Margarete von Babenberg
Margarete von Babenberg , also Margareta von Österreich , Czech Markéta Babenberská , (* 1204 or 1205; † October 29, 1266 at Krumau am Kamp Castle ) was the wife of the Roman-German King Heinrich (VII.) And the first wife of the Bohemian King Přemysl Ottokar II.
Margarete was the daughter of the Austrian Duke Leopold VI. von Babenberg and Theodora Angeloi , daughter of the Byzantine Emperor Isaac II. On November 29, 1225 she married King Heinrich (VII.), the son of Emperor Frederick II. Her coronation took place on March 28, 1227 in Aachen. After the unsuccessful revolt against his father, Heinrich was imprisoned in 1235 and died in 1242; In the same year Margarete went to the seclusion of the Dominican convent of St. Katharinen in Trier and from 1244 to the monastery of St. Markus in Würzburg of the same order.
After the death of her childless brother Frederick II in the Battle of the Leitha (1246) , she tried to enforce her inheritance claims to the duchies of Austria and Styria against her niece Gertrud . King Wenceslas I of Bohemia wanted to take over these duchies by marrying his firstborn Vladislav with Friedrich's niece Gertrud. But Vladislav died as early as 1247. After Gertrud's second marriage to the Baden margrave Hermann and his death in 1250, the period without rulers continued . Austria and Styria were imperial fiefs and were treated as imperial property after the male line of the Babenbergs had died out. There was no longer a legally binding fief among the last Hohenstaufen.
The Austrian nobility offered Wenceslas younger son, Ottokar II, rule over the duchies. The prerequisite for this, however, was marriage to an heiress. Ottokar refused to marry his brother's widow and married Margarete on February 11, 1252 in the castle chapel of Hainburg . The bride was older than her father-in-law King Wenzel I. Ottokar had the imperial privileges sealed with a golden bull , the privilege minus, and its confirmation by Emperor Friedrich II from 1245, handed over to her. As a result, Margarete transferred the rule of the duchies of Austria and Styria to her husband. Pope Innocent IV , who had already switched sides between Gertrud and Margarete several times, confirmed the legal handover of the two duchies on May 6, 1252. In a document dated June 16, 1252, in which the Ardagger provost's right to toll was secured , in addition to her title Romanorum (quondam) regina, she also called herself ducissa Austrie et Stirie ac marchionissa Moravie for the first time . In 1260, she named herself domina regni Bohemie in a document .
As a 50-year-old, however, she was unable to create heirs with him. Ottokar tried through the Pope to legitimize the illegitimate son he had with one of Margarete's maids as his legal successor. After the Pope refused, Ottokar separated from Margarete in 1261. She went to Krumau and spent the winters in Krems . In Krumau she confirmed the privileges of her brother Friedrich and King Conrad IV and granted the villages in the Pölla-Krumau regional court district freedom from the regional court ( que nostre iurisdictioni subiacent per omnes terminos de Polan quibus speciali iure dominamur ). As a result, only death-worthy crimes had to be handed over to the judge by the officials of the monastery.
After her separation from Ottokar she called herself Romanorum quondam regina , but kept the title ducissa Austrie et Stirie . It was not until 1266 that it was recorded as quondam filia Livpoldi illustris ducis Austrie et Stirie et Romanorum regina , thus referring to its father. The last verifiable document of Margarete comes from the same year 1266. In the village Grafenberg from Parish is Eggenburg to the Lilienfeld given. She had also chosen this monastery as her tomb. The time of her death is controversial. Some sources mention 1266, while others state October 2 or 12, 1267. According to her wishes, she was buried in the Lilienfeld Abbey on the northern edge of the chancel, where her father, the founder of the monastery, is also buried. On the outside of the balustrade around the chancel there is an inscription on her grave, which reads in German: Margaret, Queen of the Romans, wife of King Ottokar II of Bohemia, daughter of Duke Leopold, † 1266 .
- Heinrich von Zeißberg : Margarethe of Austria . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 20, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1884, p. 320 f.
- Heide Dienst : Margaret of Austria. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 16, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-428-00197-4 , pp. 152-154 ( digitized version ). ISBN 3-428-00197-4
- Karl Lechner: The Babenberger . Margraves and Dukes of Austria 976–1246. In: Institute for Austrian History Research , Vienna (Ed.): Publications of the Institute for Austrian History Research . 6th, unchanged edition. tape 23 . Böhlau, Vienna / Cologne / Weimar 1996, ISBN 3-205-98569-9 .
- Sabine Penth: Margarete von Babenberg. Roman Queen - Duchess of Austria - Queen of Bohemia (PDF; 6.5 MB), in: Karl-Heinz Rueß (Ed.): Women of the Staufer , Writings on Staufer History and Art, Volume 25, Göppingen 2006, p. 90 -112
- Entry on Margarete von Babenberg in the Austria Forum (in the AEIOU Austria Lexicon )
- Entry on Margarete von Babenberg in the database of the state's memory of the history of Lower Austria ( Museum Niederösterreich )
- ^ Peter Koblank: Staufer graves. Only a few of the most prominent Hohenstaufen are buried in Germany. on stauferstelen.net. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
|Kunigunde of Swabia||Queen of Bohemia
|Kunigunde von Halitsch|
|SURNAME||Margarete von Babenberg|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Markéta Babenberská (Czech); Margaretha of Austria|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Wife of the Bohemian King Přemysl Ottokar II.|
|DATE OF BIRTH||around 1205|
|DATE OF DEATH||October 29, 1266|
|Place of death||Krumau am Kamp Castle|