Under the linden trees

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B2B5 Under the linden trees
coat of arms
Street in Berlin
Under the linden trees
View over the boulevard in east direction, 1931
Basic data
place Berlin
District center
Created 1573
Hist. Names Erste Strasse
(1673–1674) ,
Neustädtische Allee
(around 1674–1690) ,
(1690–1723) ,
Connecting roads
Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse (east) ,
Strasse des 17. Juni (west)
Cross streets Wilhelmstrasse,
Neustädtische Kirchstrasse,
Friedrichstrasse ,
Behind the Gießhaus,
Am Zeughaus,
Places Pariser Platz ,
Bebelplatz ,
User groups Pedestrian traffic , bicycle traffic , car traffic , public transport
Technical specifications
Street length 1480 meters
Street width 60 meters

Unter den Linden is an avenue in Berlin district center of the district of the same , between the Forum Fridericianum and the Pariser Platz runs. Established in 1573 under Elector Johann Georg as a bridle path from the City Palace to the Tiergarten , it was fortified in 1647 under Elector Friedrich Wilhelm and planted with linden trees. The 1.5 kilometer long and 60 meter wide street was built in several sections between 1674 and 1737. During the German Empire , it developed from a residential street to a commercial street with numerous hotels and restaurants . Rebuilt after being destroyed in World War II , “the Linden trees” are one of Berlin's most popular sights.

History and Buildings

The beginnings

The avenue, 1691
Unter den Linden, situation around the year 1750: in front the Brandenburg Gate , at the end of the street the city ​​palace
(Berlin city model in the Märkisches Museum )

In the 16th century, the forerunner of today's prestige and promenade was nothing more than a bridle path that was laid out in 1573 at the behest of Elector Johann Georg . He connected the Berlin City Palace with the zoo established in 1527 .

After the Thirty Years' War had devastated the palace, pleasure garden and zoo and the country suffered from the consequences of the war, Elector Friedrich Wilhelm began to create new gardens and avenues. He sent his gardeners on trips to rebuild the pleasure garden with all kinds of strange plants. The electoral governor in Kleve and Mark , Prince Johann-Moritz von Nassau-Siegen , suggested and planned the construction of a Dutch- style avenue as a connection between the pleasure garden and the zoo. The old hunting trail was to be converted into a six-row gallery with 1000 nut and 1000 linden trees. The city ​​palace was to form the center of this system of visual axes . However, there were problems with the purchase of the trees, as the surrounding foresters were unable to procure 2,000 trees in such a short period of time. So the planting of the trees was postponed until the spring of 1647. In the same autumn the elector was able to visit the avenue, which was 250  Rhenish rods (equivalent to around 942 meters).

The street still showed nothing of the pulsating life of the city. It led through sandy fields with a few farms. In 1663 the Kronprinzenpalais was built at the beginning of the street, but the Crown Prince couple only moved into it later. As early as 1658, the young trees in the eastern part of the street fell victim to the newly built fortifications. Berlin became a great fortress . In order to connect the Tiergarten and Lindenstrasse, which were outside the ramparts, with the castle, the New Town Gate was built in front of the castle. However, the wall was steadily moved to the west as the 'New City' was growing rapidly. As a result, the eastern part of the linden tree was removed and the beginning was now roughly where it is today. The remaining part, which was now abandoned outside the fortress and lined with no buildings, was left to his wife Dorothea by the elector in 1670 . The enterprising princess divided the sandy fields into parcels and sold them, creating the new suburb (from 1674: Dorotheenstadt ). Only now did the street really gain importance due to increasing development and traffic. The trees were tended and some Holstein linden trees were added. Many Huguenots already settled in the Neustadt, which was bordered in the south by the Lindenallee (at that time it was called Neustädtische Allee ). The linden avenue lured the townspeople into the open air and many painters made them their motifs. The street was not yet paved and the walkers complained that they were always enveloped in clouds of dust when a carriage drove past them. But they still had to wait a few years for paving . The simple houses were only inhabited by farmers and lower court officials. The magnificent buildings that have been preserved to this day were soon built.

