Guy de Maupassant

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Guy de Maupassant
Company de Maupassant.jpg

Henry René Albert Guy de Maupassant [ gidəmopɑˈsã ] (born August 5, 1850 at Miromesnil Castle in Tourville-sur-Arques , Normandy ; †  July 6, 1893 in Passy , Paris ) was a French writer and journalist . Along with Stendhal , Balzac , Flaubert and Zola, Maupassant is one of the great French storytellers of the 19th century. He is also one of the most widely filmed writers.

Life and work

Guy de Maupassant at the age of 7

Childhood and youth

Contrary to the popular belief that the Norman port town of Fécamp was his birthplace, according to recent research (2005) Maupassant was born at Miromesnil Castle in Tourville-sur-Arques near Dieppe , which did not belong to his family, but which they rented in 1849. However, he spent most of his childhood in Fécamp. His mother, Laure Le Poittevin, was the sister of a childhood friend of Gustave Flaubert , his father a privateer from a new aristocratic family who soon ruined himself through his lavish lifestyle (which is why, among other things, the castle was quickly abandoned) and his wife also through affairs angry. When his father had to work as a bank clerk in Paris in 1859, his mother separated from him shortly afterwards and went back to Normandy with Guy and his younger brother Hervé, in the up-and-coming seaside resort of Étretat .

As a boarding school student, Maupassant first attended the Catholic seminary (petit séminaire) in the district town of Yvetot , where not only prospective priests were taught, but felt uncomfortable there. As a schoolboy he made literary attempts and was expelled from school at 17 for a cheeky poem. He switched to the state high school in Rouen , where he was looked after by another childhood friend of Flaubert, the now forgotten author Louis Bouilhet , and also met Flaubert himself, who later became a fatherly friend to him. In October 1868 he saved the life of the poet Algernon Charles Swinburne on the coast of Étretat in Normandy.

After graduating from the Baccalauréat in 1869, he began to study law in Paris and lived with his father. But he had to interrupt it because he was drafted after the beginning of the Franco-Prussian War. Although he did not come to the fighting troops, he experienced the defeat and the partial occupation of France by the Prussian military first hand.

The literary beginnings

Guy de Maupassant at the beginning of his writing career

After his demobilization in the autumn of 1872, Maupassant did not continue his studies, but instead, thanks to Flaubert's mediation, accepted a post as a middle-class employee, first in the Navy and in 1877 in the Ministry of Education. To compensate for the listless professional activity, he spent his free time rowing a boat on the Seine , combined with various love adventures. Here he became infected with syphilis in 1877 .

In addition to his job and hobby, he was active in various literary genres under Flaubert's guidance, including poetry and plays. But for a long time he published almost nothing. Through Flaubert, who stayed frequently in Paris, he got in touch with Parisian writers, especially in 1875 with Émile Zola , the head of the young school of naturalism . Maupassant's breakthrough as an author was the masterful psychological novella Boule de suif ("Fettklößchen") in 1880 , which appeared in an anthology of anti-militarist stories that Zola, Joris Karl Huysmans and other well-known naturalistic authors had published under the title Les soirées de Médan .


After the success of Boule de suif , Maupassant largely gave up the production of lyrical and dramatic texts. Over the next twelve years, with rapidly growing prestige and income, he mainly wrote narrative works. In total, he made about 300 short stories and 6 novels, but not all of them were finished. His three travel books, a volume of poetry and a volume of plays were rather by-products. Thanks to his success, he was able to give up his post at the end of 1880, build a house in Étretat in 1883 and buy a sailing yacht in 1885.

The actions of the narrative works, which are mostly close to naturalism, take place predominantly in the native Normandy and in Paris. The place of first publication was usually the feature section of Parisian magazines such as Le Gaulois and Gil Blas . The novels Une Vie (1883) and above all Bel-Ami (1885), which is autobiographical in many ways , are still read today - in addition to numerous stories that are obligatory for school reading . Une Vie describes the disappointment of all young girls' hopes and the social decline of a noble woman from around 15 to around 50 years of age. Bel-Ami shows the decisive years of a young man of petty-bourgeois origin (who was visibly unloved and admired by Maupassant as a figure at the same time), who, through his happiness with women, but also through energy, skill and ambition, went from provincial and small office worker to successful Parisian journalist, Son-in-law of a wealthy newspaper publisher and future politician. The novel Pierre et Jean (1887/88), which some consider his best, has become less well known .

