The Federalist Papers were a series of 85 articles that were published in various New York newspapers in 1787/88 and were intended to induce the people of New York State to agree to the Federal Constitution of the United States of America drafted in 1787 but not yet ratified .
The authors of the articles, alluding to the Roman consul Publius Valerius Poplicola under the common pseudonym "Publius", were Alexander Hamilton , James Madison and John Jay , three of the founding fathers of the United States . Their texts appeared together in 1788 in the font The Federalist , from which their current name is derived. It refers to the political grouping of the federalists who, in the constitutional debate, advocated transforming the USA from a loose confederation into a state with a strong, viable executive at the federal level. Since this point of view finally prevailed, the Federalist Papers are still regarded today as the authentic constitutional commentary of the generation of the founding fathers and, moreover, as the fundamental theoretical writing of modern, representative democracy.
Since the United States' declaration of independence on July 4, 1776, the 13 former British colonies had formed a loose confederation, whose members were basically sovereign states. Their only common and central body was the Continental Congress , which functioned at the same time as legislative and executive and proved to be clumsy and incapable of acting. It did not have its own tax revenue, and the articles of confederation , the forerunners of today's constitution, required unanimity in all decisions.
To remedy these shortcomings, the Philadelphia Convention was convened on May 25, 1787 to work out proposals for reform. Instead, on September 18, 1787, the delegates passed a completely new draft constitution that provided for a federal state with a joint executive and a president at the top. Above all, the central government should take over the powers of the individual states in matters of foreign policy, foreign trade and national defense.
The convention submitted the draft to the confederation congress and at the same time recommended that individual conventions in the individual states should discuss ratification. While the Articles of Confederation required unanimity for amendments in Congress and the state legislatures, Article VII of the draft constitution stated that "ratification by nine states should be sufficient for the constitution to be established". On September 28, 1787, the Congress passed the resolution to put the constitution to a vote in individual conventions in all thirteen states. This marked the beginning of the first national referendum in American history and one of the most important national debates.
Of the three New York State delegates, two, Robert Yates and John Lansing , had left the Philadelphia Convention in July because they believed state rights were being violated. With the draft constitution, especially with the idea of a strong central government, the convention exceeded the mandate of the continental congress. Yates and Lansing were supported by the first governor of New York, George Clinton . All three advocated a strong state position. Even before their departure they had regularly overruled the third delegate, Alexander Hamilton, who advocated a strong central government, since each state had only one vote in the Convention. After that, Hamilton was still able to speak at the convention, but could no longer vote on behalf of New York State.
Shortly after Yates and Lansing left the convention, the first letters appeared in the New York newspapers accusing the Philadelphia representatives of exceeding their powers and of betraying the articles of confederation and the ideals of the revolution of 1776 . Governor Clinton spoke out under the pseudonym " Cato ", Robert Yates as " Brutus " in the Anti-Federalist Papers against the ratification. For "Cato" the delegates had neither mandate nor legitimation for their draft constitution. "Cato" and "Brutus" based their argument on Montesquieu , who in his work Vom Geist der Gesetz (Geneva, 1748) had put forward the thesis that a republic could only exist successfully on a small territory.
Furthermore, a common national identity was only weakly developed; most of the residents of the 13 states considered themselves primarily z. B. as Virginians or New Yorkers, not as Americans. The authors feared that the abandonment of individual state rights would open the door to a new tyranny. A distant central government can hardly be controlled democratically and thus promotes corruption. In addition, the founding of such a large, democratically constituted federal state was an experiment that had never been done before in world history.
The first article in the Federalist Papers appeared on October 27, 1787 . Its authors argued that a strong federal executive was not a betrayal of the ideals of the American Revolution but, on the contrary, its ultimate safeguard. They explained the necessity of the new constitution, its advantages over the articles of confederation, the rights, functions and restrictions of the individual state organs - e. B. the presidency - as well as the system of checks and balances , which should ensure a democratic self-control of power .
Authorship and content
The three authors wrote under the common pseudonym Publius , but initially remained anonymous. Only in the French first edition of 1792 were Hamilton, Madison and Jay mentioned by name. Each of them had certain topics, but to this day the authorship has not been finally clarified for every article. Hamilton and Madison made lists of authors afterwards. However, these differed greatly from one another. Therefore, the mathematicians Frederick Mosteller and David Wallace subjected twelve essays of controversial authorship to a statistical text analysis on the basis of Bayes' theorem in 1964 . They discovered strong correlations between the authors' style characteristics and the respective texts.
