Rantzau (noble family)
By the end of the Middle Ages she became one of the most powerful families in the Schleswig-Holstein knighthood . The older Breitenburg branch was temporarily (from 1650 to 1734) with the office of Barmstedt as the County of Rantzau, and was included under the imperial estates .
The family still exists today in the lines of the Counts of Rantzau and the Lords of Rantzau and is still based on some estates in Schleswig-Holstein, Lower Saxony (Vrestorf) and Denmark.
Middle Ages to modern times
The name Rantzau - or Rantzow or also Ranzow or Latinized Ranzovia - indicates a Wendish origin, it originally only referred to the headquarters near Plön. The Rantzau family itself is not of Wendish origin, but the first knights who settled here took the name of their property, as was customary at the time. The lineage of the family begins with the knight Johann Ranzow , mentioned in a document in 1226 , who settled at Rantzau Castle near Plön . He served as a squire in the service of Adolf IV and was knighted around 1235. Johann von Rantzau was the founder of the various Rantzau lines that shaped the history of Schleswig-Holstein in the centuries that followed.
The Rantzau are counted among the Equites Originarii , the primeval noble families of Schleswig-Holstein, and by the end of the Middle Ages they became one of the most powerful families of the Schleswig-Holstein knighthood . With the beginning of the modern era and the accompanying structural change from manorial to manor , they temporarily owned up to 71 estates in the duchies, which were in great economic prosperity. In particular, under Heinrich Rantzau , culture was also promoted, so that this epoch is occasionally called the Golden Rantzau Age . Many of the country's mansions that still exist today, such as Ahrensburg (around 1585), Breitenburg (in parts from 1565, the main building at the end of the 19th century), Nütschau (from 1577) or Panker (around 1650), go to Rantzau ' cal construction work back. The Rantzaus were also politically important, they provided numerous governors of the Danish king and were thus directly involved in the government of the duchies.
The Imperial Count of Rantzau
The imperial line was founded by Christian zu Rantzau , who came from the Breitenburg branch of the family, which provided several royal Danish governors of Schleswig-Holstein . At the end of the Thirty Years War, Christian Rantzau himself was entrusted with this position in 1648. In 1649 he was able to convince Duke Friedrich III of Gottorf . move to a sale of the Danish office of Barmstedt (in southern Schleswig-Holstein , around today's city of Barmstedt ), which was only a few kilometers south of its headquarters in Breitenburg. As part of the County of Holstein-Pinneberg, which was dissolved in 1640, Barmstedt had the status of a Danish office; it was not a traditional period of rule. The purchase price was 101,000 Reichstaler, and the Rantzau family estate along with some smaller properties was exchanged.
Christian Rantzau made the old moated castle on the Barmstedt Castle Island the new residence. In the same year he traveled with a large entourage to Vienna to the imperial court, where he appeared as the ambassador of the Danish kingdom. There he was soon appointed Imperial Chamberlain and was able to - with generous subsidies - in the autumn of 1650 with Emperor Ferdinand III. obtain his appointment as Count (with the award of the Small Palatinate ). The Barmstedt office was declared to be imperial direct ("free") territory in the diploma, although it had not previously been a rule, but only a Danish office. The county was later included in the Lower Saxon Empire in 1662 when the newly appointed Count zu Rantzau had been made de facto Imperial Count in 1653.
Christian Rantzau, who was often on the road because of his numerous offices, rarely stayed in Barmstedt. In 1655 he was able to buy back the Rantzau family estate near Plön.
He was followed in the imperial county by his son Detlef 1663-1697, also governor in the royal part of Schleswig-Holstein, and then his sons Christian Detlef 1697-1721 and Wilhelm Adolf, who was arrested on suspicion of fratricide in 1722, convicted by a Danish court in 1726 and died childless in the Norwegian fortress Akershus in 1734 . His possessions were confiscated from the Danish Crown. Above all, in 1726 the territory, which had in the meantime acquired imperial estate rights, was regarded as repudiated and illegally confiscated like an ordinary Danish fief according to secret inheritance contracts with the Danish crown "in the absence of male heirs" . From this it was already clear that Wilhelm Adolf was in no way wanted to be pardoned. After a costly process, his only sister only received the rule of Breitenburg , which two generations later passed on to another line of the Rantzau family. A lawsuit that the Rantzausch Cognaten brought to the Reichskammergericht was never decided.