In addition to his literary texts, Maupassant wrote numerous political - mostly government-critical - articles (so-called chroniques ) for Paris newspapers . He is one of the group of artists who opposed the erection of the Eiffel Tower in the years before 1889 . At the same time he led a troubled existence alongside his writing. He had different lovers (with whom he had three children), often stayed at his house in Étretat, made three long trips to North Africa , lived temporarily in Cannes and Antibes and from there made trips on his yacht Bel-Ami .

Early end

Maupassant's grave in the Montparnasse cemetery

Obviously, he was aware of the likelihood of an early death due to his syphilis, which darkened his life considerably. He also suffered from fear of going crazy like his brother Hervé. Although his health problems (insomnia, headaches, blurred vision, anxiety, hallucinations, etc.) also increased greatly due to his drug use in the late 1880s, he kept them a secret and worked obsessively. However, his darkening lyrics may reflect his condition.

On New Year's Eve, 1892, he collapsed over dinner with his mother, but soon came to. Despite his mother's requests to stay with her, he returned to Cannes and attempted suicide there. Days later he was admitted to a psychiatric clinic in Passy near Paris , where he died a year and a half later of mental derangement. He was buried in the Montparnasse cemetery in Paris .

Reception and work analysis


For a long time Maupassant was viewed negatively and critically by literary reviewers during his lifetime and afterwards in France. It has often been classified as simple and superficial because of its easy accessibility. The novellas, with which the author became known to a larger audience, played no part in the French literary theoretical discussion. Rather, the novelists were recognized in the literary criticism of the critique traditional . Before the appearance, these included Maupassants Stendhal , Balzac , Flaubert , Zola and others. It was not until the 1960s that Maupassant was radically re-viewed in France as part of the nouvelle critique , by introducing perspectives from other fields of science such as linguistics , anthropology , sociology or philosophy into the literary discussion.

Maupassant was received completely differently abroad. In the United States, his novellas achieved a circulation of 169,000 copies during the author's lifetime, the novels 180,000 copies. Since the middle of the 19th century, a novel theory with criteria that became fundamental for the creation of the "short story" as a genre has developed here. Henry James created the image of Maupassant as the “lion in the path”, the lion who sovereignly dominates his terrain and thus forces everyone else to turn back. From the turn of the 20th century to the present day, American novel theory was strongly oriented towards Maupassant. For similar reasons, Maupassant's work in Germany, England, Italy and Russia also achieved high recognition both in the population and in literary theory. His enduring admirers included Thomas Mann , Heinrich Mann , Tolstoy , Turgenev , Pirandello, and others.

The torment of the creature as a core issue

Maupassant wrote most of his work in an epoch of innate pessimism that grew with the difficulties of existence. Pessimism and resignation were deepened by the lost Franco-German war of 1870/71 and by the influence of the work of Arthur Schopenhauer with his condemnation to suffering. "According to Maupassant, the human being is not a morally acting but a biologically inadequate, instinctively fixed creature of animal shape, in short - an unfinished draft". [...] The feelings that unite people, such as friendship and love, are fragile and not long-lasting, [...] people are isolated and thrown back on themselves. According to Maupassant, society forms the image of an "eternal, all-embracing, indestructible and omnipotent stupidity". The torment of the creature is the basic chord of the Maupassant and his main concern. The "disease of the century" ( mal de siecle ) appears to him as the disease of existence in general. Only a sensitive disposition could be moved by this basic motive. The war of 1870/71 became a decisive experience for Maupassant precisely because of his sensitivity. How much Maupassant's later illness intensified his feelings is unclear.

For the development of the basic theme, Maupassant settles his stories with an objective, extremely precise-sober, present-day narrative style in his own wealth of experience. To this end, he depicts the entire spectrum of French society at the time in the stories and novels: rural-Norman environment (e.g. Die Schnur ), the petty bourgeoisie (e.g. jewelry ), the upper class (e.g. fat dumplings ) , the aristocracy, but also the disenfranchised, the outcasts, the social flotsam of society (e.g. Monsieur Parent ). These include scenes of Norman farmers and fishermen, his own war experiences, his life in Paris as a minor civil servant, rowing boat trips on the Seine on Sundays or his trips to the south of France. In the stories as in the novels, human greed, greed for power, malice and callousness, envy, but also their victims are shown, the victims in their isolation. People are predetermined for their actions by their genetic makeup and social milieu. Maupassant has no solution to this human behavior and usually does not try to show one. His homage to life stands above the negative, life-heavy keynote. This essential element shows in his practiced sense of family. The lived loyalty and affirmation of life to his depressed brother and his mother neutralizes the decomposition of the tendency inherent in pessimism and counteracts the disintegration of society. Even if Maupassant's characters are often determined by blind fatality, with his stories he has created a literary world in which the worst does not always necessarily occur.