The majority of the published essays, probably 51, probably came from the pen of Alexander Hamilton , 1787 member of the New York State Parliament and delegate of the Philadelphia Constitutional Convention. His interest in politics and political philosophy was unmistakably also the economic side: in literature he is an advocate of Adam Smith's liberal economic theory . This is clearly reflected in the essays he has written. Some of them deal with the economic aspects of the new constitution, in particular the economic possibilities and chances of a union in comparison with a confederation . In addition, the articles attributed to Hamilton speak of his fundamental belief in the pacifying effect of a union, but also his rejection of both monarchist tendencies and a pure "democracy". The authors of the Federalist Papers made a distinction between “democracy” and “republic” as forms of popular rule. By “democracy” they understood a “ tyranny of the majority ”, which they strongly rejected because minorities did not enjoy sufficient protection in it. Your concept of the "republic" differs from this essentially in the principle of representation , while "democracy" corresponds to its definition of direct democracy as it was realized in some Greek city-states of antiquity . According to today's view, Hamilton can definitely be described as a democrat, since the terms “democracy” and “republic” have different meanings today than in his time.
James Madison , who was to succeed Thomas Jefferson as fourth President of the USA in 1809 , had already been involved in the constitution and the Bill of Rights for the state of Virginia in 1776 . From 1780 to 1783 he had represented Virginia in the Continental Congress. In historical research he is considered one of the initiators of the Philadelphia Constitutional Convention . Most of his contributions to the Federalist Papers dealt with the internal design of the Union constitution. This includes the best known article, Federalist No. 10 , which deals with pluralism , party formation and interest groups, their origins and legitimations. Madison advocated the thesis of restricting the federal government to the most necessary areas. It was for this very reason that he turned away from Hamilton and the Federalist Party years later and founded the first opposition together with Thomas Jefferson. In her opinion, the government, when its Treasury Secretary, Hamilton, set up a national bank, had interpreted its powers too broadly.
The third author was John Jay, judge, US Secretary of State and later Governor of New York State . Although he fell ill after writing only five articles and did not write any more afterwards, his contribution to the Federalist Papers should not be underestimated: In Articles 2–5, presumably written by him, he laid down a model of American foreign policy .
The fact that three authors wrote the Federalist Papers who did not necessarily agree on all matters led to some minor discrepancies between the individual letters of Publius . Some of the articles were co-authored by two authors; Articles in which all three were involved do not, according to the prevailing opinion, exist.
The first 36 articles were published in March 1788 by the New York publisher J. & A. McLean, followed in May by the second volume with articles 37 to 85. Nos. 78 to 85 were published here for the first time and only then appeared as newspaper articles . A French translation from 1792 named the authors for the first time. The American edition of Hopkins, 1802, gave the names of the authors, but Madison forbade the names of the individual articles. In 1810 such an edition appeared on the basis of Hamilton's list of authors. The Jacob Gideon edition, 1818, used a Madison list that was different from Hamilton's. Both editors had also - with the consent of the authors - revised the original article texts. In 1863, Henry Dawson published an authentic text edition . Jacob E. Cooke published the text of the first publications in 1961.
A complete German-language edition of the Federalist Papers has only been available since 1993. Its reception in Germany began 200 years earlier: In 1792 the Göttinger Allgemeine Litteratur-Zeitung published a review of the French translation that appeared in the same year. The Federalist Papers played a role in all German constitutional debates - be it about the Paulskirche and Weimar Constitution or the Basic Law . Although they have always been received in legal, philosophical and historical specialist circles, these fundamental texts of the democratic state theory are hardly anchored in the general German consciousness.
The Federalist Papers , published 1787–1788, are still very popular in the United States today. This is not least due to its character as a contemporary and therefore intentional interpretation of the constitution that is still valid today . They are considered the philosophical basis not only of the American understanding of the state, but of the modern, western understanding of democracy in general. The principle of checks and balances described in them , the three mutually controlling and balancing state powers, was only used in this form in the USA. But it became a role model for democratic constitutions all over the world. The authors of the Federalist Papers are therefore also regarded as pioneers of the modern, democratically constituted state.