Development into a boulevard

Wilhelmine von Schack, Unter den Linden No. 8 , 1846
Unter den Linden, 1856, Eduard Gaertner
Unter den Linden, around 1900
Aerial view at Humboldt University , around 1920
1936: Corner of Café Kranzler (with Olympic flag )
Unter den Linden, July 1945

Friedrich I founded an Academy of Arts in 1696 and an Academy of Science in 1700 on Lindenallee. In 1724, however, these were relocated to Breite Straße. Friedrichstadt emerged south of the linden trees . The Lindenallee received some public buildings and imposing houses of the court servants. The street was now heavily used, as the Queen had a summer palace built at the western end in Lietzenburg (today: Charlottenburg ) and organized balls, masquerades and plays with great enthusiasm. Frederick I was very careful that his avenue was well maintained, but pigs still roamed on it and churned up the ground. In 1707 he passed a law according to which every resident should watch out for the linden trees in front of his house and report any damage.

In 1706 that became the Unter den Linden boulevard is part of today armory completed outside, but the inner expansion lasted another 36 years. At that time 150,000 rifles and war trophies were stored in what is now the oldest building under the linden trees. The arsenal has formed the eastern end of the street since 1937 (see below) together with the commandant's house . Not far from there, Frederick the Great and his architect Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff wanted to build an extensive new royal residence after 1740, plus a spacious square with other representative buildings. The new palace was not built, but the Forum Fridericianum , today's Bebelplatz , with the opera house , St. Hedwig's Cathedral , the Royal Library and Prince Heinrich's Palace was built - later the first building of the Humboldt University, founded in 1810 .

The western part of the street, so named before 1937, was gradually expanded from 1674 to the middle of the 18th century. In the 19th century, after the victory over Napoleon , Friedrich Wilhelm III. the square at the opera house and square at the armory were expanded into a street of triumph by his master builder Karl Friedrich Schinkel . To the west of these squares, where - coming from the castle - the street changes from an open boulevard to an equally wide, but more reserved avenue , the equestrian statue of Frederick the Great was erected. This work by the sculptor Christian Daniel Rauch is one of the most important works of representative sculpture of the 19th century and a model for numerous other works of this time.

The eponymous original six rows of linden trees (and nut trees) were reduced several times to four rows (finally: 1820) and plane trees and chestnuts often had to be added, so that the Berliners "only partially strolled under the linden trees for a long time".

The western part of Unter den Linden first became a representative, middle-class residential area in the 19th century, which in the years after 1871 then changed relatively quickly into a lively metropolitan business location with shops, restaurants and agency buildings. The British Hotel Berlin was the residence of the British Ambassador at this time and was preferred by travelers from Great Britain. In 1880, the ruling house a special adopted Linde statute that limited the height of buildings to 22 meters, laid down the road width of 60 meters and the minimum number of prescribed Linden (297).

After the first electric street lighting on Potsdamer Platz and Leipziger Straße was successfully put into operation in September 1882 and the arc lamp light was much brighter than the old gas lanterns, the boulevard Unter den Linden was also to receive electric lighting a few years later. In November 1887, the city of Berlin announced a limited competition for the design of ornate arc lamp candelabra, which Ludwig Schupmann won. A total of 104 lamps were with a mounting height of 8 m for this design built and in 1888, Unter den Linden, on the Pariser Platz, on the Opera Square and the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Straße placed later by their Creator as Schupmann candelabra were named .

From October 1901, the Imperial Hotel (Unter den Linden 44), in whose foyer four hundred seats and a stage had been built, was the permanent venue for Max Reinhardt's Schall und Rauch cabaret . In the following season, cabaret became a small theater , which is today the starting point for Max Reinhardt's great theater career. The desolate house described by E. T. A. Hoffmann is number 9 of the old census on the property of today's Russian Embassy . In the neighboring house, Unter den Linden No. 8, was the legendary Fuchs confectionery, which opened in 1816. was designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel .

The street name was extended to the Schlossbrücke in 1937 - which increased the length of the street from around 940 meters to almost 1.5 kilometers and was due to the national socialist capital's need for recognition - and therefore changed the house number count. Until then, counting began at the Palais Redern (today: Hotel Adlon ) on Pariser Platz and followed the system of horseshoe numbering on the southern side, number by number, to the Forum Fridericianum (today: Bebelplatz ) to return to the north side of the linden trees. The street name thus extended to the area in which the street was actually planted with linden trees, while to the east the Kaiser-Franz-Joseph-Platz (before 1910 Platz am Opernhaus ) and Platz am Zeughaus adjoined. By switching to the orientation numbering, the numbers were now assigned in the direction of the Brandenburg Gate, the two named places were included for the first time, and the command office became house number 1. This created the curiosity that Kaiser-Franz-Joseph-Platz , 1947 in Bebelplatz has been renamed, since it has consisted of two squares east and west of the opera house, in that the road connection north of the opera house is now viewed as part of the street Unter den Linden and no longer as part of a square surrounding the opera house.