Distance to morality

It is the author's ambition to be impartial and objective. This is what is meant when Maupassant is ascribed to naturalism . This is the reason for saying goodbye to romanticism. Maupassant himself says: “The main concern of the novelist is the observation and representation of human passions, good as well as bad. It is not their mission to moralize, scourge, or teach. […] The writer […] seeks to understand the whole complex process of human motives. [...] He is no longer conscientious and no longer an artist when he systematically strives to glorify humanity, to dress it up, to take back what he considers unworthy passions in favor of those who are worthy of him. ”Maupassant therefore pleads for himself as Morally withholding the author, which he was wrongly accused of indifference.

The "plastic" (objective) writers reject direct psychology. Psychology has to be hidden instead of spread out. It becomes “the framework of the work, like the invisible framework in the human body. [...] Because people do not tell us about the motives for their actions. ”According to the law of objectivity, according to which the reader should not feel any movement from the author, Maupassant often presents the reader with the triumph of the mean and animal over the delicate and beautiful. With this he protests against the insensibility, the insensibility of creation. Apparently there is no point in it all, he says. As an anti-romantic, he makes sure that the emotions do not flood the form, that the structure does not fray in the analysis.

At the same time, Maupassant distances himself from the naturalistic image and overcomes it when he emphasizes that a photographic representation of reality is impossible. He declares that depicting the complete truth cannot be fulfilled. Instead, he wants to convey "a complete illusion of truth" without appearing himself.

From the stories to the novels

The novelist Maupassant is fairly consistently placed high above the novelist in literary history. This is not the same as the requirements. Maupassant's own compilation from 1891 shows that the total circulation in France at that time was 169,000 for novels and 180,000 for novels. That means an average circulation of 13,000 for each of the 13 novella volumes. But 30,000 copies for each of the six novels. Maupassant avowedly wanted to move away from the novelist to the novelist. He saw in the novels only preliminary stages to the novel. From 1885 onwards, fewer and fewer novels were published, but the number of novels increased. From 1887 a novel was published annually. The author himself saw the serious genre here. In terms of readership, however, the novels, with the exception of Bel Ami, were supplanted by the novels. One reason is that the socio-critical relevance of Maupassant's novels was rated as low. This restricted view was not overcome until the 1960 / 70s.

In contrast to the novellas, in Maupassant's novels the inherent basic pessimism does not consistently prevail. The two novels Bel Ami and Mont-Oriol are an exception to his otherwise negative attitude. Here individual happiness becomes possible. Money, power and the pursuit of success are worked out as "inauthentic values". If the protagonists can identify with these values, a harmonious becoming one with the world is possible. Maupassant's turn can be explained by his personal, steep phase of success in the mid-1880s. Maupassant's last novels, Pierre et Jean , Fort comme la Mort and Notre Cœur , on the other hand, show the futile, deep search for absolute values and the mood of suffering and the integration into the inevitable of the “fin de siècle”.


Maupassant's great-niece Jeanne Barthélemy de Maupassant married Louis Germain David de Funès de Galarza in 1943, who became known as an actor under the name Louis de Funès .

Works (selection)

Stories or volumes of stories (with a German first edition)