In US political science , the Federalist Papers play an important role as a theoretical-philosophical consideration of a constitution from the point of view of the sovereignty and contract theory of Charles de Montesquieu and the concept of property by John Locke . While Montesquieu was still of the opinion that republican state systems were only suitable for small, manageable units such as the ancient Greek city-states, the Federalists developed his ideas further and for the first time in history applied them to a large state with a population in which no more everyone know everyone and - if they exercised power - could control them. With their theory of pluralism , the authors of the Federalist Papers took the opposite position to the identity theory of democracy, of which Jean-Jacques Rousseau was the main proponent . In Article 10 of the Federalist Papers there is a parallel to David Hume's essay Idea of a Perfect Commonwealth . Hume argues that size brings advantages to a free community because the diversity associated with it makes it difficult to form majorities against minorities.
List of Federalist Papers
The following are the 85 Federalist Papers in chronological order. The respective authorship is indicated by the different colored background. Articles 18, 19 and 20, often viewed as a joint work by Hamilton and Madison, are mostly attributed to Madison alone by historians today:
"Madison had certainly written all of the essays himself, including in revised form only a small amount of pertinent information submitted by Hamilton from his rather sketchy research on the same subject."
Furthermore, the authorship of Articles 49–53, 62 and 63 is controversial. Since the latest scientific literature suggests that these 12 articles are also from Madison, they are color-coded accordingly in the table.
|No.||Published in||Release Date||English title||author|
|1||Independent Journal||October 27, 1787||General Introduction||Alexander Hamilton|
|2||Independent Journal||October 31, 1787||Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence||John Jay|
|3||Independent Journal||November 3, 1787||The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence||John Jay|
|4th||Independent Journal||November 7, 1787||The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence||John Jay|
|5||Independent Journal||November 10, 1787||The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence||John Jay|
|6th||Independent Journal||November 14, 1787||Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States||Alexander Hamilton|
|7th||Independent Journal||November 15, 1787||The Same Subject Continued: Concerning Dangers from Dissensions Between the States||Alexander Hamilton|
|8th||New York Packet||November 20, 1787||The Consequences of Hostilities Between the States||Alexander Hamilton|
|9||Independent Journal||November 21, 1787||The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection||Alexander Hamilton|
|10||New York Packet||November 22, 1787||The Same Subject Continued: The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection||James Madison|
|11||Independent Journal||November 24, 1787||The Utility of the Union in Respect to Commercial Relations and a Navy||Alexander Hamilton|
|12||New York Packet||November 27, 1787||The Utility of the Union In Respect to Revenue||Alexander Hamilton|
|13||Independent Journal||November 28, 1787||Advantage of the Union in Respect to Economy in Government||Alexander Hamilton|
|14th||New York Packet||November 30, 1787||Objections to the Proposed Constitution From Extent of Territory Answered||James Madison|
|15th||Independent Journal||December 1, 1787||The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union||Alexander Hamilton|
|16||New York Packet||December 4, 1787||The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union||Alexander Hamilton|
|17th||Independent Journal||December 5, 1787||The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union||Alexander Hamilton|
|18th||Independent Journal||December 7, 1787||The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union||James Madison|
|19th||Independent Journal||December 8, 1787||The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union||James Madison|
|20th||New York Packet||December 11, 1787||The Same Subject Continued: The Insufficiency of the Present Confederation to Preserve the Union||James Madison|
|21st||Independent Journal||December 12, 1787||Other Defects of the Present Confederation||Alexander Hamilton|
|22nd||New York Packet||December 14, 1787||The Same Subject Continued: Other Defects of the Present Confederation||Alexander Hamilton|
|23||New York Packet||December 18, 1787||The Necessity of a Government as Energetic as the One Proposed to the Preservation of the Union||Alexander Hamilton|
