Christo and Jeanne-Claude
Christo and Jeanne-Claude were an artist couple who became known from the 1960s onwards, primarily for their jointly realized spectacular wrapping projects.
Christo (born June 13, 1935 in Gabrovo , Bulgaria , as Христо Владимиров Явашев , transcriptions : German Christo Wladimirow Jawaschew , English Christo Vladimirov Javacheff ; † May 31, 2020 in New York City ) became known after joining Pierre Restany in 1960 and Yves Klein founded the group “ Nouveau Réalisme"(" New Realism "), although he was never an official member of the group. As with most of the protagonists of the sociologically inspired conception of art that emerged from the Nouveau Réalisme, his art originally developed from assemblage (see also: object art ).
Christo later realized, together with his wife Jeanne-Claude (born June 13, 1935 in Casablanca , French Morocco , as Jeanne-Claude Denat de Guillebon ; † November 18, 2009 in New York City ) wrapping actions on buildings and large-scale projects in landscaped areas, industrial objects or known structures. He is described as the artist, she as the organizer. In 1995 both denied this distinction.
In Germany, the artist couple became particularly popular with the wrapping of the Berlin Reichstag building in 1995. The life's work of Christ was honored by the federal government after his death in 2020. State Minister for Culture Monika Grütters (CDU) wrote on Twitter that Christo had “taught people around the world to see in a new and clearer way.” Federal Foreign Minister Heiko Maas (SPD) said that Christo and Jeanne-Claude had “enriched our world with art” . With the wrapping of the Reichstag, Christo set "a spectacular monument to our reunited country," said the Federal Foreign Minister on Twitter.
Christo was born on June 13, 1935 as Christo Wladimirow Jawaschew in Gabrovo ( Bulgaria ). He was the second of the three sons of Vladimir Jawaschew and Tsveta Dimitrova. His older brother is the actor Anani Jawaschew . “Christo's grandfather had founded a chemical factory in Gabrovo, which his father continued to run. His mother Tzveta Dimitrova, who came from a wealthy family from Thessaloniki and fled to Bulgaria in 1913 after the Greek massacres of Bulgarians during the Second Balkan War , was general secretary of the Academy of Fine Arts in Sofia until her marriage in 1931 Christ took his first drawing and painting lessons. Artists from the academy often visited the Jawaschews and taught Christo, whose artistic talent was noticed early on. He discovered his passion for handling large lengths of fabric during his youth in his father's factory. It was here that he made drawings of large balls of fabric for the first time. During World War II, Christo's parents lived with the family - younger brother Stefan is a chemist - in a "relatively safe country house that became a refuge for artists and other friends of the family when the cities were bombed by the Allies". After the war, Christo's father was harassed by the new communist regime and his chemical plant was nationalized.
Christo had a penchant for the theater and directed plays by William Shakespeare in his youth . Here his organizational talent became clear. Christo studied at the Academy of Arts in Sofia from 1953 to 1956. Then he went to Prague and “managed to get to Vienna by train . […] A friend of his father's gave him a friendly welcome ”. After a semester at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna and a stay in Geneva , Christo went to Paris in March 1958 .
“He continued to earn his living with portraits, which he signed with 'Javacheff'.” A benefactor recommended him to General de Guillebon's wife, “which he portrayed in three versions - in a realistic, impressionistic and cubist manner”. The daughter of the De Guillebons, Jeanne-Claude, fell in love with Christ and had to assert herself against her parents. In the early days in Paris there was also the step that was to become "groundbreaking and formative" for Christo's art:
“He began to veil. Christo covered cans, bottles, chairs, a car - everything he could find, everyday objects that were neither particularly beautiful nor interesting. He tacitly assumed that every, but also every object could have its place in art. For him there were no hierarchies of artistic forms of expression and content. "
Christo visited many exhibitions and museums, was inspired by Joan Miró and especially by Jean Dubuffet . His packaged cans and bottles , which he surrounded with resin-soaked canvas, tied and treated with glue, varnish, sand and car paint, became known in 1958/59 . In 1960 he left off any painting and thus ended his inventory series. His coverings were a "revelation through concealment" ( David Bourdon ). In autumn of the year Niki de Saint Phalle and Jean Tinguely visited his studio.
During this time Christo met the German entrepreneur and art collector Dieter Rosenkranz , who bought some of his wrappings. When he visited Rosenkranz in Cologne in 1961 to attend his first solo exhibition there, he met John Cage , Nam June Paik and Mary Bauermeister . But for the time being, little was known about his disguise.