Mademoiselle Fifi
(cover from 1898)
  • La Main d'Écorché (1875; Eng. The Hand of the Dead )
  • Le Donner d'Eau bénite (1876; Eng . The Holy Water Dispenser )
  • Coco, Coco, Coco frait! (1876; German fresh liquorice juice! )
  • Le Mariage du Lieutenant Laré (1877, German The Marriage of Lieutenant Lare )
  • Boule de suif (1880; German fat dumplings 1893)
  • Les Consels d'une Grand mère (1880, Eng . A grandmother's advice )
  • La Maison Tellier (1881; German The Tellier House or The House of Joy 1893)
  • Histoire d'une Fille de Ferme (1881; German story of a peasant girl )
  • Une Partie de Campagne (1881, German a country party )
  • Le Papa de Simon (1881, German Simon's Papa )
  • En Famille (1881; German in the family circle )
  • Sur l'Eau (1881, German on the water )
  • La Femme de Paul (1881; Eng.Paul 's wife )
  • Au Printemps (1881, Eng. In spring )
  • Les tombales (1881, Ger. The Grabhetären )
  • Par un Soir de Printemps (1881, German on a spring evening )
  • Les Dimanches d'un Bourgeois de Paris (1880; German Sundays of a Parisian bourgeois )
  • Une Aventure parisienne (1881, German A Parisian Adventure )
  • Clair de Lune (probably made in 1881; published 1899, German moonlight , also ud T Because the moon was shining ... 1898)
  • Le Gâteau (probably made around 1881, published 1899, German, The Cake )
  • Vieux Objects (created before 1882, published 1899, German old things )
  • Réves (written before 1882, published 1899, German dreams )
  • Mademoiselle Fifi (1882; German novellas 1898)
  • La Bûche (1882, German The Log )
  • Paroles de Amor (1882, German words of love )
  • Marroca (1882, German Marroca )
  • Le Saut du Berger (1882, German The Shepherd's Jump )
  • Le Lit (1882, Eng. The Bed )
  • L'Aveugle (1882, Eng. The Blind )
  • Magnétisme (1882, German magnetism )
  • Un Fils (1882, German, one son )
  • En voyage (1882, German traveling )
  • Un Bandit Corse (1882, German A Corsican bandit )
  • La Veillée (1882, German The Corpse Guard )
  • Le Voleur (1882, Eng. The Thief )
  • Confessions d'une femme (1882, German A woman's confession )
  • Un Coq chanta (1882, Eng . A cock has crowed )
  • L'Enfant (1882, German The Child )
  • Le Verrou (1882, Eng. The bolt )
  • Farce Normande (1882, German Norman fun )
  • Mon Oncle Sosthène (1882, German My Uncle Sosthene )
  • Le Passion (1882, German a passion )
  • Fou? (1882, German insane? )
  • Correspondance (1882, German correspondence )
  • Une Veuve (1882, German a widow )
  • La Rouille (1882, German rusted )
  • Une Ruse (1882, German a ruse )
  • La Rempailleise (1882, German The Tinker )
  • Pierrot (1882, German Pierrot )
  • Un Normand (1882, German A Norman )
  • Le Pardon (1882, German forgiveness )
  • La Reliquie (1882, Eng. The Relic )
  • La Peur (1882, Eng. The Fear )
  • Aux Champs (1882, German outdoors in the country )
  • Un Million (1882, German one million )
  • Le Testament (1882, German The Testament )
  • Le Loup (1882, German The Wolf )
  • Le Baisser (1882, German The Kiss )
  • Minuet (1882, German minuet )
  • Madame Baptiste (1882, German Madame Baptiste )
  • L'Anglaus de Étretat (1882, Eng . The Englishman of Étretat )
  • Ce Cochon, le Morin (1882, Eng. This pig, the Morin )
  • Le Bécasse (1882; German The Snipe 1919)
  • La Folle (1882, German, The Crazy )
  • Ma Femme (1882, German my wife )
  • Rouerie (1882, German List )
  • La Légende du Mont-Saint-Michel (1882, German: The legend of Mont Saint Michel )
  • Yveline Samoris (1882, German Yves Samorin )
  • Conte de Noël (1882, German Christmas story )
  • Nuit de Noël (1882, German Christmas night )
  • Le Remplaçant (1883, German The Deputy )
  • Á Cheval (1883, German on horseback )
  • Les Sabotes (1883, German The Wooden Shoes )
  • M. Jocaste (1883, German Monsieur Jocaste )
  • Auprès d'un Mort (1883, German wake )
  • Deux Amis (1883, German two friends )
  • En Mer (1883, German at sea )
  • Réveil (1883, German awakening )
  • Le Père Judas (1883, German The old Judas )
  • L'Homme-Fille (1883, German The Man with the Whore Soul )
  • Mademoiselle Cocotte (1883, German Miss Cocotte )
  • Les Bijoux (1883, German jewelry )
  • Saint-Antoine (1883, German Saint-Antoine )
  • Apparition (1883, German appearance )
  • L'Aventure de Walter Schnaffs (1883, German Walter Schnaffs Adventure )
  • L'âne (1883, German the donkey )
  • Un Duel (1883, German a duel )
  • Miss Harriet (1884; German Miss Harriet 1898)
  • La Mère Sauvage (1884, German: The old Sauvage )
  • Les Sœurs Rondoli (1884; Eng . The Rondoli Sisters 1898)
  • Yvette (1884; German 1897)
  • La Parure (1884, German jewelry )
  • Le Diable (1886)
  • Monsieur Parent (1886; German Mr. Parent 1898)
  • La Petite Roque (1886; Eng. Little Roque 1901)
  • Le Horla (1887; Ger. The Horla 1898); New edition: The invisible being . Translated from the French and provided with an afterword by Ulrich Klappstein. JMB Verlag 2013. ISBN 978-3-944342-15-3
  • Mademoiselle Perle (first printed in 1886 in the book edition La petite Roque, published by Victor Havard, Paris)
  • Le Vagabond
  • Le Bonheur
  • Le Gueux
  • Deux amis
  • Saint-Antoine
  • Un duel
  • Le père Milon