|24||Independent Journal||December 19, 1787||The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered||Alexander Hamilton|
|25th||New York Packet||December 21, 1787||The Same Subject Continued: The Powers Necessary to the Common Defense Further Considered||Alexander Hamilton|
|26th||Independent Journal||December 22, 1787||The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered||Alexander Hamilton|
|27||New York Packet||December 25, 1787||The Same Subject Continued: The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered||Alexander Hamilton|
|28||Independent Journal||December 26, 1787||The Same Subject Continued: The Idea of Restraining the Legislative Authority in Regard to the Common Defense Considered||Alexander Hamilton|
|29||Daily Advertiser||January 9, 1788||Concerning the Militia||Alexander Hamilton|
|30th||New York Packet||December 28, 1787||Concerning the General Power of Taxation||Alexander Hamilton|
|31||New York Packet||January 1, 1788||The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation||Alexander Hamilton|
|32||Daily Advertiser||January 2, 1788||The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation||Alexander Hamilton|
|33||Daily Advertiser||January 2, 1788||The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation||Alexander Hamilton|
|34||New York Packet||January 5, 1788||The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation||Alexander Hamilton|
|35||Independent Journal||January 5, 1788||The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation||Alexander Hamilton|
|36||New York Packet||January 8, 1788||The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the General Power of Taxation||Alexander Hamilton|
|37||Daily Advertiser||January 11, 1788||Concerning the Difficulties of the Convention in Devising a Proper Form of Government||James Madison|
|38||New York Packet||January 12, 1788||The Same Subject Continued, and the Incoherence of the Objections to the New Plan Exposed||James Madison|
|39||Independent Journal||January 18, 1788||The Conformity of the Plan to Republican Principles||James Madison|
|40||New York Packet||January 18, 1788||The Powers of the Convention to Form a Mixed Government Examined and Sustained||James Madison|
|41||Independent Journal||January 19, 1788||General View of the Powers Conferred by the Constitution||James Madison|
|42||New York Packet||January 22, 1788||The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered||James Madison|
|43||Independent Journal||January 23, 1788||The Same Subject Continued: The Powers Conferred by the Constitution Further Considered||James Madison|
|44||New York Packet||January 25, 1788||Restrictions on the Authority of the Several States||James Madison|
|45||Independent Journal||January 26, 1788||The Alleged Danger From the Powers of the Union to the State Governments Considered||James Madison|
|46||New York Packet||January 29, 1788||The Influence of the State and Federal Governments Compared||James Madison|
|47||New York Packet||January 30, 1788||The Particular Structure of the New Government and the Distribution of Power Among Its Different Parts||James Madison|
|48||New York Packet||February 1, 1788||These Departments Should Not Be So Far Separated as to Have No Constitutional Control Over Each Other||James Madison|
|49||Independent Journal||February 2, 1788||Method of Guarding Against the Encroachments of Any One Department of Government||James Madison|
|50||New York Packet||February 5, 1788||Periodic Appeals to the People Considered||James Madison|
|51||Independent Journal||February 6, 1788||The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments||James Madison|
|52||New York Packet||February 8, 1788||The House of Representatives||James Madison|
|53||Independent Journal||February 9, 1788||The Same Subject Continued: The House of Representatives||James Madison|
|54||New York Packet||February 12, 1788||The Apportionment of Members Among the States||James Madison|
|55||Independent Journal||February 13, 1788||The Total Number of the House of Representatives||James Madison|
|56||Independent Journal||February 16, 1788||The Same Subject Continued: The Total Number of the House of Representatives||James Madison|
|57||New York Packet||February 19, 1788||The Alleged Tendency of the New Plan to Elevate the Few at the Expense of the Many||James Madison|
|58||Independent Journal||February 20, 1788||Objection That The Number of Members Will Not Be Augmented as the Progress of Population Demands Considered||James Madison|
|59||New York Packet||February 22, 1788||Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members||Alexander Hamilton|
|60||Independent Journal||February 23, 1788||The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members||Alexander Hamilton|