To compensate for the liquidation of the imperial county in 1726 by the Danish crown, however, the emperor granted some Rantzau of other branches the title of count in 1728 , without imperial status .
The Rantzau family
Ancestors of the older Breitenburg line
After Cai († after 1411) Generation IV of the entire house follows in Gen. V Breide († around 1460), then his son:
- Heinrich Rantzau († 1497), bailiff at Steinburg ⚭ Öllegaard von Buchwald
Johann Rantzau (1492–1565), general and councilor, 1526 on Breitenburg ⚭ 1525 Anna von Walstorp
Heinrich Rantzau (1526–1598), royal governor in Schleswig-Holstein ⚭ 1554 Christine von Halle
- Frantz (1555–1612) founder of the Danish Rosenvold line
- Breide (1556–1618), royal governor in Copenhagen and imperial council
- Gert / Gerhard (1558–1627), royal governor in Schleswig-Holstein and field marshal ⚭ (2) Dorothea v. Brockdorff
- Christian zu Rantzau (1614–1663), governor in the royal Danish part of Schleswig-Holstein, 1650 Imperial Count ⚭ 1636 Dorothea Rantzau (1619–1662).
- Paul Rantzau (1527–1579), Lord of Bothkamp etc. ⚭ Beate Sehestedt
- Heinrich Rantzau (1526–1598), royal governor in Schleswig-Holstein ⚭ 1554 Christine von Halle
- Johann Rantzau (1492–1565), general and councilor, 1526 on Breitenburg ⚭ 1525 Anna von Walstorp
Younger Breitenburg line
( Christian Adolf Friedrich Gottlieb zu Castell-Remlingen (1736–1762), 1st Fideikommissherr of the Fideikommiss founded in 1750)
- Friedrich Graf zu Rantzau (1729–1806) ⚭ Amoene von Castell-Remlingen (1732–1802), 2nd Fideikommissherrin at Breitenburg
- Detlev Georg Christian (1763–), Danish chamberlain
- Hans zu Rantzau (1764–1836) , Danish general war commissioner
August zu Rantzau (1768–1849), Chamberlain of Oldenburg, bailiff and canon of Lübeck, 5th Fideikommissherr on Breitenburg 1847–1849
- Friedrich August zu Rantzau (1799–1871), 6th Fideikommissherr in Breitenburg
- Kuno zu Rantzau (1852–1895), 7th Fideikommisherr at Breitenburg
Kuno zu Rantzau-Breitenburg (1805–1882), on Rohlstorf
- Otto zu Rantzau (1835–1910) , court official, official in the foreign service and parliamentarian, 8th Fideikommissherr in Breitenburg
- Friedrich August zu Rantzau (1799–1871), 6th Fideikommissherr in Breitenburg
- Carl Friedrich zu Rantzau (1769–1847), Danish colonel, 4th Fideikommissherr on Breitenburg 1845–1847
- Conrad zu Rantzau (1773–1845), 3rd Fideikommissherr in Breitenburg and Danish Minister of State
- Carl Emil zu Rantzau (1775–1857), Chamberlain, member of the Estates Assembly
Christian Detlev Karl zu Rantzau (1772–1812), administrative lawyer, chief president of Kiel and curator of the University of Kiel
- Ernst zu Rantzau (1802–1862), Schleswig-Holstein bailiff
- Otto von Rantzau (1809–1864), Lord of Aschau, provost of the Uetersen monastery and Prussian envoy in Dresden
- Christian Wilhelm Heinrich zu Rantzau (1796–1848)
Christian Karl zu Rantzau (1830–1878) on Oppendorf, member of the Prussian manor house
- Heinrich zu Rantzau (1871–1947) on Oppendorf
- Heinrich Adalbert zu Rantzau (1834–1891), Prussian lieutenant general, commandant of Koblenz and Ehrenbreitstein
- Kuno zu Rantzau (1843–1917), Prussian and Imperial German diplomat and son-in-law of Bismarck
- Christian Karl zu Rantzau (1830–1878) on Oppendorf, member of the Prussian manor house
Panker and Tralau (Mecklenburg and Lower Saxony)
- Carl von Rantzau (1782–1851), Mecklenburg court marshal
- Marianne von Rantzau (1811–1855), deaconess, superior of the deaconess mother house Bethanien in Berlin
- Hermann von Rantzau (1815–1891), Prussian lieutenant general
- Cuno von Rantzau (1864–1956), Oberhofmarschall in Mecklenburg-Schwerin
- Johann Albrecht von Rantzau (1900–1993), historian, university professor and publicist
- Josias von Rantzau (1903–1950), German diplomat
- Cuno von Rantzau (1910–1982) ⚭ Liselotte von Rantzau-Essberger
Other family members and descendants
- Katharina Rantzau , abbess of Itzehoe Monastery from 1526–1547
- Balthasar Rantzau (1497–1547), Bishop of Lübeck 1536–1548
- Melchior Rantzau († 1539), brother of Balthasar Rantzau, councilor of the kings Friedrich I and Christian III.
