Callao on the map of Peru
|surface||147 km 2|
|Population density||6897 inhabitants / km 2|
|City structure||7 districts, as well as uninhabited islands|
|Time zone||UTC -5|
|City Presidency||Pedro López Barrios|
Administrative division of the Callao region
Although Callao forms an urban unit with Lima , it is politically a separate region of Peru. Administratively, the Callao region consists of the Callao Province ( Provincia constitucional del Callao ).
The seven districts (distritos) of the Callao region (numbering according to the map):
|Carmen de la Legua-Reynoso||Carmen de la Legua-Reynoso|
|La Perla||La Perla|
|La Punta||La Punta|
|Wed Perú||Wed Perú|
- uninhabited islands ( Isla San Lorenzo and minor islands)
There are several uninhabited islands off the coast, La Isla San Lorenzo , Isla El Frontón , Islas Cavinzas and Islas Palomino . Tours lead to the latter two islands. They are home to sea lions - around 8000 as well as around 160 Humboldt penguins and sea birds.
Callao was founded by Francisco Pizarro on Callao Bay in 1537 and quickly became the most important port for Spanish trade on the Pacific. During the time of the viceroyalty , many goods from the areas of Peru , Bolivia and Argentina were brought by mule across the Andes and shipped via the port of Callao to Panama , where they came by land to the Caribbean Sea and from there across the Atlantic Were shipped to Spain.
In the 16th century, the port was the starting point for many Spanish expeditions to the Pacific, but was also attacked several times by various English and Dutch privateers , including Francis Drake , Tom Cavendish , Jorg Spitberg and Jacob Clerk . On October 28, 1746, a severe earthquake and a tsunami caused by it devastated the port and city, killing an estimated 5000 people, only 200 inhabitants survived the natural disaster.
Callao was hotly contested during the South American Wars of Liberation against Spain . In September 1823, Simón Bolívar and Antonio Sucre landed with a Greater Colombian army in Callao to come to the aid of the beleaguered Peruvian Republic. After the surrender of the Spanish viceroy José de la Serna after the battle of Ayacucho on December 9, 1824, the Spanish brigadier Rodil locked himself in with remnants of the Spanish troops in Fort Real Felipe and refused to surrender. The fortress in Callao Bay was the last Spanish bastion on the South American continent. The siege, full of privation, lasted almost 14 months. Since, contrary to Rodil's initial hopes, no further reinforcements arrived from Spain, the last 400 soldiers loyal to the king had to surrender to the republican besiegers on January 22, 1826. This ended the Spanish presence in South America.
In 1851 the first railway line was built in South America between Callao and Lima.
Before the Spanish-South American War (1865–1871), the Spanish fleet blocked the port of Callao from April 14, 1864, which brought Peruvian guano exports to a standstill. Peru joined Chile on December 5, 1865, which had already declared war on Spain a few months earlier. On May 2, 1866, the Spanish admiral Méndez Núñez decided to bombard Callao. The city was able to defend itself well thanks to 96 cannons, so that the Spanish had to complain about many dead and damaged ships. After the shelling, in which the Peruvian Defense Minister also died, the active hostilities ended and the Spanish fleet withdrew to the Philippines .
In the saltpeter war , the Chilean navy blocked the city's port from April 10, 1880. The city was occupied by Chilean troops on January 17, 1881.
On May 24, 1940, the city was hit by another major earthquake.
Located on the coast is the Colegio Militar Leoncio Prado , a Peruvian military school that also played a major role in the novel La Ciudad y los Perros (1962, German The City and the Dogs ) by the Peruvian writer Mario Vargas Llosa .
Today Callao houses a military prison of the Peruvian Navy , in which, among others, the leader of the rebel group Sendero Luminoso Abimael Guzmán , the leader of the MRTA Victor Polay and the former head of the security service under President Alberto Fujimori Vladimiro Montesinos , who was convicted of corruption, are imprisoned.
Among other things, petrochemical products, fertilizers, textiles and leather goods are produced in the city.
Callaos Port is one of the most important fishing and trading ports in South America and handles 75% of Peru's imports and exports. It also has extensive cold store capacities and several dry docks. The realization of the San Lorenzo Hub Port would further strengthen Callao's economy.
- Callao is also home to Lima Airport
- The name of the inhabitants is Chalaco
- The exclamation Chim Pum Callao , which expresses the joy and pride of Callao , is known abroad . Sometimes this exclamation is even associated with the whole country of Peru.
- The Peruvian Navy operates a recreational facility for its officers and their families (Centro Naval) in the La Punta and Callao districts of the Callao region .
- The most successful soccer team of Callaos are the Sport Boys , founded on July 28, 1927 , who play their home games at the Estadio Miguel Grau .
- Santa Fe (Argentina) (since 1997)
- Oakland , California , USA (since 2010)
- Panama City , Panama (since 2011)
- Acapulco , Mexico (since 2013)
sons and daughters of the town
- Alfonso de Silva (1902–1937), composer
- Yma Sumac (1922-2008), singer
- Óscar Avilés (1924–2014), singer and guitarist, composer and arranger ("La Primera Guitarra del Perú")
- Lorenzo León Alvarado (1928–2020), religious and Roman Catholic bishop of Huacho
- José Hugo Garaycoa Hawkins (1930–2018), clergyman and Roman Catholic bishop of Tacna y Moquegua
- Lucho Barrios (1935–2010), musician and singer
- Luis Abilio Sebastiani Aguirre (1935–2020), religious and Roman Catholic Archbishop of Ayacucho o Huamanga
- Santiago Acasiete (born 1977), football player
- Claudio Pizarro (* 1978), football player
- Carlos Zambrano (* 1989), football player
- Callao Regional Government
- Todo Callao (in Spanish)
- Islas Palomino
- Wilfredo Ardito / Hildegard Willer: Lima's infamous port. A city tour through Callao, in: Magazine of the Latin America Observatory (ila), 2016.
- Población 2000 al 2015. In: proyectos.inei.gob.pe. Retrieved February 3, 2016 .
- El Comercio page 4, "Pilar Coronado, la guardiana de las islas del Callao" Article by Maria del Carmen Yrigoyen, March 8, 2018
- Archive link ( Memento from April 16, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- Callao website ( Memento from July 29, 2013 in the Internet Archive )