|61||New York Packet||February 26, 1788||The Same Subject Continued: Concerning the Power of Congress to Regulate the Election of Members||Alexander Hamilton|
|62||Independent Journal||February 27, 1788||The Senate||James Madison|
|63||Independent Journal||March 1, 1788||The Senate Continued||James Madison|
|64||Independent Journal||March 5, 1788||The Powers of the Senate||John Jay|
|65||New York Packet||March 7, 1788||The Powers of the Senate Continued||Alexander Hamilton|
|66||Independent Journal||March 8, 1788||Objections to the Power of the Senate To Set as a Court for Impeachments Further Considered||Alexander Hamilton|
|67||New York Packet||March 11, 1788||The Executive Department||Alexander Hamilton|
|68||Independent Journal||March 12, 1788||The Mode of Electing the President||Alexander Hamilton|
|69||New York Packet||March 14, 1788||The Real Character of the Executive||Alexander Hamilton|
|70||Independent Journal||March 15, 1788||The Executive Department Further Considered||Alexander Hamilton|
|71||New York Packet||March 18, 1788||The Duration in Office of the Executive||Alexander Hamilton|
|72||Independent Journal||March 19, 1788||The Same Subject Continued, and Re-Eligibility of the Executive Considered||Alexander Hamilton|
|73||New York Packet||March 21, 1788||The Provision For The Support of the Executive, and the Veto Power||Alexander Hamilton|
|74||New York Packet||March 25, 1788||The Command of the Military and Naval Forces, and the Pardoning Power of the Executive||Alexander Hamilton|
|75||Independent Journal||March 26, 1788||The Treaty Making Power of the Executive||Alexander Hamilton|
|76||New York Packet||April 1, 1788||The Appointing Power of the Executive||Alexander Hamilton|
|77||Independent Journal||April 2, 1788||The Appointing Power Continued and Other Powers of the Executive Considered||Alexander Hamilton|
|May 28, 1788 (book)
June 14, 1788 (newspaper)
|The Judiciary Department||Alexander Hamilton|
|May 28, 1788 (book)
June 18, 1788 (newspaper)
|The Judiciary Continued||Alexander Hamilton|
|80||Independent Journal||June 21, 1788||The Powers of the Judiciary||Alexander Hamilton|
|June 25, 1788
June 28, 1788
|The Judiciary Continued, and the Distribution of the Judicial Authority||Alexander Hamilton|
|82||Independent Journal||July 2, 1788||The Judiciary Continued||Alexander Hamilton|
|July 5, 1788 July
July 12, 1788
|The Judiciary Continued in Relation to Trial by Jury||Alexander Hamilton|
|July 16, 1788
July 26, 1788
August 9, 1788
|Certain General and Miscellaneous Objections to the Constitution Considered and Answered||Alexander Hamilton|
|August 13, 1788
August 16, 1788
|Concluding remarks||Alexander Hamilton|
- Selected editions of works
- Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay: The Federalist Papers . Bantam, New York (NY) 1989, ISBN 0-553-21340-7 (English, full edition).
- The Federalist Papers: In Modern Language Indexed for Today's Political Issues. Merill, Bellevue (WA) 1999, ISBN 0-936783-21-4 ( translated into modern English by Mary Webster).
- The Federalist Papers. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1993, ISBN 3-534-12077-9 (complete German edition, edited by Barbara Zehnpfennig ).
- Angela Adams, Willi Paul Adams: Hamilton / Madison / Jay: The Federalist Articles: Political Theory and Constitutional Commentary by the American Founding Fathers. With the English and German text of the US Constitution . Schöningh, Paderborn 2004, ISBN 978-3-8252-1788-4 .
- The federalist. Manzsche Verlagbuchhandlung, Vienna 1958 (problematic German translation with constitutional introduction, edited by Felix Ermacora , translated by Kamilla Demmer).
- Le Fédéraliste, ou Collection de quelques Écrits en faveur de la Constitution proposée aux États-Unis de l'Amérique, par la Convention convoquée en 1787, publiés par MM. Hamilton, Madisson [sic] et Gay [sic]. Buisson, Paris 1792 (contemporary French translation).
- Selected secondary literature
- Beatrice Brunhöber: The invention of “democratic representation” in the Federalist Papers . In: Foundations of Law . tape 14 . Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2010, ISBN 978-3-16-150275-0 ( limited preview in the Google book search - also Berlin, Humboldt University, dissertation, 2008/09).
- Noble E. Cunningham: Jefferson vs. Hamilton. Confrontations that Shaped a Nation (= The Bedford series in history and culture ). Bedford / St. Martin's, Boston (MA) et al. 2000, ISBN 0-312-08585-0 (English).
- Michael I. Meyerson: Liberty's Blueprint. How Madison and Hamilton Wrote the Federalist, Defined the Constitution, and Made Democracy Safe for the World. Basic Books, New York (NY) 2008, ISBN 978-0-465-00264-1 .