During the Second World War , the road was almost completely destroyed in the Allied air raids and the Battle of Berlin . One of the few buildings that remained usable was the part of the Römischer Hof Unter den Linden, while the part of the building in Charlottenstrasse remained an unused ruin until the beginning of the 1990s.


The street Unter den Linden was of major importance for the city from the 19th century onwards. First there was a dress code for pedestrians, which was often publicly discussed. From 1846 the first horse busses operated here and in 1905 the first motorized omnibuses in Berlin. For aesthetic reasons, the Kaiser insisted on moving the crossing tram line to the Lindentunnel in 1916 .

In 1925 the deck seats of the motorized buses were given a roof; This is how the double-decker buses that are typical of Berlin today were created . After the street had been extended to Alexanderplatz in the 1880s, a thoroughfare was created and brought urban traffic noise to the previously leisurely strollers. As early as 1913 there was a first branch of the National Automobile Company NAG on Unter den Linden . The intersection of Unter den Linden and Friedrichstrasse in particular quickly developed into the busiest and most chaotic intersection in Berlin. In order to separate the automobile and wagon traffic from the heavy foot traffic, the latter was derived from the Kaisergalerie . In 1902 the first traffic policeman in Prussia regulated the traffic and soon exchanged his whistle for a trumpet. Since this was not enough either, the southern Friedrichstrasse became the first one-way street in the city.

Shortly after the " seizure of power " by the Nazis began in 1934 the widening of lanes, because the road was part of the 50-kilometer east-west axis of the world capital Germania provided. With the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961, the street was popularly known as the “most representative cul-de-sac in the world”. After German reunification , the Brandenburg Gate remained closed to motor vehicle traffic, but the street nonetheless developed into a motor vehicle. In addition to attractive business and cultural offers, the current discussion about further development is primarily aimed at greater road safety and better comfort for pedestrians.

Apart from a small section to the west, the generously developed road is part of the two federal highways B 2 and B 5 . In addition to Leipziger Strasse ( Bundesstrasse 1 ), which runs parallel to the south, it carries most of the traffic from City West ( Kurfürstendamm , Breitscheidplatz and Tauentzienstrasse ) to the center of old Berlin around Alexanderplatz and connects numerous important facilities and sights.

The boulevard until the end of the GDR

The rubble train, 1946

Between the summer of 1945 and around 1948, the many destroyed palaces and buildings had to be cleared , which is why a rubble track was laid along the boulevard and countless volunteers lined up. In the course of the subsequent reconstruction, the embassy of the Soviet Union was the first new building from 1949 to 1951 , an example of Stalinist architecture and a symbol of the political ties between the then newly founded GDR and the Soviet Union . After the collapse of the Soviet Union , the building became the Embassy of the Russian Federation .

After initial reconstruction planning and use as an exhibition space, the severely damaged Berlin City Palace was blown up in 1950 at the instigation of the SED to create a demonstration area as the new end of the street Unter den Linden.

By the end of the 1960s, most of the historic buildings in the eastern part of the street had been rebuilt, with the exception of the old commandant's office , which was only reconstructed in 2003 as the capital of the Bertelsmann media group . The Palace of the Republic was built on the Spree-side area of ​​the palace from 1973 to 1976 ; a new building for the GDR Foreign Ministry was built on the site of the commandant's office along the Spree Canal.

On the east side of the corner to Friedrichstrasse, the new development, the buildings of the Lindencorso and the Hotel Unter den Linden , was set back, so that green and seating areas were created here as part of the widening of Friedrichstrasse north and south of Unter den Linden.