Christo died on May 31, 2020 at his home in New York City.
Jeanne-Claude was born in Casablanca on June 13, 1935 on the same day as Christo . She first grew up with her father's family. After the end of the war in 1945, she came back into the care of her mother Précilda. In 1946 her mother married the influential General Jacques de Guillebon. From 1945 to 1952 the family lived in Paris , from 1952 to 1957, due to Jacques de Guillebon's professional obligations, in Tunisia and from 1957 back in Paris. Jeanne-Claude obtained her Baccalauréat in Latin and Philosophy with distinction in Tunis in 1952 and then began training as a flight attendant at Air France .
The artist couple
Getting to know each other and getting married
After Christo had received the commission for the portraits of Précilda de Guillebon in October 1958, he met Jeanne-Claude in the family.
The parents wanted to
“'Christ as a son, not as a son-in-law', but soon the two were living together, and when they got married, Christo's friend Pierre Restany was […] best man. 'Of course I could say that art was the decisive moment,' says Jeanne-Claude, 'but in fact he was a devilishly good lover.' "
Before that, however, Jeanne-Claude had already got engaged to her boyfriend Philippe Planchon, and the marriage with Philippe also took place. After the honeymoon, however, Christo's pregnant Jeanne-Claude separated from her husband. Christos and Jeanne-Claude's son Cyril was born on May 11, 1960. Jeanne-Claude's parents slowly began to reconcile with their daughter and became interested in their grandchild.
First joint project in 1961
In 1961 Christo and Jeanne-Claude started their first project together.
“1961 was also the year in which, on August 13, the construction of the Berlin Wall began. 'Christo - himself a refugee from a communist country and a stateless person without a passport - was deeply troubled and full of anger over this measure by the East Berlin regime. When he returned to Paris from Cologne in October 1961, he began to prepare for his personal answer to the construction of the wall, the wall made of oil barrels - the iron curtain . '"
The couple suggested that the authorities block rue Visconti, a side street off the rue de Seine, with stacked oil barrels. When a permit was not granted, they blocked the Rue de Visconti with 89 oil barrels on June 27, 1962, even without official approval. "Christo carried each of these barrels himself." Jeanne-Claude was able to hold out the approaching police officers, and later both were interrogated at the station. Christo and Jeanne-Claude married on November 28, 1962.
Move to New York
In February 1964, Christo and Jeanne-Claude arrived in New York . After a brief return to Europe, they finally relocated to the United States in September . They only had a tourist visa, so they lived in the city as illegals until they were able to get a green card in 1967 . Christo exhibited in a number of well-known galleries, including Castelli in New York and Schmela in Düsseldorf. Christo and Jeanne-Claude initially had difficulties settling in their new country. There were language barriers, they were in debt and did not yet have an apartment. After a long search, they found a run-down place that they had to renovate for two months, which led to the mountain of debt growing. In the same year Christo began to manufacture shop fronts true to scale, the windows of which he covered with fabric or paper and thus blocked the view of the interior. The next larger project was a huge 1200 m³ air package, which was realized in 1966 with the help of students.
Projects from 1968
Christo and Jeanne-Claude designed their projects together and also implemented them independently. They did not take orders or accept any subsidies. They also financed all works from their own resources. In addition, Christo continuously created new drawings during the design phase, which represented the respective planning status. The artists generated the finances for their projects from the sale of the drawings, the prints made from them and the rights to photos of the works. In 2014 Christo commented on his work with the following words: “It is totally irrational and senseless.” Millions of people were nevertheless fascinated by the beauty of the buildings and landscapes transformed into abstract objects.
"5600 cubic meter package"
In 1968 Christo and Jeanne-Claude got the opportunity to take part in documenta IV in Kassel . Your contribution consisted of an elongated balloon, popularly known as "Wurst" in Kassel, with a volume of 5600 m³. The first attempt to erect the large balloon, which consisted of a white, semi-transparent envelope, with the help of a smaller balloon inside the large balloon, which was filled with helium, failed: the polyethylene skin burst as a result of a strong gust of wind that depressed the balloon. After several repairs and finally the complete replacement of the shell (the new one was made of thicker gray Trevira ), the project could be realized. The “package” stood for two months and cost Christo and Jeanne-Claude $ 70,000, which they raised themselves with great effort. The entire process of assembly, failure and final assembly is documented in a photo book.