- Breide Rantzau († 1562) , brother of Balthasar and Melchior, governor in Schleswig-Holstein
- Daniel Rantzau (1529–1569), Danish field captain and lord of the Deutsch-Nienhof
- Daniel Rantzau (1534–1589), lord of Salzau and monastery provost of Uetersen
- Peter Rantzau (1535–1602), brother of Daniel Rantzau and his successor as Lord of Deutsch-Nienhof, advisor to the Danish King Friedrich II.
- Bertram Rantzau (1614–1686), Lord of Gut Ascheberg
- Christoph von Rantzau (around 1623–1696), Holstein landowner
- Elisabeth von Rantzau (religious name Maria Elisabeth; 1624–1706), founder of the Annunciate convent Klein Bethlehem in Hildesheim
- Joachim von Rantzau (1627–1701), dean of the cathedral in Lübeck
- Benedicta Margaretha von Löwendal, b. von Rantzau (1683–1776), founder of the Lauchhammer factory
- Christian von Rantzau (1682–1731), Danish lieutenant general
- Hans zu Rantzau (1693–1769), first Holstein landlord who abolished serfdom for his farmers on Gut Ascheberg in 1739
- Heinrich Rantzau (landlord) (1695–1726) had three of his serfs beaten to death
- Schack Carl von Rantzau (1717–1789), owner of Gut Ascheberg and Danish officer and imperial count
- Cai von Rantzau (1726–1792), Lord of Gaartz in the Oldenburg district , monastery provost and knight of the Danebrog order
- Peter zu Rantzau (1733–1809), Danish chamberlain and councilor in Glückstadt, provost of the monastery of Uetersen
- Wilhelm von Ranzow (1795-1860), major general in Oldenburg
- Adeline zu Rantzau (1867–1927), German writer
- Ulrich von Brockdorff-Rantzau (1869–1928), German politician, Reich Foreign Minister, head of the German delegation to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919
- Daniel zu Rantzau (1875–1936), German district administrator
- Otto zu Rantzau (1888–1946), Kiel police chief and ministerial official
- Lebrecht zu Rantzau (1890–1920), German administrative officer
- Heino von Rantzau (1894–1946), German lieutenant general
- Lilly zu Rantzau , b. von Maltzahn (1895–1988), German writer
- Detlef von Rantzau (1897-1982) , President of the District Court
- Ehrengard Countess zu Rantzau , b. von der Schulenburg (1906–2012), owner of Gut Noer
- Heinrich Christian Graf zu Rantzau (1922–2001), writer
- Detlev Graf zu Rantzau (* 1930), German Ambassador to the United Nations in New York
- Henriette Countess zu Rantzau († 2014), abbess of Itzehoe Monastery from 1989–2014
- Breido Graf zu Rantzau (* 1949), President of the German Equestrian Association (FN),
coat of arms
Derived municipal coats of arms
Elements and colors from the coat of arms of the Rantzau family still appear today in some of Schleswig-Holstein's municipal coats of arms.
Goods and possessions
The numerous estates, mansions and castles that were at least temporarily in the possession of the widely ramified Rantzaus included:
- Schloss Rantzau in Ploen (before 1226-1728), Schloss Rantzau in Barmstedt , the Ahrensburg castle , Schloss Breitenburg , Schloss Bothmer , Castle Krapperup , Krengerup that Wandsbeker concluded that victory castle , the stone castle that Trøjborg , Good Ascheberg , Good Dobersdorf , Gut Drage , Gut Ehlerstorf , Gut Freienwillen , Gut Gereby , Gut Güldenstein , Gut Hasselburg , Gut Knoop , Gut Ludwigsburg , Gut Lundsgaard , Gut Noer , Gut Nütschau , Gut Oppendorf , Gut Quarnbek , Gut Panker , Gut Pronstorf , Gut Rastorf , Gut Rohlstorf , Gut Salzau , Gut Schönhorst , Gut Seekamp , Gut Sierhagen , Gut Tralau , Gut Waterneverstorf , Gut Weißenhaus .