New users moved into the reconstructed and the international-style buildings in the western part of the street . An occupancy plan from 1974 shows the following facilities:

North side from west to east

View from Pariser Platz eastwards, January 1990

Embassy of the Hungarian People's Republic ; Embassy of the People's Republic of Poland ; Central Office for Research Needs; Car showroom; Export Company Wiratex ; Small Café Unter den Linden (today: Café Einstein ); Bookstore for women ; Ministry of Foreign Trade ; Gentlemen's outfitters; Travel company Balkantourist ; French Embassy , Italian Embassy ; (in today's Zollernhof ): Central Council of the FDJ with central management of the pioneer organization ; Committee for Tourism and Hiking ; FDJ district management Berlin; Sporting goods shop, (in today's imperial courts ): fabric shop display case ; Underwear specialty shop; British Embassy , Tunisian Embassy; Boutique Sibylle ; SAS Scandinavian Airlines ; (in the Swiss house): Sparkasse ; Interhotel Unter den Linden (meanwhile demolished); Watch specialty shop; Zeitzer leather goods; Souvenir shop Bulgaria ; Bulgarian cultural center (in today's new building of the Roman courts); German State Library ; Humboldt University; Memorial for the victims of fascism and militarism ; Museum of German History .

South side from west to east

Ministry of Popular Education ; Permanent exhibition of teaching materials; University bookstore; Berlin souvenir ; Representation of the Soviet committee for cultural relations with compatriots abroad in the GDR; Commercial agency of the USSR in the GDR; Embassy of the USSR ; Counselor for Economic Affairs of the Embassy of the USSR; Intourist and Aeroflot , Novosti (APN); (in the apartment house): Antiquariat in Friedrichstrasse (“Linden Antiquariat”), Danish Embassy ; Office of the Komische Oper ; Art salon; Specialty shop for Meissen porcelain ; Fur shop; Arts and crafts salon; Havana store ( delicatessen shop ); Lindencorso ; German Building Academy; Bookstore Das Soviet Buch ; House of the Unions; International Women's Democratic Federation (IDFF); Central Board of IG Metall; ( Governor's House ): Pedagogy Section of the HUB ; ( Altes Palais ): Institute of the Pedagogy Section of the HUB; ( Chest of drawers ): Library of the HUB; State Bank of the GDR (on Bebelplatz); Saint Hedwig's Cathedral ; German State Opera ; Opera café ; (Palais Unter den Linden): Guesthouse of the Council of Ministers; Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the GDR (on the banks of the Spree, now demolished).

After German reunification

In 1994 and 1997 the Bundestag moved into two office buildings on the boulevard, the Matthias-Erzberger-Haus and the Otto-Wels-Haus .

Since 1990, when the Palace of the Republic had to be closed due to asbestos contamination , the question of whether the GDR building should be renovated or whether the old city palace or something completely different should be built in its place has been the subject of lively controversy . The building was then completely demolished between February 6, 2006 and the end of 2008. On November 28, 2008, an architectural competition for the reconstruction of the city ​​palace was held, which Francesco Stella won. The draft was then confirmed by the Bundestag after minor changes. The start of construction, which was then decided for 2010, was postponed for a few years due to the lack of financial security. On June 12, 2013 the foundation stone was laid for the new building in the cubature of the old city palace and with a three-sided historical facade. It was opened as the Humboldt Forum in December 2020 .

At the beginning of 2006, the Interhotel Unter den Linden , built in the 1960s , was demolished in favor of a new building, the Upper Eastside Berlin building complex, which was completed in 2008 . The Lindencorso opposite was replaced by a new building between 1994 and 1996 . In both cases, the new buildings were erected directly along Friedrichstrasse, so that the historic street spaces have been restored while abandoning the plazas laid out in the 1960s.

Some celebrities in or about this street

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe stayed in Berlin from May 15 to 20, 1778. During this time he lived in what was then Hotel de Russie , Unter den Linden 23. The hotel was later called Hotel zur Goldenen Sonne and in 1804 also housed Friedrich Schiller for a few days. It does not exist anymore.

ETA Hoffmann wrote in his night's work Das öde Haus (1817) about an old building which, according to his friend Julius E. Hitzig, is Unter den Linden No. 9 (old census). This is roughly the location of the Russian embassy today. It was demolished in 1824. An engraving from 1820 that is still preserved today depicts it. The bench and the Fuchs confectionery (No. 8) that appear in the novella can also be clearly seen on it.

On May 7, 1866, the 22-year-old Ferdinand Cohen-Blind shot a revolver at the Prussian Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck , who was walking from the Royal Palace to his office in Wilhelmstrasse . Bismarck was able to continue on his way home almost unharmed.