At the end of 1969, Jeanne-Claude and Christo covered a stretch of coast in Australia with the help of 130 helpers who invested a total of 17,000 hours of work . 93,000 m² of synthetic fabric and 56 km of rope were laid. After initial resistance from the authorities and the public, the reactions after the completion of the project were largely positive. Christo and Jeanne-Claude complemented each other in their work: Christo brought artistic skills, Jeanne-Claude organizational talent; however, they all made decisions together. This division of labor, which was originally claimed, was intentional, but on September 4, 1995, Jeanne-Claude revealed at a press conference on the occasion of a Christo work exhibition in Bonndorf in the Black Forest :
"Up until two years ago we gave the public the impression that we had a strict division of labor - we felt that this is how we are stronger."
He is the wounderful angel artist and she is the administrator, dealer, be careful with her! And now we are 60 years old and we feel strong enough to tell the truth [...]
Christo commented: " No, no there was no division - we did everything together, even the ideas [...] "
At the end of 1970, Christo and Jeanne-Claude began preparing for the “Valley Curtain” project. A curtain should be stretched through a 400 m wide valley of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado . The curtain reached a height of up to 111 meters. There were some issues with getting permits for the project, with environmentalists, and funding the proposed $ 230,000 budget. The 18,600 m² orange-colored nylon fabric was to be hung on a steel cable that was to be anchored to the slopes with the help of concrete foundations.
200 tons of concrete had to be carried manually in buckets onto each slope. The budget went up to $ 400,000 and the Christos had yet another problem with funding. After all, you could sell enough artwork to raise the money. On October 10, 1971, the orange colored curtain could be hung up. But the attempt failed because the curtain was torn to pieces by the wind and rocks (the German photographer Wolfgang Volz was just able to take a picture). The artist couple decided to have a new curtain made and try again. Meanwhile, Christo received a postcard from a Berlin architect with the suggestion to cover the Berlin Reichstag building. As early as 1961, Christo had the idea of wrapping a public building, namely a parliament. Christo liked the idea and grappled with it. On August 10, 1972, the second attempt to install the curtain was successful, but only 28 hours later it had to be dismantled again due to a storm approaching at a speed of 100 km / h.
The work was documented in the short film Christo's Valley Curtain (1974).
In 1973, after 17 years of statelessness, Christo received US citizenship. In addition, preparations began in the same year for “Running Fence”, a 5.5 m high fence made of fabric strips supported by steel posts and steel cables, which should run 39.5 km through the Californian landscape and finally flow into the sea. For the project, farm workers had to be convinced and permits had to be obtained from the authorities. For this, Christo and Jeanne-Claude hired nine lawyers. At the end of 1974 Christo marked out the course of the fence with wooden stakes.
It was not until April 29, 1976 that work began after a long struggle against the bureaucracy. 160,000 m² of nylon fabric, 2050 steel piles and 145 km of steel cable were required. The work was completed on September 10th. Christo and Jeanne-Claude had to pay a fine of 60,000 US dollars because they did not have a permit for the coastal region.
Wrapped park paths
In 1977 Christo and Jeanne-Claude dealt with the refinancing of the loans and the saving of money. They also planned future projects such as the wrapping of the Reichstag , the wrapping of the Pont Neuf in Paris and the "Wrapped Walk Ways" project, a wrapping of footpaths in Loose Park in Kansas City .
In November Christo met his mother for the first time in 20 years. In “Wrapped Walk Ways”, Christo and Jeanne-Claude covered 4.5 km of the park's footpaths. A total of 12,500 m² of saffron yellow shimmering nylon fabric was required. The pedestrians enjoyed the work of art for two weeks in October 1977. The cost was $ 130,000.
Starting in 1980, the Christos planned a project based on Jeanne-Claude's idea, in which eleven islands in Biscayne Bay between Miami , North Miami and Miami Beach were lined with floating pink polypropylene fabric. This required 603,850 m² of polypropylene, which was fastened with anchors. Christo's father died during the work in 1983. The work of art was completed on May 7th with the help of 500 helpers and could be seen for two weeks.
Wrapped Pont Neuf
On March 14, 1984, Jeanne-Claude also received US citizenship, but was allowed to keep her French passport. In August, after nine years of negotiations with the Mayor of Paris , Jacques Chirac , the artist couple received approval to cover the Pont Neuf . 40,000 m² of sand-colored polyamide fabric were required to cover the oldest Parisian bridge . The wrapping began on August 25, 1985 and ended on September 22nd. During the preparatory work in Paris, the artist couple lived on the converted barge owned by Roswitha Doerig , a Swiss artist. Around three million people visited the project over the next two weeks. The French post office honored the occasion with a special postage stamp.
