Töregene Hatun

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Coin from the reign of Töregene Chatun

Töregene Hatun (Chatun) ( Mongolian Турхан Turchan or Туракина Turakina , * approx. 1185 ; † 1247 ) was regent of the Mongol Empire from 1242 to 1246 .


Töregene was a Naimanin Nestorian faith and belonged to the tribe of Merkits . After Genghis Khan had subjugated this tribe in 1204, Töregene was handed over to his son Ögedei as his wife. She was Ögedei's only wife who gave him male offspring.

After the death of her husband in 1241, Töregene secured the support of Chagatai Khan and several other Mongolian princes. As a result, she was able to take over the rule of the Mongol Empire in the spring of 1242 and took on the title Hatun (= female form of Khan ). She wanted to appoint her son Güyük as Ögedei's successor, although he preferred his grandson Shiremun for it. Therefore, she initiated purges against the officials who were loyal to Ögedei. Several ministers and governors were forced to flee the empire and some were executed. Töregene waited a long time before calling up a Kurultai , because she wanted to rule as long as possible.

Töregene promoted the expansion of the tax system in the Mongol Empire and carried out censuses. The rulers of the Mongolian vassal states had to submit to her personally. One of these rulers, Yaroslav II , was poisoned during a meeting with Töregene. She also promoted the officer Baiju to the command of the Mongolian army and ordered him to wage a campaign against the Rum Seljuks , which led to their defeat and to their becoming vassals of the Mongol Empire. In addition, Töregene ordered Baiju to carry out a campaign against the Abbasid caliphate , which was unsuccessful.

At Kurultai, which was convened near Karakorum in 1246 , Töregene succeeded in having her son Güyük appointed the new Great Khan . In 1247 Töregene was poisoned by unknown enemies.

Individual evidence

  1. ^ A b c d Lily Xiao Hong Lee, Sue Wiles: Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Women: Tang Through Ming, 618-1644 . ME Sharpe, 2014, ISBN 0-7656-4316-2 , pp. 67-68, 401-402 .
  2. a b c d Hamad Subani: The Secret History of Iran . Lulu.com, 2013, ISBN 1-304-08289-X , pp. 118-119 .
  3. a b Timothy May: The Mongol Conquests in World History . Reaction Books, 2013, ISBN 1-86189-971-8 , pp. 49-51 .