During a visit to Berlin, the poet Heinrich Heine was extremely impressed by this boulevard and its strollers and then rhymed:

“Yes, friend, here under the linden trees
you can build your heart,
here you can find
the most beautiful women together.
They bloom so gracefully and gracefully
in their colored silk robes;
A poet called them meaningful
walking flowers.
What beautiful feather hats!
What beautiful Turkish scarves!
What a beautiful cheek bloom!
What a beautiful gooseneck! "

- Heinrich Heine, 1822

The writer Heinrich Mann worked for some time at the Akademie der Künste and commented on the street Unter den Linden:

“Even in Berlin, the street Unter den Linden [...] aroused my awe right to the end. Years came when I looked down from the Akademie der Künste: I was no longer because of that, the avenue no less. "

- Heinrich Mann

Well-known buildings and places along the street and in the immediate vicinity

North side of the street South side of the street

The middle of the street is characterized in its longer section by a promenade planted with linden trees, which extends from Pariser Platz with the Brandenburg Gate (intersection of Wilhelmstrasse) to the level of the Old Palace with the equestrian statue of Frederick the Great . The Schloßbrücke is the eastern end of the boulevard.


The equestrian statue of Frederick the Great, created by Christian Daniel Rauch , has been located at the eastern end of the median strip since 1851 . It was dismantled in 1950 during the GDR era and re-erected on the occasion of Berlin's 750th anniversary in 1987.

In front of the Humboldt University there has been the Wilhelm von Humboldt monument by Martin Paul Otto on the left and the Alexander von Humboldt monument by Reinhold Begas on the right . In the courtyard of honor there are monuments to Hermann von Helmholtz by Ernst Herter , for Theodor Mommsen by Adolf Brütt , for Max Planck by Bernhard Heiliger and for Lise Meitner by Anna Franziska Schwarzbach . In front of the east wing there is a monument to Eilhard Mitscherlich by Ferdinand Hartzer .

In front of the Neue Wache there was a statue of Friedrich Wilhelm von Bülow on the left and a statue of Gerhard David von Scharnhorst by Christian Daniel Rauch on the right . They were dismantled on the orders of Walter Ulbricht in 1950 and re-erected in 2002 opposite the Neue Wache, where the statues for Ludwig Yorck von Wartenburg , Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher and August Neidhardt von Gneisenau, also created by Christian Daniel Rauch, were originally . These, in turn, have been in the back of the Prinzessinnengarten since 1964 . Historians and associations are calling for the statues to be re-erected in their original location, where they were part of Karl Friedrich Schinkel's sculpture program , which ranged from the warriors on the Schlossbrücke via the Viktorien at the Neue Wache to the equestrian statue of Frederick the Great ; however, the State Monument Council has so far rejected this.


  • Harald Neckelmann: Unter den Linden - strolling and having fun . Sutton Verlag, Erfurt 2009, ISBN 978-3-86680-583-5 .
  • Walter Schimmel-Falkenau: Coming and going Unter den Linden . Berlin Story Verlag, 2006, ISBN 3-929829-34-7 .
  • Günter de Bruyn : Under the lime trees . Siedler-Verlag, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-88680-789-4 .
  • Carl-Georg Böhne, Werner Schmidt: Unter den Linden - A walk from house to house . Haude & Spener, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3-7759-0428-X .
  • Helmut Engel , Wolfgang Ribbe (ed.): Via triumphalis. Historical landscape "Unter den Linden" between Friedrich monument and Schloßbrücke. Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1997, ISBN 3-05-003057-7 .
  • Winfried Löschburg: Unter den Linden: Faces and stories of a famous street . Book publisher Der Morgen, 1982 (new edition: Christoph Links Verlag, Berlin 1993, ISBN 3-86153-024-4 )
  • The architectural and art monuments in the GDR. Capital Berlin I. Ed. Institute for Monument Preservation at Henschelverlag, 1984, pp. 139–189.
  • Ursula von Kardorff , photos: Michael Ruetz: Unter den Linden. In: GEO magazine. 11, Hamburg 1978, pp. 38-64. The nation's dead end. Informative, authentic experience report: "[...] Here I experienced July 20, 1944 (Prussia's last glory day) [...] When I fled Berlin after being interrogated by the Gestapo, my friend Count Hardenberg was in the concentration camp, other friends had been executed [...]" ISSN  0342-8311