"The Umbrellas", Japan - USA
In December 1990, after a long period of preparation, the first bases for the umbrellas were laid. The bases were attached to the ground with 80 cm long anchors that were supposed to withstand tensile forces of 1500 kg. The bases were transported by helicopter so as not to destroy the country. The cost of the project was $ 26 million. In September 1991 the umbrellas were put in place by a total of 1,880 helpers.
On September 7th, 1,340 blue umbrellas were set up in Ibaraki and the 1,760 yellow umbrellas in California and opened on September 9th. A total of three million visitors viewed the 6 m high and 8.66 m diameter umbrellas.
Jeanne-Claude and Christo had to work for 23 years until the Reichstag building in Berlin was wrapped. With the support of the then President of the Bundestag Rita Süssmuth , the Christos did a lot of work to convince the members of the German Bundestag and wrote explanations by letter to all 662 MPs. They also made countless phone calls and negotiations. The most prominent opponents of the veil were Helmut Kohl and Wolfgang Schäuble . They were convinced that the German Reichstag did not need to be revalued by covering it up and found the offer to be an insult.
On February 25, 1994, after a lengthy and sometimes very emotional debate , the German Bundestag voted by roll call on the project and approved it with 292 votes in favor (with 223 votes against, 9 abstentions and one invalid vote). More than 100,000 m² of fireproof polypropylene fabric covered with an aluminum layer and 15,600 m of rope were now required. The fabric was produced by the Schilgen company in Emsdetten in the Münsterland , as was later also used for the veiled trees , The Gates and The Floating Piers . A large part of the lengths of fabric were sewn together in the company "Bieri-Zeltaplan" in Taucha near Leipzig . The wrapping began on June 17, 1995 and was completed on June 24. 90 professional climbers and many other helpers took part in the assembly. The dismantling took place on July 7th. Five million visitors attended the project during the campaign.
After 32 years of preparatory work, Christo and Jeanne-Claude covered 178 trees between November 13 and December 14, 1998 in Riehen, northeast of Basel, in the “Berower Park” of the Beyeler Foundation .
The artist couple used 55,000 m² of silver-gray shimmering polyester fabric and 23 km of rope as wrapping material. An extra pattern was made for each individual tree. The natural shape of the branches pushed the fabric outwards and thus drew individual shapes in the sky. The height of the constructions varied between 2.0 m and 25.0 m, the width between 1.0 m and almost 15.0 m.
As with their other projects, Christo and Jeanne-Claude only financed their work by selling original works. All materials were recycled after dismantling.
From February 12 to 27, 2005, there were a total of 7503 metal gates on the paths of Central Park in New York City , from which panels of saffron-yellow fabric hung. In total, just over 100,000 m² of fabric was specially produced and used. The gates were each five meters high and spread over a total distance of 37 km. There are parallels in color and to the arrangement of the torii in the Fushimi Inari Taisha shrine in Japan.
The cost of the project was $ 21 million, which was paid in full by Christo and Jeanne-Claude through the sale of studies, drawings, collages, works from the 1950s and 1960s, and original lithographs of other works.
As with all projects, they did not accept any sponsorship money, and the City of New York did not have to contribute any money to the project. In addition, Christo and Jeanne-Claude have assigned all income from the sale of souvenirs such as postcards, T-shirts, posters, etc. to the nature conservation organization “Nurture New York's Nature Inc.”. In order to avoid vandalism, around 600 paid helpers distributed a million 7 cm × 7 cm pieces of the material from the Emsdetter company Schilgen used for the project to the visitors free of charge. In this project, too, a large part of the lengths of fabric was sewn together in the "Bieri-Zeltaplan" company in Taucha near Leipzig.
The approval process for this work of art started in 1979. It could only be realized by the new mayor of New York, Michael Bloomberg .
"Big Air Package"
From March 16 to December 30, 2013, Christo filled the Oberhausen gasometer with the “Big Air Package” installation. After the final installation “The Wall” (1999) for the International Building Exhibition Emscher Park, it was his second work of art in the Gasometer. The "Big Air Package - Project for Gasometer Oberhausen, Germany" was designed by Christo in 2010 (for the first time without his wife Jeanne-Claude).
