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A swamp is a wetland in river plains and on banks .

Description of the biotope

Swamps are terrestrial habitats with at times heavily wet, muddy soils with standing water. In contrast to the permanently wet moor , on the surface of which peat forms, organic matter in the swamp is completely converted into humus or washed out. In colloquial language, however, the separation of swamp and bog is fuzzy. Both terms are often used synonymously . In contrast to swamps, however, bogs have permanent water saturation. Occasional drying out leads to a complete breakdown of the organic matter in swamps; in bogs this breakdown is inhibited by the permanent water saturation, so that peat can develop.

Tree-free communities, some of which are rich in bushes, dominated by marsh plants and which thrive on wet mineral to organic soils (see soil type ), can only exist with permanent excess water. The demarcation of swamps from other types of biotope is not easy. Swamps form intermediate forms of habitats such as moors, silting water, wet meadows and bushes. Tall herbaceous meadows , small sedge communities , large sedge beds or moist willow bushes are typical vegetation . Swamps are endangered by drainage and agricultural use, but have been and are being partially renatured . This habitat can be created artificially in gardens by creating a swamp bed .

Etymology and field names

The word swamp has been used since Middle High German and is related to English swamp (Westphalian swampen , ' slosh , sway') as well as sponge ' mushroom '.

Another word for swamp with (former) bush or forest stands is der or das Bruch , Low German Brook, Brock, Broich , Brauck (corresponding to Old High German bruoh , Middle High German bruoch , Old English broces , Dutch broek ). The characteristic floodplain vegetation is the quarry forest .

Terms that also relate to the same facts but occur regionally mainly in landscape names are Luch (from Slav. Lug , meadow ') in Brandenburg and Pitze (n) in Bavaria and Austria (while moss refers to peatland).

See also


Web links

Commons : Swamps  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Swamp  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. swamp, m. In: Jacob Grimm , Wilhelm Grimm (Hrsg.): German dictionary . tape 20 : Strom – Szische - (X, 4th section). S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1942, Sp. 1080-1091 ( woerterbuchnetz.de ).
  2. Bruch, mn palus, with a long vocal. In: Jacob Grimm , Wilhelm Grimm (Hrsg.): German dictionary . tape 2 : Beer murderer – D - (II). S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1860, Sp. 410-411 ( woerterbuchnetz.de ).