The eponymous headquarters of Rantzau near Plön developed from a small fortified castle to a mansion built by Heinrich Rantzau from 1590 onwards. It remained in the hands of different branches of the family for more than 500 years until 1728.
The family owns Gut Rastorf (since the 14th century), Schloss Breitenburg (since 1526), Gut Rohlstorf (from 1846 with interruption), Gut Pronstorf (since 1875) and the Danish castle Krengerup (since 1770). . About Erica von Rantzau, geb. von Müller (1878–1958), the wife of Cuno von Rantzau , came into the family's possession of Gut Vrestorf (district of Bardowick ).
Liselotte von Rantzau-Essberger (1918–1993) brought shares in the German Africa Lines (John T. Essberger Group) to the family, as did the Austrian Oberthal Castle . In addition, Eberhard von Rantzau, co-owner of the shipping company, has so far acquired around 2,250 hectares of the Sachsenwald from Prince Bismarck from Friedrichsruh .
Museums and monuments
The Museum of the County of Rantzau is located on the Barmstedt Castle Island in the Rantzauer See in Barmstedt . In Bad Segeberg , the Rantzau Chapel and the so-called Rantzau Obelisk commemorate Heinrich Rantzau and his friendship with the Danish King Friedrich II , as well as the Temple of Nordoe near Itzehoe .
Sources / literature
- Bernhard Ebneth: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 21, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-428-11202-4 , pp. 146-149 ( version ). (Family item) In:
- Genealogical manual of the nobility . Volume 122, Adelslexikon Vol. 11, 2000.
- Karl von Rantzau: The house Rantzau. A family chronicle. Celle 1865. Digitized
- Michael Pommerening, Joachim W. Frank: The Wandsbeker Castle. Rantzau, Brahe and the Schimmelmann family. Hamburg 2004, ISBN 3-9807460-3-8 .
- Heinrich S. Gumpelzhaimer, The realm registers of all circles: together with the usual registers of the Imperial and Reichsgericht ...., Ulm 1796, MDZ-Reader, digitized version of the Bayerische Staats-Bibliothek, Munich, Internet: Digitaleammlung.de.
- Website of the Rantzau family
- About the Rantzaus
- Family tree of the Rantzaus (PDF file; 35 kB)
- Coat of arms of the Rantzau in Siebmacher's book of arms
- The house Rantzau - a family chronicle
- Henning von Rumohr: Castles and mansions in Ostholstein . Pp. 154, 155.
- J. Habichhorst, D. Lafrenz, H. Schulze, L. Wild: locks and Landed Estate in Schleswig-Holstein , page 201. L & H Verlag, Hamburg 1998
- F. Lühning, H. Schadendorff: Schloss Ahrensburg. Wachholtz Verlag 1982, ISBN 3-529-02828-2 . P. 6.
- Grete Grewolls: Who was who in Mecklenburg and Western Pomerania. The dictionary of persons . Hinstorff Verlag, Rostock 2011, ISBN 978-3-356-01301-6 , p. 7931 .
- List of the knights and squires who died on February 17, 1500 near Hemmingstedt on the part of the Schleswig - Holstein knighthood
- Theodor Fontane: The day of Hemmingstedt (ballad). Retrieved July 18, 2020 . Deviating from the ballad, not only "seven" fell, but actually eleven " von Ahlefeld " , while of the "fourteen Wackerbarten " who fell (probably because of the rhyme) actually not a single one appears on the list of dead .
- R. Haupt: Barmstedt and Rantzau . Vollbehr & Riepen, 1920, page 231
- Schleswig-Holstein State Archives, Section 20 No. 83g, April 16, 1686
- Detlev Graf zu Rantzau in the Munzinger archive , accessed on March 4, 2010 ( beginning of article freely available)
- Schleswig-Holstein's municipal coat of arms
- Shipowner Rantzau - Now he already owns a third, Hamburger Abendblatt, 2005