The sculpture inside the highest exhibition hall in Europe was made from 20,350 m² of translucent fabric and 4500 meters of rope in Lübeck by the company geo • die Luftwerker . When inflated, the sculpture, weighing over five tons, reached a height of 90 meters, a diameter of 50 m and a volume of 177,000 m³. This meant that the fabric cover should temporarily be the largest self-supporting sculpture in the world. In the accessible interior of the “Big Air Package”, the artist created an experience of space, size and light.
"The Floating Piers"
Footbridges made of around 200,000 polyethylene elements with floats, covered with 75,000 m² of dahlia-yellow fabric, were accessible from the shores of Lake Iseo in Italy and led to the two islands of Monte Isola and Isola di San Paolo . The three kilometer long, 16 meter wide and 50 centimeter high bridges, which were anchored with a total of 200 hooks, extended into the pedestrian zones of Sulzano on the mainland shore and Peschiera Maraglio on Monte Isola. In April 2015 Christo presented his plans to realize the project without public funding and without entrance fee with 500 employees and volunteers. The object only lasted 16 days and should then be recycled. The opening took place on June 18, 2016. Occasional storms and the enormous number of visitors on the weekends sometimes led to chaotic conditions. The installation was then closed between midnight and 6 a.m. for cleaning and repairs. The project ended on July 3, 2016 and the number of visitors was estimated at 1.3 million people over the entire duration. The Floating Piers were the first major project that Christo completed without his wife. The cost of the realization was given as 19.5 million US dollars, completely financed by Christo himself.
"The London Mastaba"
In 2018, a smaller version was implemented in London's Hyde Park . The specific plans were announced on April 3, 2018. Work started on this day. This was the first time Christo was producing in Great Britain . The sculpture in the form of the ancient Egyptian tomb is 20 m high, 30 m wide and 40 m long and thus linearly reduced to one seventh compared to the original project. It consists of 7506 oil barrels. The sculpture was on view from June 18 to September 23, 2018.
"L'Arc de Triomphe, Wrapped"
The implementation, originally planned for April 2020, was initially postponed to autumn for nature conservation reasons, as falcons nest at L'Arc de Triomphe in spring. Meanwhile, Christo died in May 2020. The planned implementation of the project was adhered to, but due to the COVID-19 pandemic in France , the date had to be postponed again to autumn 2021.
The triumphal arch was covered by his nephew with 25,000 m² of recyclable, silver-blue fabric that was made in Germany. As conceived by the artist, the cover is held in place by 7,000 m of red ropes. The campaign runs from September 18 to October 3, 2021.
"Over the River"
The plan was to span the Arkansas River in the US state of Colorado with free-floating, silvery webs of fabric. There are many bridges, rocks and trees on the affected section of the river between Canon City and Salida , so that of the total of more than 60 km, only about 11 km should be spanned: The lengths of fabric should be attached to ropes stretched between the river banks and several meters above the river Hanging water surface so that one could still have rafted on the river . The project was in preparation from 1992.
After years of complicated approval process (Environmental Impact Statement) , Christo received approval from the United States Department of the Interior to implement the project in November 2011 . In July 2012, Christo announced that it would have to postpone the project indefinitely due to ongoing legal proceedings. The opponents of the project had previously sued the US government for granting the permit. The approval process is now under review by the United States Supreme Court . The total cost of the project (approval process, materials, labor, etc.) was estimated at around 50 million US dollars, which should be borne entirely by Christo.
On January 25, 2017, Christo published a statement that he no longer wanted to wait for a decision, but wanted to put all his energy, time and resources into realizing the The Mastaba project in the future. This decision is a protest against the assumption of the US presidency by Donald Trump a few days earlier: “Here the US federal government is our landlord. She owns the land. I can't do a project that will benefit this landlord, ”Christo told the New York Times .
In the desert east of the Liwa oasis in Abu Dhabi , a sculpture was to be created from 410,000 oil barrels stacked horizontally . It should represent an Egyptian mastaba and should be 300 m wide, 225 m deep and 150 m high. The planning began in 1977, but was inactive for a long time due to the difficult political situation. In 2016, negotiations about the implementation started again.
Since a sculpture from this number of oil barrels cannot be stacked as a solid body, only the outer surfaces should be formed from the barrels and mounted on a supporting frame. It would have been Christo and Jeanne-Claude's first project that would not have been limited in time and, due to its immense costs of approximately half a billion US dollars, could not have been paid for by the artists themselves as usual. The converted volume would have been around 6,470,000 m³.
Christo realized a smaller version in London's Hyde Park in 2018.