- Frederick Mosteller , David L. Wallace: Inference and Disputed Authorship. The Federalist (= Addison-Wesley series in behavioral science - Quantitative methods ). Addison-Wesley, Reading (MA) 1964 (Reprint: With a new introduction by John Nerbonne. Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford (CA) 2007, ISBN 978-1-57586-552-2 ( The David Hume series )).
- Ernst Vollrath : That all Governments Rest on Opinion . In: Social Research . tape 43 , no. 1 , 1976, ISSN 0037-783X , p. 46-61 (English).
- Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay: The Federalist . Ed .: Benjamin Fletcher Wright. Metro Books (Reprint Harvard University Press), 2002, ISBN 1-58663-572-7 , pp. ix (English).
- Benjamin Fletcher Wright, Editor's introduction: The Federalist . Ed .: Benjamin Fletcher Wright. Metro Books (Reprint Harvard University Press), 2002, ISBN 1-58663-572-7 , pp. 2 (English).
- Robert Yates, John Lansing, jr .: Robert Yates and John Lansing, jr., To Governor George Clinton. Daily Advertiser (New York), January 14, 1788 . In: The Debate on the Constitution: Federalist and Antifederalist Speeches, Articles and Letters During the Struggle over Ratification, Part Two: January to August 1788 . Library of America, ISBN 978-0-940450-64-6 , pp. 3–6 (English).
- Benjamin Fletcher Wright: Editor's introduction: The Federalist . Ed .: Benjamin Fletcher Wright. Metro Books (Reprint Harvard University Press), 2002, ISBN 1-58663-572-7 , pp. 3–4 (English).
- Brutus No. 1. In: The Founders' Constitution. Vol. 1, chap. 4, Document 14th University of Chicago Press, accessed June 25, 2019 .
- Douglass Adair: The authorship of the disputed Federalist papers. Part I . In: The William and Mary Quarterly . tape 1 , no. 3 , 1944, pp. 97-122 , JSTOR : 1921883 (English).
- Douglass Adair: The authorship of the disputed Federalist papers. Part II . In: The William and Mary Quarterly . tape 1 , no. 3 , 1944, pp. 235-264 , JSTOR : 1923729 (English).
- Frederick Mosteller, David L. Wallace: Inference and disputed Authorship. The Federalist . Addison-Wesley, Reading 1964 (English).
- Encyclopædia Britannica (ed.): Founding Fathers: The Essential Guide to the Men Who Made America . John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken (New Jersey) 2007, ISBN 978-0-470-11792-7 (English).
- Charles-Michel Trudaine de la Sablière (translator): Le Fédéraliste, ou Collection de quelques Écrits en faveur de la Constitution proposée aux États-Unis de l'Amérique, par la Convention convoquée en 1787, publiés par MM. Hamilton, Madisson et Gay . Buisson, Paris 1792 (French, archive.org [accessed July 4, 2019]).
- Douglass Adair: The authorship of the disputed Federalist papers. Part I . In: The William and Mary Quarterly . tape 1 , no. 3 , 1944, pp. 40-46 (English).
- Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, James Madison: The Federalist . Ed .: Jacob E. Cooke. Wesleyan University Press, Middletown, CT 1961, ISBN 978-0-8195-6077-3 (English).
- Beatrice Brunhöber: The Invention of “Democratic Representation” in the Federalist Papers , Fundamentals of Legal Knowledge 14, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2010, p. 33
- Peter Graf Kielmansegg : Alexander Hamilton / James Madison / John Jay. The federalist. In: Manfred Brocker : History of political thought. Suhrkamp, 2006, ISBN 978-3-518-29418-5 , p. 354.
- Douglass Adair: Fame and the Founding Fathers. Liberty Fund, Indianapolis 1974, ISBN 0-393-05499-3 , p. 63.
- Douglass Adair: Fame and the Founding Fathers. Liberty Fund, Indianapolis 1974, ISBN 0-393-05499-3 , p. 93.
- Federalist Papers , full text on the Library of Congress website.
- Federalist Papers , full text on Yale University website.
- A declaration of the constitution: The Federalist Papers , information from the American embassy in Germany (German).