Web links

Commons : Unter den Linden  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Unter den Linden . In: Street name dictionary of the Luisenstädtischer Bildungsverein (near  Kaupert )
  2. Winfried Löschburg (Ed.): Panorama of the street Unter den Linden , Munich / Berlin 1997, ISBN 3-7338-0216-0
  3. From a newspaper series from the 1980s (date not preserved): Unter den Linden (Part IX)
  4. Competition result: light carrier for electric street lighting. Centralblatt der Bauverwaltung, Volume 8, No. 1, January 1, 1888, pp. 7–8, accessed on January 12, 2020.
  5. Ludwig Schupmann: Light carrier for electrical street lighting in Berlin. Centralblatt der Bauverwaltung, Volume 8, No. 18, May 5, 1888, pp. 195–196 (picture already on page 194), accessed on January 12, 2020.
  6. Morgenblatt for educated classes of February 24, 1824, p. 128.
  7. Stefan Jacobs: How the chaos with the Berlin house numbers came about. In: Der Tagesspiegel , April 12, 2016
  8. Kaiser-Franz-Joseph-Platz . In: Street name dictionary of the Luisenstädtischer Bildungsverein
  9. Place at the armory . In: Street name dictionary of the Luisenstädtischer Bildungsverein
  10. Harald Neckelmann: Unter den Linden - Stroll and have fun. (= The series of archive images). Sutton Verlag, Erfurt 2009, p. 80.
  11. Harald Neckelmann: Unter den Linden - stroll and have fun. (= The series of archive images). Sutton Verlag, Erfurt 2009, p. 87.
  12. Harald Neckelmann: Unter den Linden - Stroll and have fun. (= The series of archive images). Sutton Verlag, Erfurt 2009, p. 60.
  13. Harald Neckelmann: Unter den Linden - stroll and have fun. (= The series of archive images). Sutton Verlag, Erfurt 2009, p. 77.
  14. Harald Neckelmann: Unter den Linden - Stroll and have fun. (= The series of archive images). Sutton Verlag, Erfurt 2009, p. 108.
  15. ^ Günter de Bruyn: Under the lime trees. 3rd ed., Btb / Random House / Siedler, Munich 2004, pp. 24/25.
  16. Harald Neckelmann: Unter den Linden - Stroll and have fun. (= The series of archive images). Sutton Verlag, Erfurt 2009, p. 86.
  17. Hans-Werner Klünner: Unter den Linden. Historical photographs. Stadtmuseum Berlin Foundation (ed.), Nicolaische Verlagsbuchhandlung, Berlin 2011, p. 90.
  18. Harald Neckelmann: Unter den Linden - Stroll and have fun. (= The series of archive images). Sutton Verlag, Erfurt 2009, p. 61.
  19. Harald Neckelmann: Unter den Linden - Stroll and have fun. (= The series of archive images). Sutton Verlag, Erfurt 2009, p. 92.
  20. a b Harald Neckelmann: Unter den Linden - Stroll and have fun. (= The series of archive images). Sutton Verlag, Erfurt 2009, p. 9.
  21. Oliver Boyn: The political Berlin. The historical travel guide. Ch.links Verlag, Berlin 2008, p. 105.
  22. Bernd Herzog-Schlagk: Promenade Berlin - Unter den Linden, from the Brandenburg Gate to the Liebknechtbrücke - a compact model project for the Berlin pedestrian strategy 2011-2016 . FOOT e. V., Berlin 2012.
  23. NBI . No. 40/74, p. 39.
  24. Egon Freitag: The Völkchen has a lot of self-confidence ... In: Berliner Zeitung . From the 1960s; received without date.
  25. Unter den Linden No. 9 | Collections | Berlin State Library. Retrieved October 24, 2019 .
  26. 150 years ago - the attack on Bismarck. Retrieved April 14, 2019 .
  27. Hans Prang, Günter Kleinschmidt: With Berlin on you and you - exquisite and well-listened things from 750 years of Berlin life. FA Brockhaus Verlag, Leipzig 1980, p. 144.
  28. Continuation article from the 1960s in a Berlin magazine: That was and is Berlin
  29. The monuments around the main building of the Humboldt University.
  30. ^ Result minutes of the State Monument Council (LDR), meeting on October 6, 2017.

Coordinates: 52 ° 31 ′ 0 ″  N , 13 ° 23 ′ 21 ″  E