Chronology of the most important works of art and projects
(Title in German translation)
- 1961: Stacked oil barrels and wrappings in the harbor , Cologne harbor
- 1962: The Iron Curtain - wall made of oil barrels , Rue Visconti , Paris, 1961–1962
- 1964: shop fronts
- 1968: 5,600 cubic meter package , 4th documenta , Kassel , 1967–1968
- 1968: Wrapped fountain and tower , Spoleto
- 1968: Wrapped Kunsthalle Bern
- 1969: Veiled Coast , Little Bay, Australia (see above)
- 1969: Amerika-Haus Heidelberg , German-American Institute Heidelberg , May 15, 1969
- 1969: Wrapped Museum of Contemporary Art , Chicago
- 1970: Wrapped monument to Vittorio Emanuele , Piazza del Duomo, Milan, 1969–1970
- 1970: Veiled monument to Leonardo da Vinci , Piazza della Scala, Milan, 1969–1970
- 1970: Wrapped Living Space the Futuro House by Charles Wilp on the roof of his house
- 1971: project mon SCHAU in Monschau in the Eifel
- 1972: Valley Curtain , Grand Hogback, Rifle, Colorado , 1970–1972 (see above)
- 1972: Participation in documenta 5 in Kassel
- 1974: Ocean Front , Newport, Rhode Island
- 1974: Wrapped Roman city wall ( Porta Pinciana ), Rome , 1973–1974
- 1976: Running Fence , Sonoma and Marin Counties, California , 1972–1976 (see above)
- 1977: Participation in documenta 6 in Kassel
- 1978: Wrapped Park Paths , Loose Park, Kansas City , 1977–1978 (see above)
- 1983: Edged Islands , Biscayne Bay, Greater Miami , Florida , 1980–1983 (see above)
- 1985: The veiled Pont Neuf , Paris, 1975–1985 (see above)
- 1991: The Umbrellas , Japan - USA , 1984–1991 (see above)
- 1995: Wrapped Reichstag , Berlin , 1971–1995
- 1998: Veiled trees , Fondation Beyeler and Berower Park, Riehen, 1997–1998
- 1999: The Wall, 13,000 oil barrels , Oberhausen Gasometer , Oberhausen , 1999
- 2005: The Gates , Central Park , New York City , 1979-2005 (see above)
- 2013: Large air package , Oberhausen Gasometer , Oberhausen , 2013
- 2016: The Floating Piers , Lake Iseo (Italy), 2016
- 2018: The Mastaba , London, 2018
- 2021: L'Arc de Triomphe, Wrapped , Paris, 2021 (posthumous)
Art historical classification
As early as 1920, the surrealist , painter, photographer and object artist Man Ray covered and tied a sewing machine and named the work of art Das Rätsel des Isidore Ducasse . The veiled object was not an isolated case in Ray's work; he repeatedly dealt with the subject of packaging, veiling and the hidden. Even Henry Moore introduced in 1942 the issue of concealment in his drawing crowd that considered a tied object represents.
The monumental works by Christo and Jeanne-Claude only leave behind “afterimages” in the form of film, photography, sketches and collages. According to the art historian Werner Spies , your works are stored in memory alone. It is an ecological aesthetic that pays tribute to the ephemeral and ephemeral by not adding more monuments to an already crammed world.
- In 1987 Christo received the Goslarer Kaiserring .
- In 2011 the artist couple Christo were jointly elected a member (NA) of the National Academy in New York .
- In 2014 Christo received the 49th Theodor Heuss Prize from the Theodor Heuss Foundation . The reasoning states: "With the subtle provocation on the monumental object, he breaks ways of thinking and seeing and thus corresponds in an outstanding way to this year's annual theme of the Theodor Heuss Foundation Art breaks up ."
sorted alphabetically by authors / editors
To the early work
- Lawrence Alloway : Christ. Harry N. Abrams Publishing House, New York 1971.
- David Bourdon : Christ. Harry N. Abrams Publishing House, New York 1971.
- Thomas Kellein: Assembling the attractions: Christos Cologne beginnings to major projects (= Werner's art history 1). Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft, Worms 1986, ISBN 978-3-88462-501-9
- Matthias Koddenberg: Christo: The Paris Sculptures 1961. Kettler Verlag, Bönen 2011.
- Matthias Koddenberg: Christo and Jeanne-Claude: Early Works 1958–1964. Kettler Verlag, Bönen 2009.
- Matthias Koddenberg: Christo and Jeanne-Claude: Realism's newly revealed face. In: Nouveau Réalisme. Exhibition catalog Museum of Modern Art Ludwig Foundation, Vienna 2005.
