children are also British nationals. Before her election victory, Aung San Suu Kyi said that she would still lead Myanmar, even if another party member held the office of head of state. She was therefore often referred to as the "de facto head of government".
International criticism of attitudes towards genocide
Aung San Suu Kyi is accused of neglecting the situation of the Rohingya , a Muslim ethnic group in the west of the country, and of remaining silent about the policy of oppression, expulsion and murder of the Rohingya, which international organizations call genocide . She answered evasively questions about the situation of the Rohingya. Tactical reasons are assumed for this not to want to anger their predominantly Buddhist followers.
In September 2017, she announced that she would allow foreign observers to enter the country and expressed her condolences for those persecuted. In September 2018, she admitted errors in the Rohingya crisis, but at the same time defended the arrests of two local journalists investigating human rights violations in the country.
Several awards were withdrawn from her because of Aung San Suu Kyi's refusal to condemn the violence against the Rohingya. In September 2018, the Canadian Parliament revoked her honorary citizenship, which had been granted to her in 2007, and in November that year Amnesty International revoked her honorary title of " Ambassador of Conscience ". The general secretary of the human rights organization, Kumi Naidoo , accused Aung San Suu Kyi in a letter of condoning atrocities by the military and of failing to adequately protect freedom of expression . Journalists, for example, were arrested for treason after reporting about the shootings of the Rohingya .
The Nobel Prize Committee had already informed the press in August 2018 that it would not, however, reclaim the Nobel Peace Prize awarded for past achievements worthy of a prize.
According to Markus Löning , the influence of Aung San Suu Kyi in the West is often overestimated. He said in November 2017: “The military still has the money, guns and infrastructure. ASSK tries under the supervision of the generals with a troop of people without government experience to convert Myanmar into a democracy. "
Military coup and arrest (2021)
According to official information, Aung San Suu Kyi's party NLD achieved an absolute majority in the parliamentary elections in November 2020, with the turnout reportedly being over 70 percent. International observers saw the election as free and fair. The army, for which a quarter of the seats in the parliamentary chambers are automatically reserved, spoke of electoral fraud. On the morning of February 1, 2021, the military under Commander-in-Chief Min Aung Hlaing launched a coup after persistent criticism of the election result . Aung San Suu Kyi, President Win Myint and other senior NLD members were arrested. The military also declared a state of emergency. The military announced on state television that they would take control for a year. The procedure was justified with alleged electoral fraud. In the western media, however, the election result is described as credible.
On June 10, 2021, Aung San Suu Kyis was charged with corruption according to a report by the pro-regime newspaper Global New Light of Myanmar . The anti-corruption commission found evidence that she had taken advantage of her office and illegally accepted $ 600,000 and several kilos of gold, among other things.
- 1990: Sakharov Prize
- 1990: Thorolf Rafto Memorial Prize
- 1991: Nobel Peace Prize
- 1992: Simón Bolívar Prize
- 1995: Jawaharlal Nehru Prize
- 1997: Freedom of the City Award Oxford (withdrawn in 2017)
- 2000: Presidential Medal of Freedom
- 2005: Olof Palme Prize
- 2005 Freedom of Edinburgh Award (revoked in August 2018)
- 2006: Four Freedoms Award in the Freedom from Fear category
- 2007: Honorary Citizenship of Canada ( revoked in September 2018)
- 2008: Congressional Gold Medal
- 2009: Ambassador of Conscience (withdrawn from Amnesty International in November 2018)
- 2012: Bhagwan Mahavir World Peace
- 2012: Honorary Doctorate in Civil Law, University of Oxford
- 2012: Elie Wiesel Award, issued by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (revoked in March 2018)
- 2012: Commander of the Legion of Honor
- 2014: International Willy Brandt Prize
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|SURNAME||Aung San Suu Kyi|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Burmese politician, Nobel Peace Prize laureate 1991|
|DATE OF BIRTH||June 19, 1945|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Rangoon , Burma|