Attributed authorship

  • Les Cousines de la colonelle, par Madame la Vicomtesse de Coeur-Brulant ( The nieces of the Colonel ). The inclusion in the BNF does not guarantee the authorship, but only the existence of the work


  • Une Vie (1883; Eng. Ein Menschenleben 1894, also: Ein Leben )
  • Bel-Ami (1885; German 1892)
  • Mont-Oriol (1887; German 1905)
  • Pierre et Jean (1888; German also Hans and Peter or: The Brothers 1983)
  • Fort comme la mort (1889; Ger. Strong as Death . Illustrated new edition with 26 color images by Jim Avignon; from the French by Caroline Vollmann; 2013 Edition Büchergilde; ISBN 978-3-86406-029-8 )
  • Notre cœur (1890; German Our heart 1910; also: Our lonely heart 1964/1979)


  • Chroniques , 2 volumes (2004)

Travel reports

  • Au soleil (1884)
  • Sur l'eau (1888)
  • La Vie errante (1890)


  • The Verse (1880)

See also



  • Maupassant Criticism. A Centennial Bibliography 1880–1979 Red. Robert Willard Artinian & Artine Artinian, Jefferson, London 1982


  • Pierre Bayard: Maupassant, juste avant Freud. Minuit, Paris 1994. ISBN 2-7073-1493-5
  • Martin Brucke: Magnetizers. The windy career of a literary figure. Rombach, Freiburg im Breisgau 2002. (= Rombach Sciences; Cultura series; 28) ISBN 3-7930-9332-8
  • Marianne Bury: Maupassant. Grandes oeuvres, commentaires critiques, documents complémentaires. Series Balises, Série Les écrivains, 10. Klett, Stuttgart & Nathan, Paris 1993. ISBN 3-12-592545-2 & ISBN 2-09-180234-4 In French. language
  • Philippe Dahhan: Guy de Maupassant et les femmes. Essai. Bertout, Luneray ( Seine-Maritime ) 1996. ISBN 2-86743-253-7
  • Gérard Delaisement: La modernité de Maupassant. Rive Droite, Paris 1995. ISBN 2-84152-019-6
  • Stefanie Fröschen: The disease in the life and work of Guy de Maupassant. The significance of his syphilis for his poems. Mainz, Aachen 1999. ISBN 3-89653-579-X
  • Claudine Giacchetti: Maupassant. Espaces du roman. Droz, Geneva 1993. (= Histoire des idées et critique littéraire; 320)
  • Gisela Haehnel: Bovarysme in the Flaubert successor. Using the example of “Une vie”, “O primo Basílio” and “Une belle journée” . Sisyphos, Cologne 2004, ISBN 3-928637-33-9
  • Josef Halperin. Maupassant the novelist . Artemis 1961
  • Marlo Johnston: Guy de Maupassant , Fayard, Paris 2012, ISBN 978-2-213-62890-5
  • Bettina Kopelke: The personal names in Maupassant's novellas. Peter Lang, Frankfurt 1990 (= Bonn Romance Works, 34) ISBN 3-631-42868-5
  • Ulrike Mayer: The aspect of the fantastic in Maupassant's “Contes et Nouvelles”. The fascination of cruelty. Peter Lang, Frankfurt 1990 (= Europäische Hochschulschriften, series 13, 159) ISBN 3-631-43260-7
  • Paul Morand: Vie de Guy de Maupassant. (first: Flammarion, 1942) Pygmalion, Paris 1998, ISBN 2-85704-549-2
  • Thierry Poyet: L'héritage Flaubert Maupassant. Kimé, Paris 2000 ISBN 2-84174-197-4
  • Gisela Riesenberger:  MAUPASSANT, Henry René Albert GUY DE. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 21, Bautz, Nordhausen 2003, ISBN 3-88309-110-3 , Sp. 916-972.
  • Jean Salem : Philosophy de Maupassant. Ellipses, Paris 2000, ISBN 2-7298-0343-2
  • Nadine Satiat: Maupassant. Flammarion, Paris 2003, ISBN 2-08-068494-9
  • Alberto Savinio: Maupassant and the "other". Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt 1988, ISBN 3-518-01944-9 (series bs, 944)
  • Dorothea Schurig-Geick: Studies on the modern “conte fantastique” Maupassants and selected authors of the 20th century . Winter, Heidelberg 1970 (= contributions to recent literary history; F. 3.11)
  • Arne Ulbricht: Maupassant Biographical Novel, Klak Verlag, Berlin 2017, ISBN 978-3-943767-79-7
  • Christian Wehr: Imagined realities. Studies on the 'récit fantastique' from Nodier to Maupassant. Narr, Tübingen 1997 (= Romanica Monacensia, 52) ISBN 3-8233-4792-6
  • Simon Weipert: The Novellas Maupassants. Attempt of a typology inherent in the work. Peter Lang, Frankfurt 1989 (= work structure and background, 2) ISBN 3-631-41823-X