- Christo and Jeanne-Claude: Early Works 1958–1969. Taschen Verlag, Cologne 2001.
- Ute Seiderer: "Wrapped Portraits", "Wrapped Women". Christo's early work between packaging and concealment. In this. and Michael Fisch (ed.): Skin and shell - envelope and packaging. Enclosing and disguising techniques. Rotbuch Verlag, Berlin, 2014, pp. 73–89.
Life and work of Christo and Jeanne-Claude
- Annely Juda Fine Art (Ed.): Christo and Jeanne-Claude: 40 Years - 12 Exhibitions . Exhibition catalog, London 2011.
- Jacob Baal-Teshuva: Christo and Jeanne-Claude. Taschen Verlag, Cologne 2005.
- Paul Goldberger: Christo and Jeanne-Claude. Updated edition. Taschen Verlag, Cologne 2019, ISBN 978-3-8365-6699-5 .
- Matthias Koddenberg and Jörg Schellmann : Christo and Jeanne-Claude: Prints and Objects 1963–2013. (Catalog raisonné)
- Matthias Koddenberg: Christo and Jeanne-Claude: In / Out Studio. Verlag Kettler, Dortmund 2015, ISBN 978-3-86206-344-4 .
- NN: Christo and Jeanne Claude: International Projects - Würth Collection . Swiridoff Verlag, Künzelsau 2004.
- Burt Chernow: Christo and Jeanne-Claude: A Biography . Publishing house Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne 2000.
- Jacob Baal-Teshuva: Christo and Jeanne-Claude. The Reichstag and urban projects. (Catalog for the exhibition, Suermondt-Ludwig-Museum Aachen, 1995) Prestel, Munich, ISBN 3-7913-1307-X .
- Christo & Jeanne-Claude, Wolfgang Volz , Jonathan William Henery: Christo and Jeanne-Claude. The Floating Piers, Vs. 1. Taschen Verlag, Cologne 2016, ISBN 978-3-8365-4786-4
- NN: Christo: 5,600 cubic meter package . Verlag Wort und Bild, Baierbrunn 1968.
- NN: Christo and Jeanne-Claude: Swiss Projects 1968–1998. Exhibition catalog. CentrePasquArt, Biel 2004.
- NN: Christo and Jeanne-Claude: Wrapped Reichstag, Berlin, 1971–1995. Taschen Verlag, Cologne 1995.
- Werner Spies : Christo and Jeanne Claude. Shifting the boundaries of utopia. Berlin University Press, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-940432-94-0 .
- Anne L. Strauss: Christo and Jeanne-Claude: The Gates, Central Park, New York City, 1979-2005. Taschen Verlag, Cologne 2005.
- 2005: On the way to over the River , about Christo and Jeanne-Claude, by Wolfram Hissen and Jörg Daniel Hissen.
- 2018: Christo: Walking on Water , about The Floating Piers Installation on Lake Iseo , by Andrey Paounov
- The official website of Christo and Jeanne-Claude (Authorized by the artists)
- Literature by and about Christ in the catalog of the German National Library
- Literature by and about Jeanne-Claude in the catalog of the German National Library
- Christo and Jeanne-Claude in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- Photos documenta IV
- Speeches from the 211th session of the German Bundestag (to cover the Reichstag)
- Wolfgang Volz: Photographs of the works of Christo and Jeanne-Claude
- “Together we are inseparable. Christo and Jeanne-Claude at 70 ” , Der Tagesspiegel , June 13, 2005
- Materials by and about Christ in the documenta archive
- Artist Christo dies shortly before his 85th birthday NZZ on May 31, 2020
- ARD teletext page 411 " Wrapping artist Christo tot " from the field of culture: news . ARD. June 1, 2020. Archived from the original on June 1, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- Christ's companion - artist Jeanne-Claude is dead . Spiegel Online , November 19, 2009; Retrieved November 19, 2009
- ARD teletext page 413 " Background: Christo - Chronology " from the field of culture: news . ARD. June 1, 2020. Archived from the original on June 1, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- interview: Barbara Rose interview with Christo , March 2014.
- at a press conference in Bonndorf Castle - broadcast by TV Eichberg, former local broadcaster in the district of Waldshut, in the October 1995 broadcast. Excerpt from the interview (April 25, 2014), (see also section “ Veiled Coast ”).
