Yuri I. Daniilowitsch
Juri I. Daniilovič ( Russian Юрий (Георгий) Даниилович ), scientific transliteration Jurij (Georgij) Daniilovič (* 1281 ; † November 21, 1325 ) from the dynasty of the Rurikids was Prince of Moscow (1303-1325) and in competition with Michael and Dimitri von Tver as Juri III. Grand Duke of Vladimir (1318–1322). As the son of Daniil of Moscow (a son of Alexander Newski ), he was also the brother of Ivan Kalitas and a colorful figure of the Tatar era .
Under Yuri I, the rise of the Principality of Moscow , which had been noticeable for decades, entered a new phase: for the first time, a Moscow prince achieved the dignity of Grand Duke. This was still tied to the once dominant principality Vladimir , but from Ivan Kalita onwards, every Moscow prince also became Grand Duke of Kiev, and with Juris I's great-nephew Dimitri Donskoy , the grand dignity also changed institutionally to Moscow.
Already at the beginning of his reign, Yuri began to expand his territory. In 1303 he conquered the principality and the strategically important fortress of Moshaisk , which brought the entire course of the Moskva under his control. A year later, the Khan confirmed that he owned the Principality of Pereslavl-Zalessky .
The bitterly fought conflict over supremacy with the Principality of Tver also fell during Juri's reign . The disputes sparked off because of the grand prince's dignity. It began to become more attractive again at the beginning of the 14th century after a period of decline, when it became clear that the Khan of the Golden Horde would soon leave the collection of taxes to the Grand Duke. When Grand Duke Andrei died in 1304, Mikhail Yaroslavich of Tver was the legitimate successor according to the seniority principle and was also appointed by Khan Tohtu . Before that, however, Juri had registered his claim to the dignity of the Grand Duke. Allied with the trading city of Novgorod , he continued to advance against Mikhail after his accession to power, whereupon Yuri was summoned to the Mongol court by the new Khan Özbeg in 1312 and had to stay there for two years. During this time, however, Yuri succeeded in winning the Khan on his side: he received the hand of Özbeg's sister Konchaka, who was then baptized under the name Agafja, a Jarlyk for the grand prince of Vladimir and military support.
In June 1317, however, Yuri suffered a defeat against Mikhail Yaroslavich. Among other things, Agafja got into Mikhail's captivity, where she died shortly afterwards under unexplained circumstances. Özbeg quoted Mikhail front of him: "You have not delivered the tribute to Khan, you fought to the Messenger, you killed the Princess of Grand Prince Yuri." In the winter of 1318, Mikhail was in the Caucasus executed. At the same time the Jarlyk Juris was renewed.
Around 1322, Yuri was then reported by Michael's son Dimitri for embezzlement of tribute. The Khan withdrew the dignity of Grand Duke and transferred it to Dimitri. Before his troops, Yuri fled Moscow to the court of Özbeg, where he was slain by Dimitri in 1325 in front of the khan. Özbeg disapproved of Dimitri's unauthorized actions and had him executed too.
Marriages and offspring
Yuri Daniilowitsch married in 1297 with a daughter of Constantine II Borissowitsch Prince of Rostow , who died in 1317, and in the second marriage with Agrafia (Konschaka), a daughter of the khan Tochty der Kumanen , who died in 1318. However, he only left a daughter from his first marriage, which was followed by his brother Ivan I. Danilowitsch "Kalita" (* 1288, † 1341) as Prince of Moscow in 1325, who also became Grand Duke of Vladimir in 1328, himself "Grand Duke of all Reussians “And became the progenitor of all later Grand Dukes of Moscow and the Tsars of all Reussians from the house of the Rurikids .
- Sofija Jurjewna ∞ Konstantin Michailowitsch (* 1306, † 1346), Grand Prince of Tver (1327-1337 and 1339-1346), Prince of Dorogobusch ,
- Jeremija Konstantinowitsch Prince of Dorogobusch, † 1372, ∞ Anastasia Ne, † 1407 (descendants: the princes of Dorogobusch, later the princes Dorogobujski, who died out in the 16th century and the - extinct - princes Chernyatinsky).
- Detlev Schwennicke, "Europäische Stammtafeln", New Series Detlev Schwennicke Volume II, Plate 144, Verlag Stargardt, Marburg, 1984
- Detlev Schwennicke, op. cit. Plate 148
- Yevgeny Zhukov and others: Sovetskaya istoritscheskaja enziklopedija: Tom 16 . Sowetskaja enziklopedija, Moscow 1976, col. 826. (Russian)
- Vladimir Boguslawski: Slawjanskaja enziklopedija: Kijewskaja Rus - Moskowija: Tom 2 . Olma Medija Group, 2001, pp. 723-724. ISBN 978-5-224-02251-9 . (Russian)
|Mikhail||Russian ruler||Dimitri II|
|SURNAME||Daniilowitsch, Juri I.|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Jurij Daniilovič; Georgij Daniilovič|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Russian prince of Moscow (1303-1325)|
|DATE OF BIRTH||1281|
|DATE OF DEATH||November 21, 1325|