Web links

Commons : Guy de Maupassant  - album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Guy de Maupassant  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Website of the Château de Miromesnil in Tourville-sur-Arques; Retrieved March 13, 2011.
  2. ^ Clyde K. Hyder: Algernon Swinburne: The Critical Heritage . 1995, p. 185 .
  3. ^ ED Sullivan: Maupassant the Novellist . Princeton 1954
  4. a b c d e f g Gerda pupil: Guy de Maupassant . In: Wolf-Dieter Lange (Ed.): French literature of the 19th century . III. Naturalism and symbolism . UTB, 1980, pp. 236-253
  5. ^ Josef Halperin: Maupassant the novelist . Artemis, 1961, p. 157
  6. ^ Josef Halperin: Maupassant the novelist . Artemis, 1961, p. 43
  7. a b Ernst Kemmer. Epilogue to: Guy de Maupassant. Six contes . Reclam Foreign Language Texts, 1997, ISBN 978-3-15-009037-4
  8. ^ Josef Halperin: Maupassant the novelist . Artemis, 1961, p. 46f
  9. ^ Josef Halperin: Maupassant the novelist . Artemis, 1961, p. 157
  10. ^ Josef Halperin: Maupassant the novelist . Artemis, 1961, p. 53
  11. ^ Josef Halperin: Maupassant the novelist . Artemis 1961, p. 47 ff.
  12. ^ Josef Halperin: Maupassant the novelist . Artemis, 1961, p. 49
  13. ^ Hermann Lindner (epilogue) in: From love and other wars: short stories by Guy de Maupassant . dtv 2014
  14. ^ Josef Halperin: Maupassant the novelist . Artemis, 1961, p. 28
  15. ^ Josef Halperin: Maupassant the novelist . Artemis, 1961, p. 49
  16. ^ Josef Halperin: Maupassant the novelist . Artemis, 1961, p. 63
  17. ^ Josef Halperin: Maupassant the novelist . Artemis, 1961, p. 157
  18. ^ Josef Halperin: Maupassant the novelist . Artemis, 1961, p. 67
  19. ^ Josef Halperin: Maupassant the novelist . Artemis, 1961, p. 52
  20. ^ Josef Halperin: Maupassant the novelist . Artemis, 1961, p. 70
  21. ^ Josef Halperin: Maupassant the novelist . Artemis, 1961, p. 32
  22. ^ Josef Halperin: Maupassant the novelist . Artemis, 1961, p. 159
  23. ^ Charles Castilla: Structures romanesques et vision sociales chez G. de Maupassant . Lausanne 1972
  24. The titles listed in this bibliography represent a selection by the editors; the lack of a subject index makes it much more difficult to use