- ARD teletext page 414 " Federal government honors Christo " from the field of culture: news . . ARD text. June 1, 2020. Archived from the original on June 1, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- Quotations in the section: Jacob Baal-Teshuva: Christo & Jeanne-Claude , with photographs by Wolfgang Volz. Benedikt Taschen Verlag, Cologne 1995, p. 13 ff. ISBN 3-8228-8795-1 .
- Rayna Breuer: Why Christo left Bulgaria , Deutsche Welle
- Biography Christo and Jeanne-Claude (PDF; 32 kB)
- Manuela Hoelterhoff: Jeanne-Claude - Christo's Dynamic Muse , Bloomberg. November 20, 2009.
- Jok Church: Christo and Jeanne-Claude. In: christojeanneclaude.net. Retrieved November 21, 2009 .
- Jacob Baal-Teshuva: Christo & Jeanne-Claude. Cologne 1995, p. 17.
- Louisa Buck: Christo: Alone but undaunted . In: The Art Newspaper , June 18, 2018; accessed on June 2, 2019.
- ARD teletext page 412 " Portrait: Christo " from the area of culture: news . ARD. June 1, 2020. Archived from the original on June 1, 2020. Retrieved June 1, 2020.
- Broadcast from TV Eichberg, former local broadcaster in the district of Waldshut, in the October 1995 broadcast. Excerpt from the interview: youtube.com (April 25, 2014)
- Le Pont-Neuf emballé par Christo en 1985. Baudelet.net, accessed on June 1, 2010
- Marion Kretz-Mangold, Wolfgang Volz: Interview on the Christo project. "The greatest sculpture that was ever created". In: wdr.de. June 14, 2012, accessed July 7, 2016 .
- Big Air Package. In: christojeanneclaude.net. Retrieved July 7, 2016 .
- Big Air Package. New project with packaging artist Christo. In: geo-dieluftwerker.de. Retrieved July 7, 2016 .
- Lübeck airworkers produce new Christo artwork. (No longer available online.) In: hamburg.sat1regional.de. November 19, 2012, archived from the original on November 12, 2013 ; Retrieved July 7, 2016 .
- Project "Floating Piers" in Italy - Walking across the water with Christo and Setex. In: Deutschlandfunk. June 17, 2016, accessed June 18, 2016 .
- Christo becomes a bridge builder: an invitation to stroll across the water. In: ORF.at. April 27, 2015, accessed May 6, 2015 .
- Christo wants tourists to walk across the water of Lake Iseo. In: derStandard.at . April 27, 2015, accessed May 6, 2015 .
- "The Floating Piers": Christo installation triggers visitor chaos. In: Zeit Online. June 22, 2016. Retrieved July 7, 2016 .
- Alexander Menden: "Mastaba" in Hyde Park - large, colorful and suitable for selfies. Süddeutsche Zeitung , June 18, 2018.
- Christo creates artwork in London's Hyde Park orf.at, April 3, 2018, accessed April 3, 2018.
- Almost covered. In: faz.net. September 13, 2021, accessed September 16, 2021 .
- Caution, no photography! Or? , Süddeutsche Zeitung , November 27, 2019, accessed on September 19, 2021.
- Jürgen Neffe: He thinks she steers . In: Der Spiegel . No. 48 , 1996 ( online - About the artist couple Christo and Jeanne-Claude and their project “Over The River”).
- Christo gives up Colorado project "Over the River" . orf.at , January 26, 2017; Retrieved January 6, 2017
- Christ cancels artwork in the USA . deutschlandfunk.de , Kultur heute , January 26, 2017 (January 27, 2017)
- Projects | Christo and Jeanne-Claude: The Mastaba, Project for the United Arab Emirates. NoFavorite, accessed June 12, 2016 .
- The Mastaba swims in Hyde Park. Retrieved March 22, 2019 .
- Two further examples from the Smithsonian American Art Museum in Washington, DC: Autoportrait (1933) - the bronze self-portrait, partly covered with newspapers and placed in a wooden box; Le Voyeur (1965) - a cigar box with a peephole.
- Werner Spies: On the border to the wonder of the world . In: FAZ , January 9, 2010.
- Kaiserring bearer. 1987 Christ. Mönchehaus Museum Goslar, accessed on June 2, 2020 .
- National Academicians: "Christo" . ( Memento of April 2, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) nationalacademy.org; accessed on March 13, 2015
- Theodor Heuss Prize. ( Memento from February 22, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Theodor Heuss Foundation; accessed on February 6, 2014
- Walking on Water in the Internet Movie Database (English)